Contents 1 History 2 Types of random-access memory 3 Memory cell 4 Addressing 5 Memory hierarchy 6 Other uses of RAM 6.1 Virtual memory 6.2 RAM disk 6.3 Shadow RAM 7 Recent developments 8 Memory wall 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History These IBM tabulating machines from the 1930s used mechanical counters to store information A portion of a core memory with a modern flash SD card on top 1 Megabit chip – one of the last models developed by VEB Carl Zeiss Jena in 1989 Early computers used relays, mechanical counters[3] or delay lines for main memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order it was written. Drum memory could be expanded at relatively low cost but efficient retrieval of memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, and later, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as registers. Such registers were relatively large and too costly to use for large amounts of data; generally only a few dozen or few hundred bits of such memory could be provided. The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947. It stored data as electrically charged spots on the face of a cathode ray tube. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access. The capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller, faster, and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches. Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored-memory program was implemented in the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) computer, which first successfully ran a program on 21 June 1948.[4] In fact, rather than the Williams tube memory being designed for the SSEM, the SSEM was a testbed to demonstrate the reliability of the memory.[5][6] Magnetic-core memory was invented in 1947 and developed up until the mid-1970s. It became a widespread form of random-access memory, relying on an array of magnetized rings. By changing the sense of each ring's magnetization, data could be stored with one bit stored per ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible. Magnetic core memory was the standard form of memory system until displaced by solid-state memory in integrated circuits, starting in the early 1970s. Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit, greatly increasing memory density at the cost of volatility. Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, and had to be periodically refreshed every few milliseconds before the charge could leak away. The Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator, which was introduced in 1965,[7][8] used a form of DRAM built from discrete components.[8] DRAM was then developed by Robert H. Dennard in 1968. Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory (ROM) circuits, permanent (or read-only) random-access memory was often constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core rope memory planes.[citation needed]

Types of random-access memory The two widely used forms of modern RAM are static RAM (SRAM) and dynamic RAM (DRAM). In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a six transistor memory cell. This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is generally faster and requires less dynamic power than DRAM. In modern computers, SRAM is often used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a DRAM cell. The capacitor holds a high or low charge (1 or 0, respectively), and the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory (ROM) stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM (such as EEPROM and flash memory) share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment. These persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras and portable devices, and solid-state drives. ECC memory (which can be either SRAM or DRAM) includes special circuitry to detect and/or correct random faults (memory errors) in the stored data, using parity bits or error correction codes. In general, the term RAM refers solely to solid-state memory devices (either DRAM or SRAM), and more specifically the main memory in most computers. In optical storage, the term DVD-RAM is somewhat of a misnomer since, unlike CD-RW or DVD-RW it does not need to be erased before reuse. Nevertheless, a DVD-RAM behaves much like a hard disc drive if somewhat slower.

Memory cell Main article: Memory cell (computing) The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 (high voltage level) and reset to store a logic 0 (low voltage level). Its value is maintained/stored until it is changed by the set/reset process. The value in the memory cell can be accessed by reading it. In SRAM, the memory cell is a type of flip-flop circuit, usually implemented using FETs. This means that SRAM requires very low power when not being accessed, but it is expensive and has low storage density. A second type, DRAM, is based around a capacitor. Charging and discharging this capacitor can store a "1" or a "0" in the cell. However, the charge in this capacitor slowly leaks away, and must be refreshed periodically. Because of this refresh process, DRAM uses more power, but it can achieve greater storage densities and lower unit costs compared to SRAM. DRAM Cell (1 Transistor and one capacitor) SRAM Cell (6 Transistors)

Addressing To be useful, memory cells must be readable and writeable. Within the RAM device, multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry is used to select memory cells. Typically, a RAM device has a set of address lines A0... An, and for each combination of bits that may be applied to these lines, a set of memory cells are activated. Due to this addressing, RAM devices virtually always have a memory capacity that is a power of two. Usually several memory cells share the same address. For example, a 4 bit 'wide' RAM chip has 4 memory cells for each address. Often the width of the memory and that of the microprocessor are different, for a 32 bit microprocessor, eight 4 bit RAM chips would be needed. Often more addresses are needed than can be provided by a device. In that case, external multiplexors to the device are used to activate the correct device that is being accessed.

