Contents 1 Overview 2 Reading skills 2.1 Reading rate 2.2 Skill development 2.3 Methods of reading 3 Assessment 3.1 Types of tests 4 Cognitive benefits 5 Effects 5.1 Lighting 6 History 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links


Overview[edit] Volunteer reads to a girl at the Casa Hogar de las Niñas in Mexico City Currently most reading is either of the printed word from ink or toner on paper, such as in a book, magazine, newspaper, leaflet, or notebook, or of electronic displays, such as computer displays, television, mobile phones or e-readers. Handwritten text may also be produced using a graphite pencil or a pen. Short texts may be written or painted on an object. Often the text relates to the object, such as an address on an envelope, product info on packaging, or text on a traffic or street sign. A slogan may be painted on a wall. A text may also be produced by arranging stones of a different color in a wall or road. Short texts like these are sometimes referred to as environmental print. Sometimes text or images are in relief, with or without using a color contrast. Words or images can be carved in stone, wood, or metal; instructions can be printed in relief on the plastic housing of a home appliance, or myriad other examples. A requirement for reading is a good contrast between letters and background (depending on colors of letters and background, any pattern or image in the background, and lighting) and a suitable font size. In the case of a computer screen, it is important to be able to see an entire line of text without scrolling. The field of visual word recognition studies how people read individual words.[2][3][4] A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking. This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead pause on some words mentally while their eyes are moving. This is possible because human languages show certain linguistic regularities.[citation needed] The process of recording information to be read later is writing. In the case of computer and microfiche storage there is the separate step of displaying the written text. For humans, reading is usually faster and easier than writing. Reading is typically an individual activity, although on occasion a person will read out loud for the benefit of other listeners. Reading aloud for one's own use, for better comprehension, is a form of intrapersonal communication: in the early 1970s[5] has been proposed the dual-route hypothesis to reading aloud, accordingly to which there were two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, that are involved in this case, with output of both mechanisms contributing to the pronunciation of a written stimulus.[5][6][7] Reading to young children is a recommended way to instill language and expression, and to promote comprehension of text. Personalised books for children are recommended to improve engagement in reading by featuring the child themselves in the story. Before the reintroduction of separated text in the late Middle Ages, the ability to read silently was considered rather remarkable.[8]


