Contents 1 First productions 2 Plot 2.1 Act One 2.2 Act Two 2.3 Act Three 2.4 Act Four 2.5 Act Five 3 Critical reception 4 Ending 5 Different versions 6 Influence 7 Notable productions 8 Adaptations 9 In popular culture 10 References 11 External links

First productions[edit] A Sketch Magazine illustration of Mrs. Patrick Campbell As Eliza Doolittle from 22 April 1914. Shaw wrote the part of Eliza expressly for Campbell who played opposite Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Henry Higgins. After creating the role of Col. Pickering in the London production, Philip Merivale (second from right) played Henry Higgins opposite Mrs. Patrick Campbell (right) when Pygmalion was taken to Broadway (1914) Shaw wrote the play in early 1912 and read it to famed actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell in June. She came on board almost immediately, but her mild nervous breakdown contributed to the delay of a London production. Pygmalion premiered at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna on 16 October 1913, in a German translation by Shaw's Viennese literary agent and acolyte, Siegfried Trebitsch.[2][3] Its first New York production opened on 24 March 1914 at the German-language Irving Place Theatre.[4] It opened in London on 11 April 1914, at Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree's His Majesty's Theatre and starred Mrs. Campbell as Eliza and Tree as Higgins, running for 118 performances.[5] Shaw directed the actors through tempestuous rehearsals often punctuated by at least one of the two storming out of the theatre in a rage.[6]

Plot[edit] Professor Henry Higgins is so sure of his abilities that he takes it upon himself to transform a Cockney working-class girl into someone who can pass for a cultured member of high society. His subject turns out to be the lovely Eliza Doolittle, who agrees to speech lessons to improve her job prospects. Higgins and Eliza clash, then form an unlikely bond—one that is threatened by an aristocratic suitor. Act One[edit] 'Portico of Saint Paul's Church (not Wren's Cathedral but Inigo Jones Church in Covent Garden vegetable market)' – 11.15 p.m. A group of people are sheltering from the rain. Among them are the Eynsford-Hills, superficial social climbers eking out a living in "genteel poverty", consisting initially of Mrs. Eynsford-Hill and her daughter Clara. Clara's brother Freddy enters having earlier been dispatched to secure them a cab (which they can ill-afford), but being rather timid and faint-hearted he has failed to do so. As he goes off once again to find a cab, he bumps into a flower girl, Eliza. Her flowers drop into the mud of Covent Garden, the flowers she needs to survive in her poverty-stricken world. Shortly they are joined by a gentleman, Colonel Pickering. While Eliza tries to sell flowers to the Colonel, a bystander informs her that a man is writing down everything she says. The man is Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics. Eliza worries that Higgins is a police officer and will not calm down until Higgins introduces himself. It soon becomes apparent that he and Colonel Pickering have a shared interest in phonetics; indeed, Pickering has come from India to meet Higgins, and Higgins was planning to go to India to meet Pickering. Higgins tells Pickering that he could pass off the flower girl as a duchess merely by teaching her to speak properly. These words of bravado spark an interest in Eliza, who would love to make changes in her life and become more mannerly, even though, to her, it only means working in a flower shop. At the end of the act, Freddy returns after finding a taxi, only to find that his mother and sister have gone and left him with the cab. The streetwise Eliza takes the cab from him, using the money that Higgins tossed to her, leaving him on his own. Act Two[edit] Lynn Fontanne (Eliza) and Henry Travers (Alfred Doolittle) in the Theatre Guild production of Pygmalion (1926) Higgins' – Next Day. As Higgins demonstrates his phonetics to Pickering, the housekeeper, Mrs. Pearce, tells him that a young girl wants to see him. Eliza has shown up because she wishes to talk like a lady in a flower shop. She tells Higgins that she will pay for lessons. He shows no interest, but she reminds him of his boast the previous day. Higgins claimed that he could pass her for a duchess. Pickering makes a bet with him on his claim, and says that