Memory hierarchy Main article: Memory hierarchy One can read and over-write data in RAM. Many computer systems have a memory hierarchy consisting of processor registers, on-die SRAM caches, external caches, DRAM, paging systems and virtual memory or swap space on a hard drive. This entire pool of memory may be referred to as "RAM" by many developers, even though the various subsystems can have very different access times, violating the original concept behind the random access term in RAM. Even within a hierarchy level such as DRAM, the specific row, column, bank, rank, channel, or interleave organization of the components make the access time variable, although not to the extent that access time to rotating storage media or a tape is variable. The overall goal of using a memory hierarchy is to obtain the highest possible average access performance while minimizing the total cost of the entire memory system (generally, the memory hierarchy follows the access time with the fast CPU registers at the top and the slow hard drive at the bottom). In many modern personal computers, the RAM comes in an easily upgraded form of modules called memory modules or DRAM modules about the size of a few sticks of chewing gum. These can quickly be replaced should they become damaged or when changing needs demand more storage capacity. As suggested above, smaller amounts of RAM (mostly SRAM) are also integrated in the CPU and other ICs on the motherboard, as well as in hard-drives, CD-ROMs, and several other parts of the computer system.

Other uses of RAM Laptop RAM In addition to serving as temporary storage and working space for the operating system and applications, RAM is used in numerous other ways. Virtual memory Main article: Virtual memory Most modern operating systems employ a method of extending RAM capacity, known as "virtual memory". A portion of the computer's hard drive is set aside for a paging file or a scratch partition, and the combination of physical RAM and the paging file form the system's total memory. (For example, if a computer has 2 GB of RAM and a 1 GB page file, the operating system has 3 GB total memory available to it.) When the system runs low on physical memory, it can "swap" portions of RAM to the paging file to make room for new data, as well as to read previously swapped information back into RAM. Excessive use of this mechanism results in thrashing and generally hampers overall system performance, mainly because hard drives are far slower than RAM. RAM disk Main article: RAM drive Software can "partition" a portion of a computer's RAM, allowing it to act as a much faster hard drive that is called a RAM disk. A RAM disk loses the stored data when the computer is shut down, unless memory is arranged to have a standby battery source. Shadow RAM Sometimes, the contents of a relatively slow ROM chip are copied to read/write memory to allow for shorter access times. The ROM chip is then disabled while the initialized memory locations are switched in on the same block of addresses (often write-protected). This process, sometimes called shadowing, is fairly common in both computers and embedded systems. As a common example, the BIOS in typical personal computers often has an option called “use shadow BIOS” or similar. When enabled, functions that rely on data from the BIOS’s ROM instead use DRAM locations (most can also toggle shadowing of video card ROM or other ROM sections). Depending on the system, this may not result in increased performance, and may cause incompatibilities. For example, some hardware may be inaccessible to the operating system if shadow RAM is used. On some systems the benefit may be hypothetical because the BIOS is not used after booting in favor of direct hardware access. Free memory is reduced by the size of the shadowed ROMs.[9]

Recent developments Several new types of non-volatile RAM, which preserve data while powered down, are under development. The technologies used include carbon nanotubes and approaches utilizing Tunnel magnetoresistance. Amongst the 1st generation MRAM, a 128 KiB (128 × 210 bytes) chip was manufactured with 0.18 µm technology in the summer of 2003.[citation needed] In June 2004, Infineon Technologies unveiled a 16 MiB (16 × 220 bytes) prototype again based on 0.18 µm technology. There are two 2nd generation techniques currently in development: thermal-assisted switching (TAS)[10] which is being developed by Crocus Technology, and spin-transfer torque (STT) on which Crocus, Hynix, IBM, and several other companies are working.[11] Nantero built a functioning carbon nanotube memory prototype 10 GiB (10 × 230 bytes) array in 2004. Whether some of these technologies can eventually take significant market share from either DRAM, SRAM, or flash-memory technology, however, remains to be seen. Since 2006, "solid-state drives" (based on flash memory) with capacities exceeding 256 gigabytes and performance far exceeding traditional disks have become available. This development has started to blur the definition between traditional random-access memory and "disks", dramatically reducing the difference in performance. Some kinds of random-access memory, such as "EcoRAM", are specifically designed for server farms, where low power consumption is more important than speed.[12]