Reading skills[edit] Main article: Learning to read Literacy is the ability to use the symbols of a writing system. It is the ability to interpret what the information symbols represent, and to be able to re-create those same symbols so that others can derive the same meaning. Illiteracy is the inability to derive meaning from the symbols used in a writing system. Dyslexia refers to a cognitive difficulty with reading and writing. It is defined as brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read.[9] The term dyslexia can refer to two disorders: developmental dyslexia[10][11][12][13] which is a learning disability; alexia (acquired dyslexia) refers to reading difficulties that occur following brain damage, stroke, or progressive illness.[14][15] Major predictors of an individual's ability to read both alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts are phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and verbal IQ.[16] Being taught to read at an early age (such as five years old) does not ultimately result in better reading skills, and if it replaces more developmentally appropriate activities, then it may cause other harms.[17] Reading rate[edit] Average reading rate in words per minute (wpm) depending on age and measured with different tests in English, French and German Reading speed requires a long time to reach adult levels. The table to the right shows how reading-rate varies with age,[18] regardless of the period (1965 to 2005) and the language (English, French, German). The Taylor values probably are higher, for disregarding students who failed the comprehension test. The reading test by the French psychologist Pierre Lefavrais ("L'alouette", published in 1967) tested reading aloud, with a penalty for errors, and could, therefore, not be a rate greater than 150 wpm. According to Carver (1990), children's reading speed increases throughout the school years. On average, from grade 2 to college, reading rate increases 14 standard-length words per minute each year (where one standard-length word is defined as six characters in text, including punctuation and spaces). Note that the data from Taylor (English) and Landerl (German) are based on texts of increasing difficulty; other data were obtained when all age groups were reading the same text. Rates of reading include reading for memorization (fewer than 100 words per minute [wpm]); reading for learning (100–200 wpm); reading for comprehension (200–400 wpm); and skimming (400–700 wpm). Reading for comprehension is the essence of the daily reading of most people. Skimming is for superficially processing large quantities of text at a low level of comprehension (below 50%). Advice for choosing the appropriate reading-rate includes reading flexibly, slowing when concepts are closely presented and when the material is new, and increasing when the material is familiar and of thin concept. Speed reading courses and books often encourage the reader to continually accelerate; comprehension tests lead the reader to believe his or her comprehension is continually improving; yet, competence-in-reading requires knowing that skimming is dangerous, as a default habit.[citation needed] Scientific studies have demonstrated that reading—defined here as capturing and decoding all the words on every page—faster than 900 wpm is not feasible given the limits set by the anatomy of the eye.[19] Reading speed has been used as a measure in research to determine the effect of interventions on human vision. A Cochrane Systematic Review used reading speed in words per minute as the primary outcome in comparing different reading aids for adults with low vision.[20] Skill development[edit] Addy Vannasy reads aloud to children at a village "Discovery Day" in Laos. Reading aloud is a common technique for improving literacy rates. Big Brother Mouse, which organized the event, trains its staff in read-aloud techniques: Make eye contact with the audience. Change your voice. Pause occasionally for dramatic effect. Both lexical and sub-lexical cognitive processes contribute to how we learn to read. Sub-lexical reading,[21][22][23][24] involves teaching reading by associating characters or groups of characters with sounds or by using phonics or synthetic phonics learning and teaching methodology, sometimes argued to be in competition with whole language methods. Lexical reading[21][22][23][24] involves acquiring words or phrases without attention to the characters or groups of characters that compose them or by using whole language learning and teaching methodology. Sometimes argued to be in competition with phonics and synthetic phonics methods, and that the whole language approach tends to impair learning how to spell. Other methods of teaching and learning to read have developed, and become somewhat controversial.[25] Learning to read in a second language, especially in adulthood, may be a different process than learning to read a native language in childhood. There are cases of very young children learning to read without having been taught.[26] Such was the case with Truman Capote who reportedly taught himself to read and write at the age of five. There are also accounts of people who taught themselves to read by comparing street signs or Biblical passages to speech. The novelist Nicholas Delbanco taught himself to read at age six during a transatlantic crossing by studying a book about boats.[citation needed] Brain activity in young and older children can be used to predict future reading skill. Cross model mapping between the orthographic and phonologic areas in the brain are critical in reading. Thus, the amount of activation in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus while performing reading tasks can be used to predict later reading ability and advancement. Young children with higher phonological word characteristic processing have significantly better reading skills later on than older children who focus on whole-word orthographic representation.[27] Methods of reading[edit] Reading is an intensive process in which the eye quickly moves to assimilate text. Very little is actually seen accurately. It is necessary to understand visual perception and eye movement in order to understand the reading process.[28] There are several types and methods of reading, with differing rates that can be attained for each, for different kinds of material and purposes: Subvocalized reading combines sight reading with internal sounding of the words as if spoken. Advocates of speed reading claim it can be a bad habit that slows reading and comprehension, but other studies indicate the reverse, particularly with difficult texts.[29][30] Speed reading is a collection of methods for increasing reading speed without an unacceptable reduction in comprehension or retention. Methods include skimming or the chunking of words in a body of text to increase the rate of reading. It is closely connected to speed learning. Incremental reading is a software-assisted reading method designed for long-term memorization. "Incremental reading" means "reading in portions": in each session, parts of several electronic articles are read inside a prioritized reading list. In the course of reading, important pieces of information are extracted and converted into flashcards which are then scheduled for review by a spaced repetition algorithm. Proofreading is a kind of reading for the purpose of detecting typographical errors. One can learn to do it rapidly, and professional proofreaders typically acquire the ability to do so at high rates, faster for some kinds of material than for others, while they may largely suspend comprehension while doing so, except when needed to select among several possible words that a suspected typographic error allows. Rereading is reading a book more than once. "One cannot read a book: one can only reread it," Vladimir Nabokov once said.[31] A paper published in the Journal of Consumer Research (Cristel Antonia (2012)) found re-reading offers mental health benefits because it allows for a more profound emotional connection and self-reflection, versus the first reading which is more focused on the events and plot.[32] Many take notes while reading. Structure-proposition-evaluation (SPE) method, popularized by Mortimer Adler in How to Read a Book, mainly for non-fiction treatise, in which one reads a writing in three passes: (1) for the structure of the work, which might be represented by an outline; (2) for the logical propositions made, organized into chains of inference; and (3) for evaluation of the merits of the arguments and conclusions. This method involves suspended judgment of the work or its arguments until they are fully understood.[citation needed] Survey-question-read-recite-review (SQ3R) method, often taught in public schools, which involves reading toward being able to teach what is read, and would be appropriate for instructors preparing to teach material without having to refer to notes during the lecture.[citation needed] Multiple intelligences-based methods, which draw upon the reader's diverse ways of thinking and knowing to enrich his or her appreciation of the text. Reading is fundamentally a linguistic activity: one can basically comprehend a text without resorting to other intelligences, such as the visual (e.g., mentally "seeing" characters or events described), auditory (e.g., reading aloud or mentally "hearing" sounds described), or even the logical intelligence (e.g., considering "what if" scenarios or predicting how the text will unfold based on context clues). However, most readers already use several intelligences while reading, and making a habit of doing so in a more disciplined manner—i.e., constantly, or after every paragraph—can result in more vivid, memorable experience.[citation needed] Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) reading involves presenting the words in a sentence one word at a time at the same location on the display screen, at a specified eccentricity. RSVP eliminates inter-word saccades, limits intra-word saccades, and prevents reader control of fixation times (Legge, Mansfield, & Chung, 2001). RSVP controls for differences in reader eye movement, and consequently is often used to measure reading speed in experiments.