he will pay for her lessons if Higgins succeeds. She is sent off to have a bath. Mrs. Pearce tells Higgins that he must behave himself in the young girl's presence. He must stop swearing, and improve his table manners. He is at a loss to understand why she should find fault with him. Alfred Doolittle, Eliza's father, appears with the sole purpose of getting money out of Higgins. He has no paternal interest in his daughter's welfare. He sees himself as a member of the undeserving poor, and means to go on being undeserving. With his intelligent mind untamed by education, he has an eccentric view of life. He is also aggressive, and when Eliza, on her return, sticks her tongue out at him, he goes to hit her, but is prevented by Pickering. The scene ends with Higgins telling Pickering that they really have got a difficult job on their hands. Act Three[edit] Mrs. Higgins' drawing room. Higgins bursts in and tells his mother he has picked up a "common flower girl" whom he has been teaching. Mrs. Higgins is not very impressed with her son's attempts to win her approval because it is her 'at home' day and she is entertaining visitors. The visitors are the Eynsford-Hills. Higgins is rude to them on their arrival. Eliza enters and soon falls into talking about the weather and her family. Whilst she is now able to speak in beautifully modulated tones, the substance of what she says remains unchanged from the gutter. She confides her suspicions that her aunt was killed by relatives, and mentions that gin had been "mother's milk" to this aunt, and that Eliza's own father was always more cheerful after a goodly amount of gin. Higgins passes off her remarks as "the new small talk", and Freddy is enraptured. When she is leaving, he asks her if she is going to walk across the park, to which she replies, "Walk? Not bloody likely!" (This is the most famous line from the play, and, for many years after the play's debut, use of the word 'bloody' was known as a pygmalion; Mrs. Campbell was considered to have risked her career by speaking the line on stage[7]) After she and the Eynsford-Hills leave, Henry asks for his mother's opinion. She says the girl is not presentable and is very concerned about what will happen to her, but neither Higgins nor Pickering understand her thoughts of Eliza's future, and leave feeling confident and excited about how Eliza will get on. This leaves Mrs. Higgins feeling exasperated, and exclaiming, "Men! Men!! Men!!!" Act Four[edit] Higgins' home – The time is midnight, and Higgins, Pickering, and Eliza have returned from the ball. A tired Eliza sits unnoticed, brooding and silent, while Pickering congratulates Higgins on winning the bet. Higgins scoffs and declares the evening a "silly tomfoolery", thanking God it's over and saying that he had been sick of the whole thing for the last two months. Still barely acknowledging Eliza beyond asking her to leave a note for Mrs. Pearce regarding coffee, the two retire to bed. Higgins returns to the room, looking for his slippers, and Eliza throws them at him. Higgins is taken aback, and is at first completely unable to understand Eliza's preoccupation, which aside from being ignored after her triumph is the question of what she is to do now. When Higgins does understand he makes light of it, saying she could get married, but Eliza interprets this as selling herself like a prostitute. "We were above that at the corner of Tottenham Court Road." Finally she returns her jewellery to Higgins, including the ring he had given her, which he throws into the fireplace with a violence that scares Eliza. Furious with himself for losing his temper, he damns Mrs. Pearce, the coffee and then Eliza, and finally himself, for "lavishing" his knowledge and his "regard and intimacy" on a "heartless guttersnipe", and retires in great dudgeon. Eliza roots around in the fireplace and retrieves the ring. Act Five[edit] Mrs. Higgins' drawing room, the next morning. Higgins and Pickering, perturbed by the discovery that Eliza has walked out on them, call on Mrs. Higgins to phone the police. Higgins is particularly distracted, since Eliza had assumed the responsibility of maintaining his diary and keeping track of his possessions, which causes Mrs. Higgins to decry their calling the police as though Eliza were "a lost umbrella". Doolittle is announced; he emerges dressed in splendid wedding attire and is furious with Higgins, who after