Contents 1 Racial and ethnic categories 1.1 Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino origin 2 Social definitions of race 3 Historical trends and influences 4 Racial makeup of the U.S. population 4.1 White Americans 4.2 Black and African Americans 4.3 Asian Americans 4.4 Two or more races 4.4.1 Genetic admixture 4.5 Native Americans and Alaska Natives 4.6 Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 4.7 Middle Easterners and North Africans 4.8 Members of other races 4.9 Hispanic and Latino Americans 5 Ancestry 5.1 2015 American Community Survey 5.2 Ancestry maps 5.2.1 Major ancestries 5.2.2 European American ancestries 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Racial and ethnic categories[edit] Main articles: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census and Demographics of the United States 2010 U.S Census[10]Table 1[11] Self-identified race Percent of population White alone   72.4% Black or African American   12.6% Asian   4.8% Native American and Alaska Natives   0.9% Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders   0.2% Two or more races   2.9% Some other race   6.2% Total   100.0% Hispanic and Latino Americans (of any race): 16.3%[12] In the 2000 Census and subsequent United States Census Bureau surveys, Americans self-described as belonging to these racial groups:[3] White American, European American, or Middle Eastern American: those having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Black or African American: those having origins in any of the native peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa. Native American or Alaska Native: those having origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central and South America, irrespective of whether they maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian American: those having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Central Asia, North Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islander: those having origins in any of the original peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, or Micronesia. Middle Eastern American: Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world.[13] Some other race: respondents may write how they identify themselves, if different from the preceding categories (e. g. Roma or Aboriginal/Indigenous Australian). However, 95% of the people who report in this category are Hispanic Mestizos.[3][9][14] This is not a standard OMB race category.[3] Responses have included mixed-race terms such as Métis, Creole, and Mulatto, which are generally considered to be categories of multi-racial ancestry (see below),[15] but, write-in entries reported in the 2000 census also included nationalities (as opposed to ethnicities), such as South African, Belizean, or Puerto Rican, as well as other terms for mixed-race groups like Wesort, Melungeon, mixed, interracial, and others. Two or more races, widely known as multiracial: those who check off and/or write in more than one race. There is no option labelled "two or more races" or "multiracial" on census and other forms; people who report more than one of the foregoing six options are classified as people of "two or more races" in subsequent processing. Any respondent may identify with any number, up to all six, of the racial categories. Each person has two identifying attributes, racial identity and whether or not they are of Hispanic ethnicity.[16] These categories are sociopolitical constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature.[2] They have been changed from one census to another, and the racial categories include both "racial" and national-origin groups.[17][18] In 2007 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the US Department of Labor finalized its update of the EEO-1 report format and guidelines to come into an effect on September 30, 2007. In particular, this update concerns the definitions of racial/ethnic categories. Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino origin[edit] See also: Race and ethnicity in Latin America and Ethnic groups in Latin America The question on Hispanic or Latino origin is separate from the question on race.[3][19] Hispanic and Latino Americans have ethnic origins in the countries of Andorra, Latin America, Spain, and Portugal. Latin American countries are, like the United States, racially diverse.[20] Consequently, no separate racial category exists for Hispanic and Latino Americans, as they do not constitute a race, nor a national group. When responding to the race question on the census form, each person is asked to choose from among the same racial categories as all Americans, and are included in the numbers reported for those races.[21] Each racial category may contain Non-Hispanic or Latino and Hispanic or Latino Americans. For example: the White (European-American) race category contains Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites (see White Hispanic and Latino Americans); the Black or African-American category contains Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic Blacks (see Black Hispanic and Latino Americans); the Asian-American category contains Non-Hispanic Asians and Hispanic Asians (see Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans); and likewise for all the other categories. See the section on Hispanic and Latino Americans in this article. Self-identifying as both Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino is neither explicitly allowed nor explicitly prohibited.[2]

Social definitions of race[edit] See also: African American § Identity, and Definitions of whiteness in the United States In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, Africans and Europeans were considered to belong to different races. For nearly three centuries, the criteria for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person's appearance, their social circle (how they lived), and their known non-White ancestry. History played a part, as persons with known slave ancestors were assumed to be African (or, in later usage, black), regardless of whether they also had European ancestry. The differences between how Native American and Black identities are defined today (blood quantum versus one-drop and political assumptions) have been based on different historical circumstances. According to the anthropologist Gerald Sider, such racial designations were a means to concentrate power, wealth, privilege and land in the hands of Whites in a society of White hegemony and privilege (Sider 1996; see also Fields 1990). The differences had little to do with biology and more to do with the history of slavery and its racism, and specific forms of White supremacy (the social, geopolitical and economic agendas of dominant Whites vis-à-vis subordinate Blacks and Native Americans). They related especially to the different social places which Blacks and Amerindians occupied in White-dominated 19th-century America. Sider suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled mixed-race Whites to acquire Amerindian lands during the allotment process. The one-drop rule of Black identity, enforced legally in the early 20th century, enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force in the South. The contrast emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, Black labor was relatively easy to control, and they became reduced to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers. In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads. Sider thinks the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which subjected Native Americans to marginalization and resulted in numerous conflicts related to American expansionism. The political economy of race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves. The 19th-century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White. The offspring of a few generations of intermarriage between Amerindians and Whites likely would not have been considered Amerindian (at least not in a legal sense). Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with only one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, he lost a legal claim to Amerindian land, under the allotment rules of the day. According to Sider's theory, Whites were more easily able to acquire Amerindian lands. On the other hand, the same individual who could be denied legal standing in a tribe, according to the government, because he was "too White" to claim property rights, might still have enough visually identifiable Amerindian ancestry to be considered socially as a "half-breed" or breed, and stigmatized by both communities. The 20th-century one-drop rule made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White. The child of an African-American sharecropper and a White person was considered Black by the local communities. In terms of the economics of sharecropping, such a person also would likely become a sharecropper as well, thus adding to the landholder or employer's labor force. In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th-century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible. Although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th-century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, and "expanded" the labor force in response to Southern Blacks' Great Migration to the North. But, others (such as the historians Joel Williamson, C. Vann Woodward, George M. Fredrickson, and Stetson Kennedy) considered the one-drop rule a consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure, and justifying White-on-Black oppression. Over the centuries when Whites wielded power over both Blacks and Amerindians and believed in their inherent superiority over people of color, they created a social order of hypodescent, in which they assigned mixed-race children to the lower-status groups. They were often ignorant of the systems among Native American tribes of social classification, including kinship and hypodescent. The Omaha people, for instance, who had a patrilineal kinship system, classified all children with white fathers as "white", and excluded them as members of the clans and tribe, unless one was formally adopted by a male member. Tribal members might care for mixed-race children of white fathers, but considered them outside the hereditary clan and kinship fundamental to tribal society.[22] The hypodescent social construction related to the racial caste that was associated with African slavery and the conditions of the slave societies. It was made explicit by Virginia and other colonies' laws as early as 1662. Virginia incorporated the Roman principle of partus sequitur ventrem into slave law, saying that children of slave mothers were born into their status. Under English common law for subjects, children's social status was determined by the father, not the mother. But the colonists put Africans outside the category of English subjects. Generally, white men were in positions of power to take sexual advantage of black women slaves. But, historian Paul Heinegg has shown that most free African-American families listed in the censuses of 1790–1810 were, in fact, descended from unions between white women and African men in colonial Virginia, from the years when working classes lived and worked closely together, and before slavery had hardened as a racial caste.[23] In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time by whites that classified individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997), but these were always porous. The decennial censuses conducted since 1790, after slavery was well established in the United States, included classification of persons by race: white, black, mulatto, and Indian (Nobles 2000). But, the inclusion of mulatto was an explicit acknowledgement of mixed race. In addition, before the Civil War, Virginia and some other states had legal definition of "whiteness" that provided for people being classified as white if no more than 1/8 black. (For example, if not born into slavery, Thomas Jefferson's children by his slave Sally Hemings would have been classified as legally white, as they were 7/8 white by ancestry. Three of the four surviving children entered white society as adults, and their descendants have identified as white.) In the late 18th and 19th centuries, people of mixed race often migrated to frontiers where societies were more open, and they might be accepted as white if satisfying obligations of citizenship.[23] The more familiar "one-drop rule" was not adopted by Virginia and other states until the 20th century, but it classified persons with any known African ancestry as black (Davis 2001). Passage of such laws was often urged by white supremacists and people promoting "racial purity" through eugenics, having forgotten the long history of multi-racial unions in the South that comprised the ancestry of many families.[citation needed] In other countries in the Americas, where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid. In some cases, people may move into or out of categories on the basis of a combination of socioeconomic status, social class, ancestry, and appearance (Mörner 1967). The term Hispanic as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century, with the rise of migration of laborers from Spanish-speaking countries of the western hemisphere to the United States. It includes people who may have been considered racially distinct (Black, White, Amerindian or other mixed groups) in their home countries. Today, the word "Latino" is often used as a synonym for "Hispanic". Even if such categories were earlier understood as racial categories, today they have begun to represent ethno-linguistic categories (regardless of perceived race). Similarly, "Anglo" is now used among many Hispanics to refer to non-Hispanic White Americans or European Americans, most of whom speak the English language but are not of primarily English descent.