Assessment[edit] Types of tests[edit] Sight word reading: reading words of increasing difficulty until they become unable to read or understand the words presented to them. Difficulty is manipulated by using words that have more letters or syllables, are less common and have more complicated spelling–sound relationships.[citation needed] Nonword reading: reading lists of pronounceable nonsense words out loud. The difficulty is increased by using longer words, and also by using words with more complex spelling or sound sequences.[citation needed][33] Reading comprehension: a passage is presented to the reader, which they must read either silently or out loud. Then a series of questions are presented that test the reader's comprehension of this passage. Reading fluency: the rate with which individuals can name words. Reading accuracy: the ability to correctly name a word on a page. Some tests incorporate several of the above components at once. For instance, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores readers both on the speed with which they can read a passage, and also their ability to accurately answer questions about this passage.[citation needed] Recent research has questioned the validity of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, especially with regard to the identification of reading disabilities.[34]


Cognitive benefits[edit] Reading books and writing are among brain-stimulating activities shown to slow down cognitive decline in old age, with people who participated in more mentally stimulating activities over their lifetimes having a slower rate of decline in memory and other mental capacities.[35] Reading for pleasure has been linked to increased cognitive progress in vocabulary and mathematics during adolescence. [36][37] Moreover, the cognitive benefits of reading continue into mid-life and old age.[38][39][40]


Effects[edit] Night reading has benefits to calm the nerves by eliminating excess sound and vision stimulus resulting in better sleep. Lighting[edit] Reading from paper and from some screens requires more lighting than many other activities. Therefore, the possibility of doing this comfortably in cafés, restaurants, buses, at bus stops or in parks greatly varies depending on available lighting and time of day. Reading from screens which produce their own light is less dependent on external light, except that this may be easier with little external light. For controlling what is on the screen (scrolling, turning the page, etc.), a touch screen or keyboard illumination further reduces the dependency on external light.


History[edit] Men reading The history of reading dates back to the invention of writing during the 4th millennium BC. Although reading print text is now an important way for the general population to access information, this has not always been the case. With some exceptions, only a small percentage of the population in many countries was considered literate before the Industrial Revolution. Some of the pre-modern societies with generally high literacy rates included classical Athens and the Islamic Caliphate.[41] Scholars assume that reading aloud (Latin clare legere) was the more common practice in antiquity, and that reading silently (legere tacite or legere sibi) was unusual.[42] In his Confessions, Saint Augustine remarks on Saint Ambrose's unusual habit of reading silently in the 4th century AD.[42][43] During the Age of Enlightenment, elite individuals promoted passive reading, rather than creative interpretation. Reading has no concrete laws, but rather allows readers an escape to produce their own products introspectively, promoting deep exploration of texts during interpretation. Construction, or the creation of writing and producing a product, was believed to be a sign of initiative and active participation in society, while consumption or reading, was viewed as simply taking in what constructors made.[1] Also during this era, writing was considered superior to reading in society. Readers during this time were considered passive citizens, simply because they did not produce a product. Michel de Certeau argued that the elites of the Age of Enlightenment were responsible for this general belief. Michel de Certeau believed that reading required venturing into an author's land, but taking away what the reader wanted specifically. Writing was viewed as a superior art to reading during this period, due to the hierarchical constraints the era initiated.[1] In 18th-century Europe, the then new practice of reading alone in bed was for some time considered dangerous and immoral. As reading became less of a communal, oral practice and more of a private, silent one, and as sleeping likewise more often took place in individual bedrooms rather than in communal sleeping areas, concerns were raised that reading in bed could give rise to various dangers, such as fires caused by bedside candles. Modern critics have argued, however, that these concerns were based on the fear that readers – especially women – could escape their familial and communal obligations and transgress moral boundaries by losing themselves in the private fantasy worlds that books made available.[44]


Gallery[edit] Miss Auras, by John Lavery, depicts a woman reading a book Youth reading, Persian miniature by Reza Abbasi (1625-6) Girl Reading (1889), by Fritz von Uhde. Oil paint on canvas Reader, a painting by Honoré Daumier.