their previous encounter had been so taken with Doolittle's unorthodox ethics that he had recommended him as the "most original moralist in England" to a rich American founding Moral Reform Societies; the American had subsequently left Doolittle a pension worth three thousand pounds a year, as a consequence of which Doolittle feels intimidated into joining the middle class and marrying his missus. Mrs. Higgins observes that this at least settles the problem of who shall provide for Eliza, to which Higgins objects – after all, he paid Doolittle five pounds for her. Mrs. Higgins informs her son that Eliza is upstairs, and explains the circumstances of her arrival, alluding to how marginalised and overlooked Eliza felt the previous night. Higgins is unable to appreciate this, and sulks when told that he must behave if Eliza is to join them. Doolittle is asked to wait outside. Eliza enters, at ease and self-possessed. Higgins blusters but Eliza isn't shaken and speaks exclusively to Pickering. Throwing Higgins' previous insults back at him ("Oh, I'm only a squashed cabbage leaf"), Eliza remarks that it was only by Pickering's example that she learned to be a lady, which renders Higgins speechless. Eliza goes on to say that she has completely left behind the flower girl she was, and that she couldn't utter any of her old sounds if she tried – at which point Doolittle emerges from the balcony, causing Eliza to relapse totally into her gutter speech. Higgins is jubilant, jumping up and crowing over her. Doolittle explains his situation and asks if Eliza will come with him to his wedding. Pickering and Mrs. Higgins also agree to go, and leave with Doolittle and Eliza to follow. The scene ends with another confrontation between Higgins and Eliza. Higgins asks if Eliza is satisfied with the revenge she has brought thus far and if she will now come back, but she refuses. Higgins defends himself from Eliza's earlier accusation by arguing that he treats everyone the same, so she shouldn't feel singled out. Eliza replies that she just wants a little kindness, and that since he will never stop to show her this, she will not come back, but will marry Freddy. Higgins scolds her for such low ambitions: he has made her "a consort for a king." When she threatens to teach phonetics and offer herself as an assistant to Nepommuck, Higgins again loses his temper and promises to wring her neck if she does so. Eliza realises that this last threat strikes Higgins at the very core and that it gives her power over him; Higgins, for his part, is delighted to see a spark of fight in Eliza rather than her erstwhile fretting and worrying. He remarks "I like you like this", and calls her a "pillar of strength". Mrs. Higgins returns and she and Eliza depart for the wedding. As they leave, Higgins incorrigibly gives Eliza a number of errands to run, as though their recent conversation had not taken place. Eliza disdainfully explains why they are unnecessary and wonders what Higgins is going to do without her (in another version, Eliza disdainfully tells him to do the errands himself; Mrs. Higgins says that she'll get the items, but Higgins cheerfully tells her that Eliza will do it after all). Higgins laughs to himself at the idea of Eliza marrying Freddy as the play ends.

Critical reception[edit] The play was well received by critics in major cities following its premieres in Vienna, London, and New York. The initial release in Vienna garnered several reviews describing the show as a positive departure from Shaw's usual dry and didactic style.[8] The Broadway premiere in New York was praised in terms of both plot and acting, described as "a love story with brusque diffidence and a wealth of humor."[9] Reviews of the production in London were slightly less unequivocally positive, with the Telegraph noting that the play was deeply diverting with interesting mechanical staging, although the critic ultimately found the production somewhat shallow and overly lengthy.[10] The London Times, however, praised both the characters and actors (especially Sir Herbert Tree as Higgins and Mrs. Patrick Campbell as Eliza) and the happy if "unconventional" ending.[11]