Historical trends and influences[edit] The United States is a racially diverse country. The growth of the Hispanic population through immigration and high birth rates is noted as a partial factor for the US’ population gains in the last quarter-century. The 2000 census revealed that Native Americans had reached their highest documented population, 4.5 million, since the U.S was founded in 1776.[3] The immigrants to the New World came largely from widely separated regions of the Old World. In the Americas, the immigrant populations began to mix among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continent. In the United States, for example, most people who identify as African American have some European ancestors, as revealed by genetic studies. In one analysis of those genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated 7% for a sample of Jamaicans to ~ 23 % for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans, where there was historically a large class of mixed race (now called Louisiana Creoles) (Parra et al. 1998). In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans were classified as belonging to different races. For nearly three centuries, the criteria among whites for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person's appearance, his known non-European ancestry, and his social circle. The criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century. During and after Reconstruction, after the emancipation of slaves after the Civil War, in the effort to restore white supremacy in the South, whites began to classify anyone with "one drop" of "black blood", or known African ancestry, to be black. Such a legal definition was not put into law until the early 20th century in most southern states, but many established racial segregation of facilities during the Jim Crow era, after white Democrats regained control of state legislatures in the South. Efforts to track mixing between groups led to an earlier proliferation of historical categories (such as "mulatto" and "octaroon" among persons with partial African descent) and "blood quantum" distinctions, which became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry. In the 20th century, efforts to classify the increasingly mixed population of the United States into discrete categories generated many difficulties (Spickard 1992). By the standards used in past censuses, many mixed-race children born in the United States were classified as of a different race than one of their biological parents. In addition, a person may change personal racial identification over time because of cultural aspects, and self-ascribed race can differ from assigned race (Kressin et al. 2003). Until the 2000 census, Latinos were required to identify as one race, and none was Latino. Partly as a result of the confusion generated by the distinction, 32.9% (U.S. census records) of Latino respondents in the 2000 census ignored the specified racial categories and checked "some other race". (Mays et al. 2003 claim a figure of 42%) Historical trends influencing the ethnic demographics of the United States include: Patterns of original settlement settlement of the Americas by a variety of Native American peoples, including Alaska Natives. settlement of Pacific islands by Polynesian people, including Native Hawaiians, Samoans, the Chamorro people in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. settlement of Puerto Rico by the Taíno people. settlement of the United States Virgin Islands by the Ciboney, Carib, and Arawaks. Colonization Colonization of what is now eastern Canada and the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River as New France. Historical events, including the Expulsion of the Acadians, influenced the ethnic mix, especially in Louisiana, northern New England and New York State. Colonization of the Thirteen Colonies by the Dutch, British, and later immigrants such as Germans from northern Europe. Spanish colonization of the Americas, including Florida, the Southwest, and Puerto Rico, later acquired by the US. Denmark and other historical colonial powers influenced the ethnic makeup of what are now the United States Virgin Islands. The Atlantic slave trade, bringing millions of Africans to the South, Caribbean, and Latin America. Severe reduction of Native American populations in the contiguous United States, mostly because of new infectious diseases carried by European colonists, combined with warfare Forced migration Deportation and flight of United Empire Loyalists to Canada, the Caribbean and Britain after the American Revolution Forced removal of more than one million African Americans in the domestic slave trade from the Upper South to the Deep South during the early 19th century as Americans developed new lands for plantations Territorial conflict with Native Americans and the Indian removal policy of the 19th century displaced many remaining native populations from east of the Mississippi River to territories to the west, especially to what is now Oklahoma. Immigration Historical immigration to the United States from all countries of the world and throughout the history of the country, for religious, political and economic reasons. Since the late 19th century, the History of laws concerning immigration and naturalization in the United States and illegal immigration to the United States have influenced the ethnic balance of that immigration. Various groups have been denied entry due to discrimination, economic protectionism, and political conflict with their nation of origin. Other groups have received favored status, such as refugees and nationals of allied nations. Transatlantic migrations from Europe, especially in the 19th century, created ethnic enclaves in many eastern cities and settling many rural areas east of the Mississippi Immigration from Asia has had the most influence on Hawaii and the West Coast, but has also created predominantly Asian neighborhoods in many major cities across the country. Immigration from Mexico and other existing Latino populations has strongly influenced the Southwest. Westward expansion of the United States The Royal Proclamation of 1763 restricted the western boundary of European settlement to the watershed east of the Appalachian Mountains; despite the Confederation Congress Proclamation of 1783 and Nonintercourse Acts prohibiting private purchase of Native American lands, the territory between the Mississippi River and Appalachian Mountains granted to the United States by the Treaty of Paris (1783) was gradually opened to white settlers through public purchase of Indian lands. The Homestead Act promoting settlement west of the Mississippi after the Louisiana Purchase Mormon settlement of Utah California Gold Rush Oregon Trail Klondike Gold Rush promoting settlement of Alaska Internal migration African Americans escaped from slavery, sometimes via the Underground Railroad, reaching the free North before the American Civil War. In the 20th century, to seek jobs and escape racial violence, African Americans left the South in the Great Migration and Second Great Migration, moving to Northern, Midwestern, and Western cities, where they had to compete with recent European immigrants. Especially as transportation systems have improved over the centuries, it has become relatively easy for many Americans to move from one part of the country to another, given the lack of internal borders and dominance of English in most areas. Many do so for reasons of economic opportunity, climate, or culture. The American Industrial Revolution, promoted urbanization of what was previously a largely agrarian society Railroads, promoting migration westwards and streetcar suburbs, created significant ethnic shifts in urban areas. Economics and natural disasters have driven migration, for example during the Dust Bowl, World War II, and since the decline of the Rust Belt Suburbanization period after World War II, with "white flight" to new housing and away from later social unrest, followed by "black flight" The majority of Native Hawaiians who moved to the mainland U.S. have settled in California. Air conditioning has promoted migration from northern areas to the Sun Belt, aided by states' rules against union labor and having low taxes for businesses. The Jet Age promoted vacationing and part-time living in warmer areas (snowbirding). In some cases, immigrants and migrants form ethnic enclaves; in others, mixture creates ethnically diverse neighborhoods.