See also[edit] Dyslexia Dual-route hypothesis to reading aloud Educational software Phonics Primary education Proofreading Synthetic phonics


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Further reading[edit] Bainbridge, Joyce; Malicky, Grace (2000). Constructing meaning: balancing elementary language arts. Toronto Canada: Harcourt. ISBN 0-7747-3660-7.  Banai K, Hornickel J, Skoe E, Nicol T, Zecker S, Kraus N (November 2009). "Reading and subcortical auditory function". Cerebral cortex. 19 (11): 2699–707. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp024. PMC 2758683 . PMID 19293398.  Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A.; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard (2008). Robust Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Wearable Electrooculography. Pervasive Computing. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. pp. 19–37. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79576-6_2. ISBN 978-3-540-79575-9.  Burke, Peter; Briggs, Asa (2002). A social history of the media: from Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge, UK: Polity. ISBN 0-7456-2375-1.  Castles A, Coltheart M, Wilson K, Valpied J, Wedgwood J (September 2009). "The genesis of reading ability: what helps children learn letter-sound correspondences?". Journal of experimental child psychology. 104 (1): 68–88. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2008.12.003. PMID 19268301.  Devlin JT, Jamison HL, Gonnerman LM, Matthews PM (June 2006). "The role of the posterior fusiform gyrus in reading". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 18 (6): 911–22. doi:10.1162/jocn.2006.18.6.911. PMC 1524880 . PMID 16839299.  Fiez JA, Petersen SE (February 1998). "Neuroimaging studies of word reading". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (3): 914–21. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.3.914. PMC 33816 . PMID 9448259.  Fiez JA, Tranel D, Seager-Frerichs D, Damasio H (May 2006). "Specific reading and phonological processing deficits are associated with damage to the left frontal operculum". Cortex. 42 (4): 624–43. doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70399-X. PMID 16881271.  Gibson CJ, Gruen JR (2008). "The human lexinome: genes of language and reading". Journal of communication disorders. 41 (5): 409–20. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2008.03.003. PMC 2488410 . PMID 18466916.  Gipe, Joan P. (1998). Multiple Paths to Literacy: Corrective Reading Techniques for Classroom Teachers. Merrill Pub Co. ISBN 0-13-785080-8.  Heim S, Friederici AD (November 2003). "Phonological processing in language production: time course of brain activity". NeuroReport. 14 (16): 2031–3. doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000091133.75061.2d (inactive 2017-01-15). PMID 14600492.  National Endowment for the Arts (June 2004). "Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America" (pdf) Noble KG, McCandliss BD (October 2005). "Reading development and impairment: behavioral, social, and neurobiological factors". Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics. 26 (5): 370–8. doi:10.1097/00004703-200510000-00006. PMID 16222178.  Ricketts J, Bishop DV, Nation K (October 2009). "Orthographic facilitation in oral vocabulary acquisition". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 62 (10): 1948–66. doi:10.1080/17470210802696104. PMID 19301209. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Sahin NT, Pinker S, Cash SS, Schomer D, Halgren E (October 2009). "Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca's area". Science. 326 (5951): 445–9. doi:10.1126/science.1174481. PMC 4030760 . PMID 19833971.  Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA (2008). "Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia". Development and Psychopathology. 20 (4): 1329–49. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000631. PMID 18838044.  Pugh KR, Mencl WE, Jenner AR, et al. (2001). "Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability". Journal of Communication Disorders. 34 (6): 479–92. doi:10.1016/S0021-9924(01)00060-0. PMID 11725860.  Shaywitz SE, Escobar MD, Shaywitz BA, Fletcher JM, Makuch R (January 1992). "Evidence that dyslexia may represent the lower tail of a normal distribution of reading ability". The New England Journal of Medicine. 326 (3): 145–50. doi:10.1056/NEJM199201163260301. PMID 1727544.  Tan LH, Spinks JA, Eden GF, Perfetti CA, Siok WT (June 2005). "Reading depends on writing, in Chinese". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (24): 8781–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503523102. PMC 1150863 . PMID 15939871.  Turkeltaub PE, Flowers DL, Lyon LG, Eden GF (December 2008). "Development of ventral stream representations for single letters". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1145: 13–29. doi:10.1196/annals.1416.026. PMID 19076386.  Valdois S, Habib M, Cohen L (May 2008). "[The reader brain: natural and cultural story]". Revue neurologique (in French). 164 (Suppl 3): S77–82. doi:10.1016/S0035-3787(08)73295-8. PMID 18675051. 