Ending[edit] Pygmalion was the most broadly appealing of all Shaw's plays. But popular audiences, looking for pleasant entertainment with big stars in a West End venue, wanted a "happy ending" for the characters they liked so well, as did some critics.[12] During the 1914 run, to Shaw's exasperation but not to his surprise, Tree sought to sweeten Shaw's ending to please himself and his record houses.[13] Shaw returned for the 100th performance and watched Higgins, standing at the window, toss a bouquet down to Eliza. "My ending makes money; you ought to be grateful," protested Tree, to which Shaw replied, "Your ending is damnable; you ought to be shot."[14][15] Shaw remained sufficiently irritated to add a postscript essay, "'What Happened Afterwards,"[16] to the 1916 print edition for inclusion with subsequent editions, in which he explained precisely why it was impossible for the story to end with Higgins and Eliza getting married. He continued to protect what he saw as the play's, and Eliza's, integrity by protecting the last scene. For at least some performances during the 1920 revival, Shaw adjusted the ending in a way that underscored the Shavian message. In an undated note to Mrs. Campbell he wrote, When Eliza emancipates herself – when Galatea comes to life – she must not relapse. She must retain her pride and triumph to the end. When Higgins takes your arm on 'consort battleship' you must instantly throw him off with implacable pride; and this is the note until the final 'Buy them yourself.' He will go out on the balcony to watch your departure; come back triumphantly into the room; exclaim 'Galatea!' (meaning that the statue has come to life at last); and – curtain. Thus he gets the last word; and you get it too.[17] (This ending, however, is not included in any print version of the play.) Shaw fought against a Higgins-Eliza happy-end pairing as late as 1938. He sent the 1938 film version's producer, Gabriel Pascal, a concluding sequence which he felt offered a fair compromise: a tender farewell scene between Higgins and Eliza, followed by one showing Freddy and Eliza happy in their greengrocery-flower shop. Only at the sneak preview did he learn that Pascal had finessed the question of Eliza's future with a slightly ambiguous final scene in which Eliza returns to the house of a sadly musing Higgins and self-mockingly quotes her previous self announcing, "I washed my face and hands before I come, I did".

Different versions[edit] First American (serialized) publication, Everybody's Magazine, November 1914 Different printed versions of the play omit or add certain lines. The Project Gutenberg version published online, for instance, omits Higgins' famous declaration to Eliza, "Yes, you squashed cabbage-leaf, you disgrace to the noble architecture of these columns, you incarnate insult to the English language! I could pass you off as the Queen of Sheba!" – a line so famous that it is now retained in nearly all productions of the play, including the 1938 film version of Pygmalion as well as in the stage and film versions of My Fair Lady.[18] The co-director of the 1938 film, Anthony Asquith, had seen Mrs. Campbell in the 1920 revival of Pygmalion and noticed that she spoke the line, "It's my belief as how they done the old woman in." He knew "as how" was not in Shaw's text, but he felt it added color and rhythm to Eliza's speech, and liked to think that Mrs. Campbell had ad libbed it herself. Eighteen years later he added it to Wendy Hiller's line in the film.[6] In the original play Eliza's test is met at an ambassador's garden party, offstage. For the 1938 film Shaw and co-writers replaced that exposition with a scene at an embassy ball; Nepomuck, the blackmailing translator spoken about in the play, is finally seen, but his name is updated to Aristid Karpathy – named so by Gabriel Pascal, the film's Hungarian producer, who also made sure that Karpathy mistakes Eliza for a Hungarian princess. In My Fair Lady he became Zoltan Karpathy. (The change of name was likely to avoid offending the sensibilities of Roman Catholics, as St. John Nepomuk was, ironically, a Catholic martyr who refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional.) The 1938 film also introduced the famous pronunciation exercises "the rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain" and "In Hertford, Hereford, and Hampshire, hurricanes hardly ever happen".[19] Neither of these appear in the original play. Shaw's screen version of the play as well as a new print version incorporating the new sequences he had added for the film script were published in 1941. The scenes he had noted in "Note for Technicians" are added.