Memory wall The "memory wall" is the growing disparity of speed between CPU and memory outside the CPU chip. An important reason for this disparity is the limited communication bandwidth beyond chip boundaries, which is also referred to as bandwidth wall. From 1986 to 2000, CPU speed improved at an annual rate of 55% while memory speed only improved at 10%. Given these trends, it was expected that memory latency would become an overwhelming bottleneck in computer performance.[13] CPU speed improvements slowed significantly partly due to major physical barriers and partly because current CPU designs have already hit the memory wall in some sense. Intel summarized these causes in a 2005 document.[14] “First of all, as chip geometries shrink and clock frequencies rise, the transistor leakage current increases, leading to excess power consumption and heat... Secondly, the advantages of higher clock speeds are in part negated by memory latency, since memory access times have not been able to keep pace with increasing clock frequencies. Third, for certain applications, traditional serial architectures are becoming less efficient as processors get faster (due to the so-called Von Neumann bottleneck), further undercutting any gains that frequency increases might otherwise buy. In addition, partly due to limitations in the means of producing inductance within solid state devices, resistance-capacitance (RC) delays in signal transmission are growing as feature sizes shrink, imposing an additional bottleneck that frequency increases don't address.” The RC delays in signal transmission were also noted in Clock Rate versus IPC: The End of the Road for Conventional Microarchitectures, which projected a maximum of 12.5% average annual CPU performance improvement between 2000 and 2014. A different concept is the processor-memory performance gap, which can be addressed by 3D integrated circuits that reduce the distance between the logic and memory aspects that are further apart in a 2D chip.[15] Memory subsystem design requires a focus on the gap, which is widening over time.[16] The main method of bridging the gap is the use of caches; small amounts of high-speed memory that houses recent operations and instructions nearby the processor, speeding up the execution of those operations or instructions in cases where they are called upon frequently. Multiple levels of caching have been developed to deal with the widening gap, and the performance of high-speed modern computers relies on evolving caching techniques.[17] These can prevent the loss of processor performance, as it takes less time to perform the computation it has been initiated to complete.[18] There can be up to a 53% difference between the growth in speed of processor speeds and the lagging speed of main memory access.[19] In contrast, RAM can be as fast as 5766 MB/s vs 477 MB/s for an SSD.[20]

See also Information technology portal Technology portal CAS latency (CL) Hybrid Memory Cube Multi-channel memory architecture Registered/buffered memory RAM parity Memory Interconnect/RAM buses Memory geometry Chip creep

References ^ Gallagher, Sean. "Memory that never forgets: non-volatile DIMMs hit the market". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2017-07-08.  ^ Bellis, Mary. "The Invention of the Intel 1103".  ^ "IBM Archives -- FAQ's for Products and Services". Archived from the original on 2012-10-23.  ^ Napper, Brian, Computer 50: The University of Manchester Celebrates the Birth of the Modern Computer, archived from the original on 4 May 2012, retrieved 26 May 2012  ^ Williams, F.C.; Kilburn, T. (Sep 1948), "Electronic Digital Computers", Nature, 162 (4117): 487, doi:10.1038/162487a0.  Reprinted in The Origins of Digital Computers ^ Williams, F.C.; Kilburn, T.; Tootill, G.C. (Feb 1951), "Universal High-Speed Digital Computers: A Small-Scale Experimental Machine", Proc. IEE, 98 (61): 13–28, doi:10.1049/pi-2.1951.0004, archived from the original on 2013-11-17.  ^ Toscal BC-1411 calculator Archived 2017-07-29 at the Wayback Machine., Science Museum, London ^ a b Toshiba "Toscal" BC-1411 Desktop Calculator Archived 2007-05-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Shadow Ram". Archived from the original on 2006-10-29. Retrieved 2007-07-24.  ^ The Emergence of Practical MRAM "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-27. Retrieved 2009-07-20.  ^ "Tower invests in Crocus, tips MRAM foundry deal". EETimes. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19.  ^ "EcoRAM held up as less power-hungry option than DRAM for server farms" Archived 2008-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. by Heather Clancy 2008 ^ The term was coined in "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2011-12-14. . ^ "Platform 2015: Intel® Processor and Platform Evolution for the Next Decade" (PDF). March 2, 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2011.  ^ Rainer Waser (2012). Nanoelectronics and Information Technology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 790. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2014.  ^ Chris Jesshope and Colin Egan (2006). Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2006, Shanghai, China, September 6-8, 2006, Proceedings. Springer. p. 109. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2014.  ^ Ahmed Amine Jerraya and Wayne Wolf (2005). Multiprocessor Systems-on-chips. Morgan Kaufmann. pp. 90–91. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2014.  ^ Impact of Advances in Computing and Communications Technologies on Chemical Science and Technology. National Academy Press. 1999. p. 110. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2014.  ^ Celso C. Ribeiro and Simone L. Martins (2004). Experimental and Efficient Algorithms: Third International Workshop, WEA 2004, Angra Dos Reis, Brazil, May 25-28, 2004, Proceedings, Volume 3. Springer. p. 529. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2014.  ^ Pinola, Melanie. "Add a RAM Disk to Your Computer for Faster-than-SSD Performance". Lifehacker. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