Racial makeup of the U.S. population[edit] (For demographics by specific ethnic groups rather than general race, see "Ancestry" below.) White Americans[edit] Main article: White Americans The majority of the more than 300 million people currently living in the United States consists of White Americans. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa."[24] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[25] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. White Americans are the majority in 49 of the 50 states, with Hawaii as the exception. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states; Hawaii, New Mexico, California, and Texas (and the District of Columbia) are the exceptions.[26] These five jurisdictions have "minority majorities", i.e. minority groups compose the majority of the population. The non-Hispanic White percentage (63% in 2012[5]) tends to decrease every year, and this sub-group is expected to become a plurality of the overall U.S. population after the year 2043. White Americans overall (non-Hispanic Whites together with White Hispanics) are projected to continue as the majority, at 73.1% (or 303 million out of 420 million) in 2050, from currently 77.1%. Although a high proportion of the population is known to have multiple ancestries, in the 2000 census, the first with the option to choose more than one, most people still identified with one racial category.[citation needed] In the 2000 census, self-identified German Americans made up 17.1% of the U.S. population, followed by Irish Americans at 12%, as reported in the 2000 U.S. Census. This makes German and Irish the largest and second-largest self-reported ancestry groups in the United States. Both groups had high rates of immigration to the U.S. beginning in the mid-19th century, triggered by the Great Famine in Ireland and the failed 1848 Revolution in Germany. However, English-Americans and British-Americans are still considered the largest ethnic group due to a serious under count following the 2000 census whereby many English and British Americans self-identified under the new category entry 'American' considering themselves 'indigenous' because their families had resided in the US for so long[27][28][29][30] or, if of mixed European ancestry, identified with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[31] 7.2% of the population listed their ancestry as American on the 2000 census (see American ethnicity). According to the United States Census Bureau, the number of people in the U.S. who reported American and no other ancestry increased from 12.4 million in 1990 to 20.2 million in 2000. This change in reporting represented the largest "growth" of any ethnic group in the United States during the 1990s, but it represented how people reported themselves more than growth through birth rates, for instance, and certainly did not reflect immigration. Most French Americans are believed descended from colonists of Catholic New France; exiled Huguenots, much fewer in number and settling in the eastern English colonies in the late 1600s and early 1700s, needed to assimilate into the majority culture and have intermarried over generations. Isleños of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest have had, in part, direct Spanish ancestry; most self-reported White Hispanics are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origins, each of which are multi-ethnic nations. Hispanic immigration has increased from nations of Central and South America.[32] Black and African Americans[edit] Main articles: African Americans and Black Hispanic and Latino Americans Black and African Americans are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa.[33] According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.[34] The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". Among these racial outliers are persons from Cape Verde, Madagascar, various Hamito-Semitic populations in East Africa and the Sahel, and the Afrikaners of Southern Africa.[33] African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.[35] According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 38,093,725 Black and African Americans in the United States, representing 12.4% of the population. In addition, there were 37,144,530 non-Hispanic blacks, which comprised 12.1% of the population.[36] This number increased to 42 million according to the 2010 United States Census, when including Multiracial African Americans,[34] making up 14% of the total U.S. population.[a][38] Black and African Americans make up the second largest group in the United States, but the third largest group after White Americans and Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race).[39] The majority of the population (55%) lives in the South; compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest.[38] Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa, who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States.[40] As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American.[41] The first West Africans were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.[42] All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves);[43] by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved.[44] During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy,[45][46] while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units.[47] By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line) had abolished slavery.[48] However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.[49] Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress,[50] African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws,[51] legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 due to the Civil Rights Movement.[52] According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa (4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%).[53] African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.[54] Asian Americans[edit] Main article: Asian Americans A third significant minority is the Asian American population, comprising 19.4 million in 2013, or 6.0% of the U.S. population.[8] California is home to 4.5 million Asian Americans, whereas 495,000 live in Hawaii, where they compose the plurality, at 38.5% of the islands' people. This is their largest share of any state.[55] Historically first concentrated on Hawaii and the West Coast, Asian Americans now live across the country, living and working in large numbers in New York City, Chicago, Boston, Houston, and other major urban centers. Their histories are diverse. As with the new immigration from central and eastern Europe to the East Coast from the mid-19th century on, Asians started immigrating to the United States in large numbers in the 19th century. This first major wave of immigration consisted predominantly of Chinese and Japanese laborers, but also included Korean and South Asian immigrants. Many immigrants also came during and after this period from the Philippines, which was a US colony from 1898 to 1946. Exclusion laws and policies largely prohibited and curtailed Asian immigration until the 1940s. After the US changed its immigration laws during the 1940s to 1960s to make entry easier, a much larger new wave of immigration from Asia began. Today the largest self-identified Asian American sub-groups according to census data are Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Indian Americans, Vietnamese Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans, among other groups.[56] Two or more races[edit] Main article: Multiracial American Self-identified multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population.[8] They have identified as any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities.[57] The U.S. has a growing multiracial identity movement. While the colonies and southern states protected white fathers by making all children born to slave mothers be classified as slaves, regardless of paternity, they also banned miscegenation or interracial marriage, most notably between whites and blacks. This did little to stop interracial relationships, except as legal, consensual unions. Demographers state that, due to new waves of immigration, the American people through the early 20th century were mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities, who maintained cultural distinctiveness until, over time, assimilation, migration and integration took place.[citation needed] The Civil Rights Movement through the 20th century gained passage of important legislation to enforce constitutional rights of minorities. According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge, by some calculations in the 2000 Census, the multiracial population that is part white (which is the largest percentage of the multiracial population), is as follows: white/Native American and Alaskan Native, at 7,015,017, white/black at 737,492, white/Asian at 727,197, and white/Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander at 125,628.[58] Genetic admixture[edit] A 2002 study found an average of 18.6% European genetic contribution and 2.7% Native American genetic contribution (with standard errors 1.5% and 1.4% respectively) in a sample of 232 African Americans. Meanwhile, in a sample of 187 European Americans from State College, Pennsylvania, there was an average of 0.7% West African genetic contribution and 3.2% Native American genetic contribution (with standard errors 0.9% and 1.6% respectively). Most of the non-European admixture was concentrated in 30% of the sample, with West African admixture ranging from 2 to 20%, with an average of 2.3%.