Influence[edit] Pygmalion remains Shaw's most popular play. The play's widest audiences know it as the inspiration for the highly romanticized 1956 musical and 1964 film My Fair Lady. Pygmalion has transcended cultural and language barriers since its first production. The British Museum contains "images of the Polish production...; a series of shots of a wonderfully Gallicised Higgins and Eliza in the first French production in Paris in 1923; a fascinating set for a Russian production of the 1930s. There was no country which didn't have its own 'take' on the subjects of class division and social mobility, and it's as enjoyable to view these subtle differences in settings and costumes as it is to imagine translators wracking their brains for their own equivalent of 'Not bloody likely'."[20] Joseph Weizenbaum named his artificial intelligence computer program ELIZA after the character Eliza Doolittle.[21]

Notable productions[edit] Lynn Fontanne as Eliza Doolittle in the Theatre Guild production of Pygmalion (1926) 1926: Lynn Fontanne at the Guild Theatre 1945: Raymond Massey and Gertrude Lawrence at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre 1974: Diana Rigg at the Albery Theatre 1984: Peter O'Toole and Jackie Smith-Wood at the Shaftesbury Theatre 1997: Roy Marsden, Carli Norris (who replaced Emily Lloyd early in rehearsals) and Michael Elphick, directed by Ray Cooney at the Albery Theatre[22] 2007: Tim Pigott-Smith and Michelle Dockery. Director Peter Hall. Old Vic Theatre, London. 2007: Jefferson Mays and Claire Danes in a Broadway revival 2010: Simon Robson, Cush Jumbo, Terence Wilton and Ian Bartholomew (who won a MEN Award). Directed by Greg Hersov at the Royal Exchange in Manchester. 2011: Rupert Everett (later Alistair McGowan) and Kara Tointon at the Garrick Theatre, London[23] 2011: Risteárd Cooper and Charlie Murphy at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin

Adaptations[edit] Julie Andrews as flower girl Eliza Doolittle meets Rex Harrison as Professor Henry Higgins in the 1956 musical adaptation of Pygmalion, My Fair Lady. Stage My Fair Lady (1956), the Broadway musical by Lerner and Loewe (based on the 1938 film), starring Rex Harrison as Higgins and Julie Andrews as Eliza Film Cinematographer Harry Stradling poses with Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Doolittle on the set of the 1964 movie musical My Fair Lady. Pygmalion (1935), a German film adaptation by Shaw and others, starring Gustaf Gründgens as Higgins and Jenny Jugo as Eliza. Directed by Erich Engel. Pygmalion (1937), a Dutch film adaptation, starring Johan De Meester as Higgins and Lily Bouwmeester as Elisa. Directed by Ludwig Berger. Pygmalion (1938), a British film adaptation by Shaw and others, starring Leslie Howard as Higgins and Wendy Hiller as Eliza Kitty (1945), a film based on the novel of the same name by Rosamond Marshall (published in 1943). A broad interpretation of the Pygmalion story line, the film tells the rags-to-riches story of a young guttersnipe, Cockney girl. My Fair Lady (1964), a film version of the musical starring Audrey Hepburn as Eliza and Rex Harrison as Higgins The Opening of Misty Beethoven (1976), an American hardcore pornography film take-off starring Constance Money and Jamie Gillis She's All That (1999): a modern, teenage take on Pygmalion The Duff (2015): based on the novel of the same name by Kody Keplinger, which in turn is a modern teenage adaption of Pygmalion Television A 1963 Hallmark Hall of Fame production of Pygmalion, starring Julie Harris as Eliza and James Donald as Higgins Pygmalion (1973), a BBC Play of the Month version starring James Villiers as Higgins and Lynn Redgrave as Eliza Pygmalion (1981), a film version starring Twiggy as Eliza and Robert Powell as Higgins Pygmalion (1983), an adaptation starring Peter O'Toole as Higgins and Margot Kidder as Eliza The Makeover, a 2013 Hallmark Hall of Fame modern adaptation of Pygmalion, starring Julia Stiles and David Walton and directed by John Gray[24][25] Selfie, a 2014 television sitcom on ABC, starring Karen Gillan and John Cho. Classic Alice, a webseries, aired a 10-episode adaptation on YouTube, starring Kate Hackett and Tony Noto in 2014. Totalmente Demais, a 2015 Brazilian telenovela, starring Juliana Paes, Marina Ruy Barbosa and Fábio Assunção. Non–English language Pigmalió, an adaptation by Joan Oliver into Catalan. Set in 1950s Barcelona, it was first staged in Sabadell in 1957 and has had other stagings since. Ti Phulrani, an adaptation by Pu La Deshpande in Marathi. The plot follows Pygmalion closely but the language features are based on Marathi. Santu Rangeeli, an adaptation by Madhu Rye and Pravin Joshi in Gujarati. A 1996 television play in Polish, translated by Kazimierz Piotrowski, directed by Maciej Wojtyszko and performed at Teatr Telewizji (Polish Television studio in Warsaw) by some of the top Polish actors at the time. It has been aired on national TV numerous times since its TV premiere in 1998. A 2007 adaptation by Aka Morchiladze and Levan Tsuladze in Georgian performed at the Marjanishvili Theatre in Tbilisi Man Pasand, a 1980 Hindi movie directed by Basu Chatterjee Ogo Bodhu Shundori, a 1981 Bengali comedy film starring Uttam Kumar directed by Salil Dutta My Young Auntie, a 1981 Hong Kong action film directed by Lau Kar-Leung Laiza Porko Sushi, a Papiamentu adaptation from writer and artist May Henriquez Gönülcelen, a Turkish series starring Tuba Büyüküstün and Cansel Elcin Δύο Ξένοι, a Greek series starring Nikos Sergianopoulos and Evelina Papoulia