External links[edit] Find more aboutReadingat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Reading Comprehension Guide, Cuesta College. Lehrl, S., & Fischer, B. (1990) Measuring of reading rate International Reading Association official website Stebbins, R.A. (2013) The Committed Reader: Reading for Utility, Pleasure, and Fulfillment in the Twenty-First century. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow. Topics related to Reading (process) v t e Phonologies of the world's languages Abkhaz Acehnese Afrikaans ASL Arabic Modern Standard Egyptian Hejazi Levantine Tunisian Avestan Belarusian Bengali Bulgarian Catalan Chinese Mandarin Cantonese Old Historical Czech Danish Dutch Standard Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect English Australian General American New Zealand Regional North American Received Pronunciation South African Standard Canadian Old Middle Esperanto Estonian Faroese Finnish French Parisian Quebec Galician German Standard Bernese Chemnitz dialect Greek Standard Modern Ancient Koine Gujarati Hawaiian Hebrew (Modern) Hindustani Hungarian Icelandic Inuit Irish Italian Japanese Kiowa Konkani Korean Kurdish Kyrgyz Latgalian Latin Latvian Limburgish Hamont Lithuanian Luxembourgish Macedonian Malay Maldivian Māori Marathi Massachusett Navajo Nepali Norwegian Occitan Odia Ojibwe Old Saxon Oromo Ottawa Pashto Persian Polish Portuguese Proto-Indo-European Ripuarian Colognian Romanian Russian Scots Scottish Gaelic Serbo-Croatian Slovak Slovene Somali Sotho Spanish Spanish dialects and varieties Swedish Tagalog Tamil Taos Turkish Ubykh Ukrainian Upper Sorbian Uyghur Vietnamese Welsh West Frisian Yiddish Zuni v t e Writing systems Overview History of writing History of the alphabet Graphemes Scripts in Unicode Lists Writing systems Languages by writing system / by first written account Undeciphered writing systems Inventors of writing systems Types Featural Alphabets Abjads Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas Syllabaries Semi-syllabaries Ideogrammic Pictographic Logographic Numeral v t e Communication studies Topics and terminology Biocommunication Broadcasting Communication Computer-mediated communication Conversation History of communication Information Intercultural / Interpersonal / Intrapersonal communication Journalism Mass media Meaning Media ecology Meta-communication Models of communication New media Nonverbal communication Propaganda Reading Speech Symbol Telecommunication Text and conversation theory Writing Subfields Communication design Communication theory Communicology Crisis communication Cross-cultural communication Development communication Discourse analysis Environmental communication Health communication International communication Mass communication Media studies Mediated cross-border communication Organizational communication Political communication Risk communication Science communication Technical communication Visual communication Related fields Conversation analysis Critical theory Cultural studies Digital rhetoric Film criticism Heritage interpretation Journalism photojournalism Linguistics Philosophy of language Political science Pragmatics Public relations Rhetoric Semiotics Sociolinguistics Sociology of culture Theatre Scholars Adorno Barthes Bateson Benjamin Burke Castells Chomsky Craig Fisher Flusser Gerbner Goffman Habermas Horkheimer Huxley Innis Jakobson Janis Johnson Kincaid Lippman Luhmann Marcuse McLuhan Mead Morgan Ong Packard Peirce Postman Quebral Richards Rogers Schramm Tankard Tannen Wertheimer Category History Journals Organizations Outline Scholars Templates v t e Dyslexia and related specific developmental disorders (F80–F83, 315) General conditions Speech and language impairment, communication disorder Expressive language disorder Infantile speech Landau–Kleffner syndrome Language disorder Lisp Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder Specific language impairment Speech and language impairment Speech disorder Speech error Speech sound disorder Stammering Tip of the tongue Scholastic skills, learning disorder Developmental dyslexia Dyscalculia Dysgraphia (Disorder of written expression) Motor function Developmental coordination disorder Developmental verbal dyspraxia also known as Childhood apraxia of speech Other Auditory processing disorder Sensory processing disorder Related topics Dyslexia research Irlen filters Learning Ally Learning problems in childhood cancer Literacy Management of dyslexia Multisensory integration Neuropsychology Reading acquisition Spelling Writing system Lists Dyslexia in fiction Languages by Writing System People with dyslexia Authority control GND: 4035439-8 NDL: 00561668 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reading_(process)&oldid=818244915" Categories: Reading (process)Writing systemsOrthographyApplied linguisticsEducational psychologyHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010CS1 German-language sources (de)All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2010Pages with DOIs inactive since 2017CS1 French-language sources (fr)Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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