[59] In 1958 Robert Stuckert produced a statistical analysis using historical census data and immigration statistics. He concluded that the growth in the White population could not be attributed solely to births in the White population and immigration from Europe, but was also due to people identifying as white who were partly black. He concluded that 21 percent of white Americans had some recent African-American ancestors. He also concluded that the majority of Americans of known African descent were partly European and not entirely sub-Saharan African.[60] More recently, many different DNA studies have shown that many African Americans have European admixture, reflecting the long history in this country of the various populations. Proportions of European admixture in African-American DNA have been found in studies to be 17 %[61] and between 10.6% and 22.5%.[62] Another recent study found the average to be 21.2%, with a standard error of 1.2%.[59] The Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group of the National Human Genome Research Institute notes that "although genetic analyses of large numbers of loci can produce estimates of the percentage of a person's ancestors coming from various continental populations, these estimates may assume a false distinctiveness of the parental populations, since human groups have exchanged mates from local to continental scales throughout history."[63] Native Americans and Alaska Natives[edit] Main articles: Native Americans in the United States and Alaska Natives Indigenous peoples of the Americas, particularly Native Americans, made up 0.8% of the population in 2008, numbering 2.4 million.[8] An additional 2.3 million persons declared part-American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry.[64] The legal and official designation of who is Native American has aroused controversy by demographers, tribal nations, and government officials for many decades. Federally recognized tribes and state recognized tribes set their own membership requirements; tribal enrollment may require residency on a reservation, documented lineal descent from recognized records, such as the Dawes Rolls, and other criteria. Some tribes have adopted the use of blood quantum, requiring members to have a certain percentage. The federal government requires individuals to certify documented blood quantum of ancestry for certain federal programs, such as education benefits, available to members of recognized tribes. But Census takers accept any respondent's identification. Genetic scientists estimated that more than 15 million other Americans, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans (specifically those of Mexican heritage), may have up to one quarter of American Indian ancestry.[citation needed] Once thought to face extinction as a race or culture, Native Americans of numerous tribes have achieved revival of aspects of their cultures, together with asserting their sovereignty and direction of their own affairs since the mid-20th century. Many have started language programs to revive use of traditional languages; some have established tribally controlled colleges and other schools on their reservations, so that education is expressive of their cultures. Since the late 20th century, many tribes have developed gaming casinos on their sovereign land to raise revenues for economic development, as well as to promote the education and welfare of their people through health care and construction of improved housing. Today more than 800,000 to one million persons claim Cherokee descent in part or as full-bloods; of these, an estimated 300,000 live in California, 70,000—160,000 in Oklahoma, and 15,000 in North Carolina in ancestral homelands.[citation needed] The second largest tribal group is the Navajo, who call themselves Diné and live on a 16-million acre (65,000 km²) Indian reservation covering northeast Arizona, northwest New Mexico, and southeast Utah. It is home to half of the 450,000 Navajo Nation members.[citation needed] The third largest group are the Lakota (Sioux) Nation, with distinct federally recognized tribes located in the states of Minnesota, Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming; and North and South Dakota.[citation needed] Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders[edit] Main articles: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islands Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders numbered 427,810 in 2008, or 0.1% of the population.[8] Additionally, nearly as many individuals identify as having partial Native Hawaiian ancestry, for a total of 829,949 people of full or part Native Hawaiian ancestry.[65] This group constitutes the smallest minority in the United States. More than half identify as "full-blooded", but historically most Native Hawaiians on the island chain of Hawaii are believed to have admixture with Asian and European ancestries.[citation needed] But, the Census takes reporting by individuals as to how they identify. Some demographers believe that by the year 2025, the last full-blooded Native Hawaiian will die off, leaving a culturally distinct, but racially mixed population.[citation needed] The total number of persons who have identified as Native Hawaiian in 2008 was more than the estimated Hawaiian population when the US annexed the islands in 1898.[citation needed] Native Hawaiians are receiving ancestral land reparations. Throughout Hawaii, they are working to preserve and assert adaptation of Native Hawaiian customs and the Hawaiian language. They have cultural schools solely for legally Native Hawaiian students. Middle Easterners and North Africans[edit] Main articles: Middle Eastern Americans, Arab Americans, and North Africans in the United States According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), countries of origin for Arab Americans include Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.[66] The United States Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. In 2012, prompted in part by post-9/11 discrimination, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee petitioned the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency to designate the MENA populations as a minority/disadvantaged community.[67] Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world, separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The expert groups, including some Jewish organizations, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization.[13][68] This process does not currently include ethnoreligious groups such as Jews or Sikhs, as the Bureau only tabulates these groups as followers of religions rather than members of ethnic groups.[69] As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish, Sudanese, Somali, Mauritanian, Armenian, Cypriot, Afghan, Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.[70] Members of other races[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2016) In the 2000 census, the non-standard category of "Other"[3] was especially intended to capture responses such as Mestizo and Mulatto,[15] two large multiracial groups in most of the countries of origin of Hispanic and Latino Americans. However, many other responses are captured by the category. In 2008 15.0 million people, nearly 5% of the total U.S. population, were estimated to be "some other race",[8] with 95% of them being Hispanic or Latino.[9] Due to this category's non-standard status, statistics from government agencies other than the Census Bureau (for example: the Centers for Disease Control's data on vital statistics, or the FBI's crime statistics), but also the Bureau's own official Population Estimates, omit the "some other race" category and include most of the people in this group in the white population, thus including the vast majority (about 90%) of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the white population. For an example of this, see The World Factbook, published by the Central Intelligence Agency.[71] Hispanic and Latino Americans[edit] Main article: Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans by race (2010)[10] Race Population % of all Hispanic and Latino Americans White 26,735,713 53.0 Some other race (mestizo, mulatto, etc.) 18,503,103 36.7 Two or more races 3,042,592 6.0 Black 1,243,471 2.5 American Indian and Alaska Native 685,150 1.4 Asian 209,128 0.4 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 58,437 0.1 Total 50,477,594 100.0 In 2008, "Hispanic or Latino origin" was the self-identification of 47 million Americans. They chiefly have origins in the Spanish-speaking nations of Latin America. Very few also come from other places, for example: 0.2% of Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in Asia.[72] The group is heterogeneous in race and national ancestry. The Census Bureau defines "Hispanic or Latino origin" thus: “ For Census 2000, American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person, or the person's parents or ancestors, before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.[73] ” The leading country-of-origin for Hispanic Americans is Mexico (30.7 million), followed by Puerto Rico (4.2 million) (which actually has a special relationship with the US, of which its people are citizens), and Cuba (1.6 million), as of 2008.[74] However, as of 2010, there were 1,648,968 Salvadorans in the United States, the largest of the U.S-Central American community. Salvadorans are poised to become the third largest Hispanic group by the next census, significantly overtaking and replacing Cubans.[75] Recent estimates already put the Salvadoran population as high as 2 million, as of 2013, the third largest Hispanic-American group.[76] 62.4% of Hispanic and Latino Americans identified as white.