In popular culture[edit] Films Hoi Polloi (1935), a film adaptation by The Three Stooges. Willy Russell's 1980 stage comedy Educating Rita and the subsequent film adaptation are similar in plot to Pygmalion.[26] The First Night of Pygmalion (1972), a play depicting the backstage tensions during the first British production. Trading Places (1983), a film starring Eddie Murphy and Dan Aykroyd. Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (2004), a film starring Lindsay Lohan where she auditions for a modernized musical version of Pygmalion called "Eliza Rocks". Television Moonlighting's second-season episode "My Fair David" (1985) is inspired by the movie My Fair Lady, in a plot where Maddie Hayes makes a bet with David Addison consisting in making him softer and more serious with work. She is her Henry Higgins, while he is put in the Eliza Doolittle position, as the funny, clumsy, bad-mannered part of the relationship. The Man from U.N.C.L.E.'s third-season episode "The Galatea Affair" (1966) is a spoof of My Fair Lady. A crude barroom entertainer (Joan Collins) is taught to behave like a lady. Noel Harrison, son of Rex Harrison, star of the My Fair Lady film, is the guest star. In The Beverly Hillbillies episode "Pygmalion and Elly" Sonny resumes his high-class courtship of Elly May by playing Julius Caesar and Pygmalion. In The Andy Griffith Show season 4 episode "My Fair Ernest T. Bass", Andy and Barney attempt to turn the mannerless Ernest T. Bass into a presentable gentleman. References to "Pygmalion" abound: Bass' manners are tested at a social gathering, where he is assumed by the hostess to be a man from Boston. Several characters comment "if you wrote this into a play nobody'd believe it." In Doctor Who, the character of Leela is loosely based on Eliza Doolittle. She was a regular in the programme from 1977 to 1978, and later reprised in audio dramas from 2003 to present. In Ghost Light, the character of Control is heavily based upon Eliza Doolittle, with Redvers Fenn-Cooper in a similar role as Henry Higgins; the story also features reference to the "Rain in Spain" rhyme and the Doctor referring to companion Ace as "Eliza". In the Remington Steele season 2 episode "My Fair Steele", Laura and Steele transform a truck stop waitress into a socialite to flush out a kidnapper. Steele references the 1938 movie Pygmalion and My Fair Lady, and references the way in which Laura has "molded" him into her fictional creation. In the Magnum, P.I. episode "Professor Jonathan Higgins" of Season 5, Jonathan Higgins tries to turn his punk rocker cousin into a high society socialite. Higgins even references Pygmalion in the episode. The Family Guy episode One If By Clam, Two If By Sea involves a subplot with Stewie trying to refine Eliza Pinchley, his new Cockney-accented neighbor, into a proper young lady. He makes a bet with Brian that he can improve Eliza's vocabulary and get her to speak without her accent before her birthday party. Includes "The Life of the Wife", a parody of the song "The Rain in Spain" (from My Fair Lady). The voice of Stewie was in fact originally based on that of Rex Harrison. The plot of the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Someone to Watch Over Me" is loosely based on Pygmalion. Pygmalion is the inspiration for The Simpsons episode entitled "Pygmoelian," in which infamously ugly character Moe, of Moe's Tavern, has a facelift. It was also parodied to a heavier extent in the episode "My Fair Laddy", where the character being changed is uncouth Scotsman Groundskeeper Willie. In the Boy Meets World episode "Turnaround", Cory and Shawn learn about "Pygmalion" in class, paralleling their attempt with Cory's uncool date to the dance. The iCarly episode "iMake Sam Girlier" is loosely based on Pygmalion. The Season 7 King of the Hill episode "Pigmalian" describes an unhinged local pig magnate who attempts to transform Luanne into the idealized woman of his company's old advertisements. In The King of Queens episode "Gambling N'Diction" Carrie tries to lose her accent for a job promotion by being taught by Spence. The episode was renamed to "Carrie Doolittle" in Germany. In 2014, ABC debuted a romantic situational comedy titled Selfie, starring Karen Gillan and John Cho. It is a modern-day adaptation that revolves around an image-obsessed woman named Eliza Dooley (Gillan) who comes under the social guidance of marketing image guru Henry Higgs (Cho).