External links Media related to RAM at Wikimedia Commons v t e Basic computer components Input devices Keyboard Image scanner Microphone Pointing device Graphics tablet Joystick Light pen Mouse Optical Pointing stick Touchpad Touchscreen Trackball Webcam Softcam Refreshable braille display Output devices Monitor Refreshable braille display Printer Speakers Plotter Removable data storage Optical disc CD DVD Blu-ray Disk pack Floppy disk Memory card USB flash drive Computer case Central processing unit (CPU) HDD / SSD / SSHD Motherboard Network interface controller Power supply Random-access memory (RAM) Sound card Video card Fax modem Expansion card Ports Ethernet FireWire (IEEE 1394) Parallel port Serial port PS/2 port USB Thunderbolt HDMI / DVI / VGA eSATA Audio jack Authority control GND: 4176909-0 Retrieved from "" Categories: Computer memoryAmerican inventionsTypes of RAMComputer architectureHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2016Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansAlemannischالعربيةAragonésAsturianuAzərbaycancaবাংলাBân-lâm-gúБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskFurlanGaeilgeGalego한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliKurdîКыргызчаLatinaLatviešuLietuviųLumbaartMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംमराठीმარგალურიمصرىBahasa MelayuМонголNederlandsनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NorskNorsk nynorskOccitanОлык марийਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیپښتوPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаScotsShqipසිංහලSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்తెలుగుไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوVènetoTiếng ViệtWinarayייִדיש粵語Zazaki中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 5 February 2018, at 16:02. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.332","walltime":"0.443","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1707,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":71014,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":2813,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":11,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":6,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":25260,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 367.747 1 -total"," 35.44% 130.340 1 Template:Reflist"," 16.38% 60.248 1 Template:Pp-protected"," 14.77% 54.304 8 Template:Cite_web"," 9.02% 33.171 2 Template:Citation_needed"," 7.67% 28.203 1 Template:IPAc-en"," 7.26% 26.700 2 Template:Fix"," 6.81% 25.035 1 Template:Authority_control"," 6.02% 22.153 5 Template:Cite_book"," 4.37% 16.081 3 Template:Citation"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.171","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6932747,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1326","timestamp":"20180320172551","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":97,"wgHostname":"mw1257"});});