[9] 30.5% identified as "some other race" (other than the ones listed). According to the PEP 91.9% of Latinos are white, as these official estimates do not recognize "some other race".[5] In the official estimates, Black or African American Hispanics are the second-largest group, with 1.9 million, or 4.0% of the whole group. The remaining Hispanics are accounted as follows, first per the PEP: 1.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.5% two or more races, 0.7% Asian, and 0.03% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. Per the ACS: 3.9% two or more races, 1.9% Black or African American, 1.0% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.4% Asian, and 0.05% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.[9] In the United States the Hispanic and Latino population has reached 58 million in 2016. According to Pew Research Center the Latino population has been the principal driver of United States demographic growth since 2000. Mexicans make up most of the Hispanic and Latino population 35,758,000. There is also a growth of Hispanics who are receiving a college education in 2015, 40% of Hispanics age 25 and older have had a college experience. In 2000 the percentage was at at a low 30%. In all the 51 US states California houses the largest population percentage of Latinos. In 2015, 15.2 million Hispanics lived in California. [77] The Hispanic or Latino population is young and fast-growing, due to immigration and higher birth rates.[72] For decades it has contributed significantly to U.S. population increases, and this is expected to continue. The Census Bureau projects that by 2050, one-quarter of the population will be Hispanic or Latino.[78][79]

Ancestry[edit] The ancestry of the people of the United States is widely varied and includes descendants of populations from around the world. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of people of the United States is also marked by varying amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups. While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe, Africa, or Asia, these are often first- and second-generation Americans. Generally, the degree of mixed heritage increases the longer one's ancestors have lived in the United States (see melting pot). In theory, there are several means available to discover the ancestry of the people residing in the United States, including genealogy, genetics, oral and written history, and analysis of Federal Population Census schedules. In practice, only few of these have been used for a larger part of the population. The plurality (not majority) ethnic background in each county in the US in 2000: German English Norwegian Dutch Finnish Irish French Italian Mexican Native Spanish American African American Puerto Rican Plurality ancestry in each state, ranging from 11.8% (FL) to 43.9 % (ND).      German      American      Mexican      Irish      African      Italian      English      Japanese      Puerto Rican 2015 American Community Survey[edit] According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the twenty largest ancestry groups in the United States were (see above for the OMB self-designation options):[80][81] Rank Ancestry or race Population Percent of total population 1 German 46,403,053 14.7% 2 Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 38,785,726 12.3% 3 Mexican (of any race) 34,640,287 10.9% 4 Irish 33,526,444 10.6% 5 English 24,787,018 7.8% 6 American 22,746,991 7.2% 7 Italian 17,285,619 5.5% 8 Polish 9,385,766 3.0% 9 French 8,272,538 2.6% 10 Scottish 5,409,343 1.7% 11 Puerto Rican 5,174,554 1.6% 12 Norwegian 4,445,030 1.4% 13 Dutch 4,289,116 1.4% 14 Swedish 3,933,024 1.2% 14 Chinese 3,852,099 1.2% 16 Asian Indian 3,303,512 1.0% 17 Scotch-Irish 3,046,005 1.0% 18 Russian 2,843,400 0.9% 19 West Indian (non-Hispanic) 2,824,722 0.9% 20 Filipino 2,717,844 0.9% Ancestry maps[edit] Major ancestries[edit] These images display frequencies of self-reported ancestries, as of the 2000 U.S. Census. Regional African ancestries are not listed, though an African American map has been added from another source. Frequency of American ancestry Density of Asian Americans Percent of Asian Americans Density of African Americans Percent of African Americans Density of Native Hawaiian Americans Percent of Native Hawaiian Americans Density of Native Americans Percent of Native Americans Density of White Americans Percent of White Americans Black ancestry Arab ancestry Density of Hispanic ancestry Percent of Hispanic ancestry West Indian ancestry European American ancestries[edit] These images display frequencies of self-reported European American ancestries as of the 2000 U.S. Census. Czech ancestry Danish ancestry Dutch ancestry English ancestry Finnish ancestry French ancestry French Canadian ancestry German ancestry Greek ancestry Hungarian ancestry Icelandic ancestry Irish ancestry Italian ancestry Lithuanian ancestry Norwegian ancestry Polish ancestry Portuguese ancestry Romanian ancestry Russian ancestry Scots-Irish ancestry Scottish ancestry Slovak ancestry Swedish ancestry Ukrainian ancestry Welsh ancestry

See also[edit] Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States Race and ethnicity in the United States Census Racism in the United States Language Spoken at Home (U.S. Census)

Notes[edit] ^ Of the foreign-born population from Africa (1,607 thousand), in 2010, 46.1% were naturalized.[37]

References[edit] ^ "OUR DIVERSE POPULATION: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 24, 2008.  ^ a b c d "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ a b c d e f g h Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2008.  ^ a b c d e f "Detailed Tables – American FactFinder; T3-2008. Race - 7". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau I. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ a b c d e "Detailed Tables – American FactFinder; T4-2008. Hispanic or Latino By Race. 15". 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ St. Francis Coll. v. Al-Khazraji 481 U.S. 604 (1987), Shaare Tefila Congregation v. Cobb, 481 U.S. 615 (1987). ^ "Quick Facts – Race and Hispanic Origin". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 8, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ a b c d e "B03002. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION by region". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 1, 2010.  ^ a b Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ "Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2010". 2010 Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". 2010 Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2015.  ^ a b "Public Comments to NCT Federal Register Notice" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce. Retrieved April 19, 2016.  ^ "Persons reporting some other race, percent, 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ a b "Racial and Ethnic Classifications Used in Census 2000 and Beyond". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 27, 2001. Retrieved November 2, 2007.  ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: FAQs". Retrieved May 16, 2013.  ^ The American FactFinder Archived August 31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Introduction to Race and Ethnic (Hispanic Origin) Data for the Census 2000 Special EEO File Archived August 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Short Form Questionnaire" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ "CIA – The World Factbook -- Field Listing :: Ethnic groups". CIA. Retrieved April 2, 2010.  ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 6, 2007. Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic.  ^ Melvin Randolph Gilmore, "The True Logan Fontenelle", Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. 19, edited by Albert Watkins, Nebraska State Historical Society, 1919, p. 64, at GenNet, accessed August 25, 2011 ^ a b Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1995–2006 ^ Karen R. Humes, Nicholas A. Jones, and Roberto R. Ramirez, eds. (March 2011). "Definition of Race Categories Used in the 2010 Census" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. p. 3. Retrieved September 8, 2013. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "The White Population: 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. August 2001. Retrieved March 10, 2011.  ^ "Texas Becomes Nation's Newest "Majority-Minority" State, Census Bureau Announces". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera. ^ Farley, Reynolds (January 1, 1991). "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?". Demography. 28 (3): 411–29. doi:10.2307/2061465. JSTOR 2061465. PMID 1936376.  ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36. ^ Tafoya, Sonya (2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved January 22, 2008.  ^ a b "Race, Ethnicity, and Language data - Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement" (PDF). Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Retrieved May 10, 2016.  ^ a b Sonya Tastogi; Tallese D. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr. (September 2011). "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ McKinnon, Jesse. "The Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 22, 2007.  ^ United States – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2010. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Acosta, Yesenia D.; de la Cruz, G. Patricia; Gamino, Christina; Gryn, Thomas; Larsen, Luke J.; Trevelyan, Edward N.; Walters, Nathan P. (May 2012). "The Foreign Born Population in the United States: 2010" (PDF). American Community Survey Reports. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 27, 2015.  ^ a b "2010 Census Shows Black Population has Highest Concentration in the South". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. September 29, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".  ^ "The size and regional distribution of the black population". Lewis Mumford Center. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.  ^ ""African American" in the American Heritage Dictionary". Yahoo. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ "New World Exploration and English Ambition". The Terrible Transformation. PBS. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2011.  ^ Gomez, Michael A. (1998). Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South. University of North Carolina Press. p. 384. ISBN 9780807846940.  ^ Wood, Gordon S. (2002). The American revolution: a history. Modern Library. p. 55. ISBN 9780679640578.  ^ Liberty! The American Revolution (Documentary) Episode II:Blows Must Decide: 1774-1776. ©1997 Twin Cities Public Television, Inc. ISBN 1-4157-0217-9 ^ Foner, Philip Sheldon (1976). Blacks in the American Revolution. Volume 55 of Contributions in American history. Greenwood Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780837189468.  ^ "Black Loyalists". Black Presence. The National Archives. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ Nicholas Boston; Jennifer Hallam (2004). "Freedom & Emancipation". Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ "The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood". Office of the Clerk. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ Walter, Hazen (2004). American Black History. Lorenz Educational Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780787706036. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ "The Prize". We Shall Overcome. National Park Service. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ Kusow, AM. "African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action". Iowa State University. Retrieved May 10, 2016.  ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2007). Relations Between Africans and African Americans: Misconceptions, Myths and Realities. New Africa Press. p. 196. ISBN 0980253454. Retrieved May 10, 2016.  ^ "B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION regions and states". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 25, 2010.  ^ "Asian Americans". Pew Research Center's Social & Demographic Trends Project. June 18, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2016.  ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 8, 2008.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2008.  ^ a b Mark D. Shriver et al. (2003). "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112: 387–399. Retrieved 24 August 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Robert Stuckert, "African Ancestry Of The White American Population"" (PDF). Retrieved May 16, 2013.  ^ Collins-Schramm, Heather E. (2002). "Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa". Human Genetics. 111 (6): 566–69. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0818-z. PMID 12436248.  ^ Parra, Esteban J.; Marcini, Amy; Akey, Joshua; Martinson, Jeremy; Batzer, Mark A.; Cooper, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Allison, David B.; Deka, Ranjan; Ferrell, Robert E.; Shriver, Mark D. (1998). "Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population- Specific Alleles" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (6): 1839–1851. doi:10.1086/302148. PMC 1377655 . PMID 9837836.  ^ Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, "The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research" ^ "B02010. AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH ONE OR MORE OTHER RACES". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 11, 2010.  ^ "B02012. NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH ONE OR MORE OTHER RACES". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 11, 2010.  ^ "Arab American Institute – Texas" (PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2015.  ^ "Lobbying for a 'MENA' category on U.S. Census" Wiltz, Teresea. USA Today. Published October 7, 2014. Accessed December 14, 2015. ^ Cohen, Debra Nussbaum. "New U.S. Census Category to Include Israeli' Option". Haaretz. Retrieved December 16, 2015.  ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 33–34. Retrieved December 13, 2015. The Census Bureau is undertaking related mid-decade research for coding and classifying detailed national origins and ethnic groups, and our consultations with external experts on the Asian community have also suggested Sikh receive a unique code classified under Asian. The Census Bureau does not currently tabulate on religious responses to the race or ethnic questions (e.g., Sikh, Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Lutheran, etc.).  ^ "2015 National Content Test" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 60. Retrieved December 13, 2015.  ^ "CIA – The World Factbook -- United States". CIA. Retrieved May 8, 2008.  ^ a b "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (Hispanic or Latino (of any race))". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 8, 2010.  ^ "American FactFinder Help; Hispanic or Latino origin". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 13, 2017.  ^ "C03001. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 8, 2010.  ^ US Census Bureau 2011 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved October 28, 2012 ^ Elizabeth Llorente. "Salvadorans Overtaking Cubans As Third-Largest Hispanic Group In The U.S". Fox News Latino.  ^  Missing or empty |title= (help) ^ "UNITED STATES POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN: 2000 TO 2050" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ "US Census Press Releases". United States Census Bureau. March 18, 2004. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES - 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau.  ^ "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES - 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau.  American Factfinder; keyword search for "Ancestry", all programs; United States Census Bureau

External links[edit] For additional county-level U.S. maps on a wide range of ethnic and nationality groups, visit the Map Gallery of Ethnic Groups in the United States, part of the course materials for American Ethnic Geography at Valparaiso University. v t e Demographics of the United States Demographic history By economic and social Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth By religion Baha'is Buddhists Christians Catholics Coptics Protestants Hindus Jains Jews Muslims Ahmadiyyas Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians By continent and ethnicity Africa African diaspora in the Americas Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans Black Hispanic and Latino Americans African immigrants to the United States Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States Asia Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans East Asia Chinese Americans Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans South Asia Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans Southeast Asia Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans West Asia Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans Europe White Americans English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans Oceania Pacific Islands Americans Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans Euro Oceanic Americans Australian Americans New Zealand Americans North America Native Americans and Alaska Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside) South America Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans Multiethnic Melungeon People of the United States / Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism v t e Ethnicity Related concepts Clan Ethnic group Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe Ethnology Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy Groups by region Africa Arab League Americas Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America Asia Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia Australia Indigenous Europe Oceania Indigenous European Identity and ethnogenesis Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat Multiethnic society Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state Ideology and ethnic conflict Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia Retrieved from "" Categories: Demographics of the United StatesEthnic groups in the United StatesRace in the United StatesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: Uses editors parameterCS1 maint: Uses authors parameterCS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.Pages with citations lacking titlesPages with citations having bare URLsArticles containing potentially dated statements from July 2016All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll pages needing factual verificationWikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2014All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2016Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014Articles to be expanded from June 2016All articles to be expandedUse mdy dates from August 2017