Random_access_memory - Photos and All Basic Informations

Random_access_memory More Links

This Article Is Semi-protected.Random Access MemoriesRam (disambiguation)Computer MemoryVolatile MemoryDynamic Random-access MemoryStatic Random-access MemoryWilliams TubeDelay Line MemoryMellon Optical MemorySelectron TubeDekatronT-RAMZ-RAMNon-volatile MemoryRead-only MemoryMask ROMProgrammable Read-only MemoryEPROMEEPROMFlash MemoryNon-volatile Random-access MemoryResistive Random-access MemoryNon-volatile Random-access MemoryFerroelectric RAMMagnetoresistive Random-access MemoryPhase-change MemoryMagnetic TapeHard Disk DriveOptical DiscProgrammable Metallization CellRacetrack MemoryNano-RAMMillipede MemoryFJG RAMPaper Data StorageDrum MemoryMagnetic-core MemoryPlated Wire MemoryCore Rope MemoryThin-film MemoryDisk PackTwistor MemoryBubble MemoryFloppy DiskTemplate:Memory TypesTemplate Talk:Memory TypesEnlargeRead/write MemoryVolatile MemoryDynamic RAMDIMMPersonal ComputersWorkstationServer (computing)Help:IPA/EnglishComputer Data StorageDataMachine CodeRandom AccessDataRead (computer)Hard DiskCD-RWDVD-RWMagnetic Tape Data StorageDrum MemoryMultiplexerDemultiplexingIntegrated CircuitVolatile MemoryDRAMDIMMNon-volatile MemoryRead Only MemoryFlash MemoryFlash MemoryIntel 1103EnlargeTabulating MachineMechanical CounterEnlargeCore MemorySD CardEnlargeCarl Zeiss AGRelayMechanical CounterDelay Line MemoryDrum MemoryVacuum TubeTriodeTransistorWilliams TubeCathode Ray TubeVictoria University Of ManchesterManchester Small-Scale Experimental MachineTestbedMagnetic-core MemoryDynamic Random-access MemoryToshibaElectronic CalculatorRobert H. DennardRead-only MemoryDiode MatrixAddress DecoderCore Rope MemoryWikipedia:Citation NeededStatic Random Access MemoryDynamic Random-access MemoryBitMemory Cell (computing)CPU CacheRead-only MemoryEEPROMFlash MemoryPersistence (computer Science)Universal Serial BusSolid-state DrivesECC MemoryParity BitError Detection And CorrectionDVD-RAMCD-RWDVD-RWMemory Cell (computing)Computer MemoryElectronic CircuitBitFlip-flop (electronics)Field Effect TransistorEnlargeEnlargeMemory HierarchyProcessor RegisterStatic Random-access MemoryCPU CacheDRAMPagingVirtual MemorySwap SpaceAccess TimeMemory RankInterleaved MemoryStorage MediaDIMMCPUIntegrated CircuitMotherboardCD-ROMEnlargeVirtual MemoryHard DrivePagingThrashing (computer Science)RAM DriveRAM DiskEmbedded SystemsBIOSOperating SystemNVRAMCarbon NanotubeTunnel MagnetoresistanceMagnetoresistive Random-access MemoryKibibyteWikipedia:Citation NeededInfineon TechnologiesMebibyteThermal-assisted SwitchingCrocus TechnologySpin-transfer TorqueCrocus TechnologyHynixIBMNanteroGibibyteSolid-state DriveServer FarmLow-power ElectronicsCentral Processing UnitBottleneck (engineering)Intel CorporationLeakage (electronics)Von Neumann ArchitectureResistance-capacitanceThree-dimensional Integrated CircuitCache (computing)SSDPortal:Information TechnologyPortal:TechnologyCAS LatencyHybrid Memory CubeMulti-channel Memory ArchitectureRegistered MemoryRAM ParityList Of Device Bit RatesMemory GeometryChip CreepDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierWayback MachineScience Museum, LondonWayback MachineWayback MachineRainer WaserLifehackerCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCommons:RAMTemplate:Basic Computer ComponentsTemplate Talk:Basic Computer ComponentsComputerInput DeviceComputer KeyboardImage ScannerMicrophonePointing DeviceGraphics TabletJoystickLight PenComputer MouseOptical MousePointing StickTouchpadTouchscreenTrackballWebcamSoftcamRefreshable Braille DisplayOutput DeviceComputer MonitorRefreshable Braille DisplayPrinter (computing)Computer SpeakersPlotterRemovable MediaOptical DiscCompact DiscDVDBlu-rayDisk PackFloppy DiskMemory CardUSB Flash DriveComputer CaseCentral Processing UnitHard Disk DriveSolid-state DriveSolid-state Hybrid DriveMotherboardNetwork Interface ControllerPower Supply Unit (computer)Sound CardVideo CardFax ModemExpansion CardComputer Port (hardware)EthernetIEEE 1394Parallel PortSerial PortPS/2 PortUSBThunderbolt (interface)HDMIDigital Visual InterfaceVGA ConnectorSerial ATAPhone Connector (audio)Help:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileHelp:CategoryCategory:Computer MemoryCategory:American InventionsCategory:Types Of RAMCategory:Computer ArchitectureCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2015Category:Pages Using Div Col Without Cols And Colwidth ParametersCategory:Pages Using Columns-list With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link