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages Españolفارسیעברית日本語PortuguêsРусскийSimple EnglishTürkçe中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 17 January 2018, at 19:59. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.872","walltime":"1.027","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6133,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":241642,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":11867,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":10,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 816.819 1 -total"," 48.87% 399.180 2 Template:Reflist"," 29.31% 239.420 58 Template:Cite_web"," 14.93% 121.914 11 Template:Fix"," 11.73% 95.817 10 Template:Citation_needed"," 7.35% 60.003 21 Template:Category_handler"," 6.65% 54.300 11 Template:Delink"," 5.38% 43.972 1 Template:Verify_source"," 3.17% 25.865 1 Template:ISBN"," 3.00% 24.543 1 Template:Culture_of_the_United_States"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.376","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":5951036,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1312","timestamp":"20180117195942","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":82,"wgHostname":"mw1332"});});

Race_and_ethnicity_in_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Race_and_ethnicity_in_the_United_States More Links

Category:United StatesCulture Of The United StatesHistory Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmericansReligion In The United StatesArchitecture Of The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureAmerican Comic BookAmerican PoetryMusic Of The United StatesSculpture Of The United StatesTheater Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesPublic Holidays In The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesMedia Of The United StatesNewspapers In The United StatesRadio In The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMythologies Of The Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasSports In The United StatesNational Symbols Of The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesGreat Seal Of The United StatesNational Monument (United States)In God We TrustThe Star-Spangled BannerBald EagleList Of World Heritage Sites In The United StatesPortal:United StatesTemplate:Culture Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:Culture Of The United StatesUnited StatesRace (human Categorization)Ethnic GroupMultiethnic SocietyUnited States CensusRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusWhite AmericanAfrican AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic And Latino AmericansRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusNon-Hispanic WhitesHawaiiMidwestern United StatesPopulation Estimates ProgramAmerican Community SurveyWikipedia:VerifiabilitySouthern United StatesWestern United StatesAsian AmericanNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativesNative HawaiiansPacific Islander AmericanMultiracial AmericanRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusDemographics Of The United StatesWhite AmericansAfrican AmericansAsian AmericansNative Americans In The United StatesPacific Islands AmericansMultiracial AmericanHispanic And Latino AmericansWhite AmericansEuropean AmericansMiddle Eastern AmericanEuropeMiddle EastNorth AfricaAfrican AmericansSub-Saharan AfricaIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasAlaska NativeNorth AmericaCentral AmericaSouth AmericaAsian AmericanFar EastCentral AsiaNorth AsiaSoutheast AsiaIndian SubcontinentNative HawaiiansPacific Islander AmericanPolynesiaMelanesiaMicronesiaMiddle Eastern AmericansMiddle EastNorth AfricaArab WorldRomani People In The United StatesAboriginal AustralianHispanicMestizoMétisLouisiana Creole PeopleMulattoNationalitiesEthnicitiesSouth AfricaBelizePuerto RicoWesortMelungeonMultiracial AmericanMultiracialEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionUS Department Of LaborRace And Ethnicity In Latin AmericaEthnic Groups In Latin AmericaAndorraLatin AmericaSpainPortugalWhite Hispanic And Latino AmericansBlack Hispanic And Latino AmericansAsian Hispanic And Latino AmericansAfrican AmericanDefinitions Of Whiteness In The United StatesBlood QuantumOne-drop RuleAnthropologistWhite PrivilegeRacismWhite SupremacyCommodityRailroadsManifest DestinyHalf-breedSharecropperJim Crow LawsGreat Migration (African American)C. Vann WoodwardGeorge M. FredricksonStetson KennedyHypodescentOmaha PeoplePatrilinealKinshipPartus Sequitur VentremMulattoThomas JeffersonSally HemingsOne-drop RuleWikipedia:Citation NeededAmericasHispanicEthnonymSpanish-speaking CountriesAngloHispanicWhite AmericanEuropean AmericanEnglish PeopleUnited StatesMulticulturalismImmigrationBirth RatesUnited States Census, 2000Native Americans In The United StatesImmigrantsNew WorldOld WorldMiscegenationIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasLouisiana CreolesUnited StatesReconstruction Era Of The United StatesAbolitionism In The United StatesSlavesWhite SupremacyOne-drop TheoryJim CrowDemocratic Party (United States)MulattoOctaroonCensusesLatinosDemographics Of The United StatesPrehistoric Migration And Settlement Of The Americas From AsiaIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasAlaska NativesPolynesian PeopleNative HawaiiansSamoansChamorro PeopleGuamNorthern Mariana IslandsPuerto RicoTaíno PeopleUnited States Virgin IslandsCiboneyIsland CaribsArawaksNew FranceExpulsion Of The AcadiansLouisianaNew EnglandNew York StateThirteen ColoniesSpanish Colonization Of The AmericasUnited States Virgin IslandsAtlantic Slave TradeUnited Empire LoyalistAmerican RevolutionIndian RemovalHistory Of Immigration To The United StatesHistory Of Laws Concerning Immigration And Naturalization In The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesTransatlantic MigrationsWestward Expansion Of The United StatesRoyal Proclamation Of 1763Confederation Congress Proclamation Of 1783Nonintercourse ActTreaty Of Paris (1783)Homestead ActLouisiana PurchaseUtahCalifornia Gold RushOregon TrailKlondike Gold RushUnderground RailroadAmerican Civil WarGreat Migration (African American)Second Great Migration (African American)American Industrial RevolutionRailroadStreetcar SuburbsDust BowlWorld War IIRust BeltWhite FlightBlack FlightNative HawaiianSun BeltJet AgeSnowbird (people)Ethnic EnclaveWhite AmericansUnited States Census BureauMENANon-Hispanic WhitesWhite Hispanic And Latino AmericansWhite MexicansMexican AmericansWhite CubansCuban AmericansNew MexicoTexasWhite HispanicsWikipedia:Citation NeededGerman AmericanIrish AmericanImmigration To The United StatesGreat Famine (Ireland)German Revolutions Of 1848–49English-AmericansBritish-AmericansAmerican EthnicityUnited States Census BureauFrench AmericanNew FranceHuguenotIsleños In LouisianaHispanosSouthwestern United StatesMexican AmericanPuerto Ricans In The United StatesCuban AmericanAfrican AmericansBlack Hispanic And Latino AmericansSub-Saharan AfricaOffice Of Management And BudgetCaribbeanCape VerdeMadagascarAfroasiatic LanguagesEast AfricaSahelAfrikanersSouthern AfricaAfrican AmericansNegroBlack People2010 United States CensusMultiracial AmericansSouthern United StatesNortheast United StatesMidwest United StatesWest AfricaSlavery In The United StatesJamestown, VirginiaIndentured ServantCaribbeanThirteen ColoniesAmerican Revolutionary WarContinental ArmyContinental NavyBlack LoyalistBritish EmpireEthiopian RegimentNorthern United StatesMason–Dixon LineAbolitionism In The United StatesSouthern United StatesAmerican Civil WarThirteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionReconstruction Era Of The United StatesList Of African-American Officeholders During The ReconstructionUnited States CongressSuffrageJim Crow LawsCivil Rights Act Of 1964Voting Rights Act Of 1965Civil Rights MovementAfrican Immigration To The United StatesAsian AmericansAsian AmericanCaliforniaHawaiiNew York CityChicagoBostonHoustonAsian Immigration To The United StatesChinese AmericanJapanese AmericanKorean AmericansPhilippinesHistory Of The Philippines (1898–1946)Chinese AmericansFilipino AmericansIndian AmericansVietnamese AmericansKorean AmericansJapanese AmericansDemographics Of Asian AmericansMultiracial AmericanMultiracialMiscegenationInterracial MarriageCultural AssimilationRacial IntegrationWikipedia:Citation NeededCivil Rights MovementCalifornia State University, NorthridgeAfrican AmericansEuropean AmericansState College, PennsylvaniaStandard ErrorNational Human Genome Research InstituteNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativesIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasNative Americans In The United StatesNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativeFederally Recognized TribesState Recognized TribesLineal DescentDawes RollsGeneticsWikipedia:Citation NeededCherokee DescentOklahomaNorth CarolinaWikipedia:Citation NeededNavajo PeopleIndian ReservationArizonaNew MexicoUtahNavajo NationWikipedia:Citation NeededLakota PeopleSiouxMinnesotaNebraskaMontanaWyomingNorth DakotaSouth DakotaWikipedia:Citation NeededNative HawaiiansPacific Islands AmericansNative HawaiiansPacific Islands AmericansHawaiiWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededReparation (legal)Hawaiian LanguageMiddle Eastern AmericansArab AmericansNorth Africans In The United StatesArab American InstituteArab AmericansAlgeriaBahrainComorosDjiboutiEgyptIraqJordanKuwaitLebanonLibyaMauritaniaMoroccoOmanQatarState Of PalestineSaudi ArabiaSomaliaSudanSyriaTunisiaUnited Arab EmiratesYemenMiddle EastNorth AfricaArab WorldJewsSikhTurkish AmericanSudanese AmericanSomali AmericanMauritanian AmericanArmenian AmericansCypriot AmericansAfghan AmericansAzerbaijani AmericansGeorgian AmericansMestizoMulattoCenters For Disease ControlVital Statistics (government Records)FBIThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyHispanic And Latino AmericansHispanic And Latino AmericansWhite Hispanic And Latino AmericansMestizoMulattoBlack Hispanic And Latino AmericansNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativesAsian Hispanic And Latino AmericansNative HawaiiansPacific Islander AmericanHispanic And Latino AmericansUnited StatesPopulationWorldInterracial MarriageEthnic GroupRace (human Classification)EuropeAfricaAsiaMelting PotGenealogyGeneticsOral HistoryHistoryUnited States CensusEnlargeMajorityCounty (United States)German AmericanEnglish AmericanNorwegian AmericanDutch AmericanFinnish AmericanIrish AmericanFrench AmericanItalian AmericanMexican AmericanNative Americans In The United StatesSpanish AmericanAmerican EthnicityAfrican AmericanPuerto Rican AmericanEnlargeU.S. StateGerman AmericanAmerican EthnicityMexican AmericanIrish AmericanAfrican AmericanItalian AmericanEnglish AmericanJapanese AmericanPuerto Ricans In The United StatesAmerican Community SurveyGerman AmericanAfrican AmericanMexican AmericanIrish AmericanEnglish AmericanAmerican AncestryItalian AmericanPolish AmericanFrench AmericanScottish AmericanPuerto RicansNorwegian AmericanDutch AmericanSwedish AmericanChinese AmericanIndian AmericanScotch-Irish AmericanRussian AmericanWest Indian AmericanFilipino AmericanUnited States Census, 2000American EthnicityAsian AmericanAsian AmericanAfrican AmericanAfrican AmericanNative HawaiianNative HawaiianNative Americans In The United StatesNative Americans In The United StatesWhite AmericanWhite AmericanArab AmericansHispanic And Latino AmericansHispanic And Latino AmericansWest IndianEuropean AmericanUnited States Census, 2000Czech AmericanDanish AmericanDutch AmericanEnglish AmericanFinnish AmericanFrench AmericanFrench CanadianGerman AmericanGreek AmericanHungarian AmericanIcelandic AmericanIrish AmericanItalian AmericanLithuanian AmericanNorwegian AmericanPolish AmericanPortuguese AmericanRomanian AmericanRussian AmericanScots-Irish AmericanScottish AmericanSlovak AmericanSwedish AmericanUkrainian AmericanWelsh AmericanHistorical Racial And Ethnic Demographics Of The United StatesRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusRacism In The United StatesLanguage Spoken At Home (U.S. Census)AfricaUnited States Census BureauOffice Of Management And BudgetUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauWayback MachineWayback MachineUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterUnited States Census BureauDigital Object IdentifierJSTORPubMed IdentifierPew Research CenterUnited States Census BureauInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780807846940International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780679640578Liberty!International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4157-0217-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780837189468International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780787706036International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0980253454United States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauMark D. ShriverCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:CS1 Maint: Explicit Use Of Et Al.Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierMark D. ShriverDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierNational Human Genome Research InstituteUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauCentral Intelligence AgencyHelp:CS1 ErrorsUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauUnited States Census BureauValparaiso UniversityTemplate:Demographics Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:Demographics Of The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesEducational Attainment In The United StatesEmigration From The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesLanguage Spoken At Home In The United States Of AmericaLGBT Demographics Of The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesList Of U.S. States And Territories By Unemployment RateWealth In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesBahá'í Faith In The United StatesBuddhism In The United StatesChristianity In The United StatesCatholic Church In The United StatesCoptic AmericansProtestantism In The United StatesHinduism In The United StatesJainism In The United StatesAmerican JewsIslam In The United StatesAhmadiyya In The United StatesNeopaganism In The United StatesIrreligion In The United StatesRastafari Movement In The United StatesScientology In The United StatesSikhism In The United StatesZoroastrianism In The United StatesAfrican AmericansAfrican Diaspora In The AmericasWest Indian AmericansBahamian AmericansBelizean AmericansGuyanese AmericansHaitian AmericansJamaican AmericansTrinidadian And Tobagonian AmericansBlack Hispanic And Latino AmericansAfrican Immigration To The United StatesCentral Africans In The United StatesHorn Africans In The United StatesNorth Africans In The United StatesSoutheast Africans In The United StatesSouthern Africans In The United StatesWest Africans In The United StatesAsian AmericansAsian Hispanic And Latino AmericansChinese AmericansHong Kong AmericansTibetan AmericansJapanese AmericansKorean AmericansMongolian AmericansTaiwanese AmericansBangladeshi AmericansBhutanese AmericansIndian AmericansNepalese AmericansPakistani AmericansRomani AmericansSri Lankan AmericansBurmese AmericansCambodian AmericansFilipino AmericansHmong AmericansIndonesian AmericansLaotian AmericansMalaysian AmericansSingaporean AmericansThai AmericansVietnamese AmericansMiddle Eastern AmericansArab AmericansAssyrian AmericansIranian AmericansIsraeli AmericansAmerican JewsEuropean AmericansWhite AmericansEnglish AmericansFrench AmericansGerman AmericansIrish AmericansItalian AmericansScandinavian AmericansSlavic AmericansSpanish AmericansNon-Hispanic WhitesWhite Hispanic And Latino AmericansOceanian AmericansPacific Islands AmericansChamorro PeopleNative HawaiiansSamoan AmericansTongan AmericansEuro Oceanic AmericansAustralian AmericansNew Zealand AmericansNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativesCanadian AmericansCuban AmericansMexican AmericansPuerto Ricans In The United StatesHispanic And Latino AmericansBrazilian AmericansColombian AmericansEcuadorian AmericansMultiracial AmericansMelungeonAmericansAmerican AncestryMaps Of American Ancestries2010 United States CensusRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusRace And Ethnicity (EEO)Racism In The United StatesTemplate:EthnicityTemplate Talk:EthnicityEthnic GroupClanEthnic GroupEthnolinguistic GroupEthnoreligious GroupIndigenous PeoplesIngroups And OutgroupsMeta-ethnicityMetroethnicityMinority GroupMonoethnicityNationNationalityPanethnicityPolyethnicityPopulationRace (human Categorization)Symbolic EthnicityTribeEthnologyAnthropologyEthnic StudiesEthnoarchaeologyEthnobiologyEthnobotanyEthnozoologyEthnoecologyEthnocinemaEthnogeologyEthnographyAutoethnographyClinical EthnographyCritical EthnographyCyber-ethnographyNetnographyOnline EthnographyPerson-centered EthnographySalvage EthnographyTransidioethnographyVideo EthnographyEthnohistoryEthnolinguisticsEthnologyEthnomathematicsEthnomethodologyEthnomuseologyEthnomusicologyEthnophilosophyEthnopoeticsEthnoscienceEthnosemioticsEthnotaxonomyList Of Contemporary Ethnic GroupsEthnic Groups In AfricaDemographics Of The Arab LeagueIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasEthnic Origins Of People In CanadaDemographics Of MexicoEthnic Groups In Central AmericaEthnic Groups In South AmericaEthnic Groups In AsiaEthnic Groups Of Central AsiaEthnic Groups Of East AsiaIndigenous Peoples Of SiberiaSouth Asian Ethnic GroupsEthnic Groups Of Southeast AsiaEthnic Groups In West AsiaEthnic Groups In AustraliaIndigenous Peoples Of AustraliaEthnic Groups In EuropeIndigenous Peoples Of OceaniaEuropeans In OceaniaIdentity (social Science)EthnogenesisCross-race EffectCultural AssimilationCultural IdentityDemonymEthnic Identity DevelopmentExonym And EndonymEthnic FlagEthnic OptionEthnic OriginEthnic ReligionRace And Ethnicity In CensusesEthnofictionEthnonymFolk ReligionHistorical Race ConceptsImagined CommunityKinshipLegendary ProgenitorLineage-bonded SocietyMoresNation-buildingNation StateNational LanguageNational MythOrigin MythPantribal SodalityTribal NameTribalismUrheimatMultinational StateConsociationalismDiaspora PoliticsDominant MinorityEthnic DemocracyEthnic EnclaveEthnic Interest GroupEthnic MajorityEthnic MediaEthnic PornographyEthnic Theme ParkEthnoburbEthnocracyIndigenous RightsMiddleman MinorityMinority RightsModel MinorityMultinational StateEthnic ConflictEthnic BioweaponEthnic CleansingEthnic HatredEthnic JokeEthnic NationalismEthnic NepotismEthnic PenaltyList Of Ethnic SlursEthnic StereotypeEthnic ViolenceEthnocentrismEthnocideEthnosymbolismIndigenismLists Of Active Separatist MovementsXenophobiaHelp:CategoryCategory:Demographics Of The United StatesCategory:Ethnic Groups In The United StatesCategory:Race In The United StatesCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:CS1 Maint: Explicit Use Of Et Al.Category:Pages With Citations Lacking TitlesCategory:Pages With Citations Having Bare URLsCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From July 2016Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:All Pages Needing Factual VerificationCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Factual Verification From May 2014Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From July 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From April 2010Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From June 2013Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From August 2012Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From January 2014Category:Articles To Be Expanded From June 2016Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Use Mdy Dates From August 2017Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link