References[edit] ^ George Bernard Shaw, Androcles and the Lion: Overruled : Pygmalion (New York City: Brentano's, 1918), page 109. (Note: Alexander M. Bell's first wife was named Eliza.) ^ "Theses & Conference Papers". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ Shaw, Bernard, edited by Samuel A. Weiss (1986). Bernard Shaw's Letters to Siegfried Trebitsch. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1257-3, p.164. ^ "Herr G.B. Shaw at the Irving Place." The New York Times 25 March 1914. In late 1914 Mrs Campbell took the London company to tour the United States, opening in New York at the Belasco Theatre. ^ Laurence, editor, Dan (1985). Bernard Shaw: Collected Letters, 1911–1925. New York: Viking. p. 228. ISBN 0-670-80545-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Dent, Alan (1961). Mrs. Patrick Campbell. London: Museum Press Limited. ^ The Truth About Pygmalion by Richard Huggett, 1969 Random House, pp. 127–128 ^ "The Modest Shaw Again: Explains in His Shrinking Way Why "Pygmalion" Was First Done in Berlin ;- Critics Like It". New York Times. November 23, 1913 – via Proquest.  ^ "Shaw's 'Pygmalion' Has Come to Town: With Mrs. Campbell Delightful as a Galatea from Tottenham Court Road – A Mildly Romantic G. B. S. – His Latest Play Tells a Love Story with Brusque Diffidence and a Wealth of Humor". New York Times. 13 Oct 1914. Retrieved 19 Sep 2016 – via Proquest.  ^ "Pygmalion, His Majesty's Theatre, 1914, review". The Telegraph. 11 Apr 2014. Retrieved 19 Sep 2016 – via The Telegraph.  ^ "The Story Of "Pygmalion."". The Times. 19 Mar 1914. Retrieved 19 Sep 2016 – via Gale.  ^ Evans, T.F. (ed.) (1997). George Bernard Shaw (The Critical Heritage Series). ISBN 0-415-15953-9, pp. 223–30. ^ "From the Point of View of A Playwright," by Bernard Shaw, collected in Herbert Beerbohm Tree, Some Memories of Him and His Art, Collected by Max Beerbohm (1919). London: Hutchinson. Versions at Text Archive Internet Archive ^ Shaw, Bernard, edited by Dan H. Laurence. Collected Letters vol. III: 1911–1925. ^ Shaw–Campbell Correspondence, p. 160. Shaw's "Final Orders" letter to Mrs. Campbell on the first night. He wrote to his wife the next day that the audience's wild appreciation of the third act – which he had warned the actors would happen – impelled Tree instinctively to begin playing to please the house, much to Shaw's disgust but to the play's guaranteed popular success. Collected Letters, vol. III. The same day he withdrew his recommendation to Lee Shubert that Tree be included in an American tour. ^ Shaw, G.B. (1916). Pygmalion. New York: Brentano. Sequel: What Happened Afterwards. Bartleby: Great Books Online. ^ "The Instinct of An Artist: Shaw and the Theatre." Catalog for "An Exhibition from The Bernard F. Burgunder Collection," 1997. Cornell University Library ^ "The Project Gutenberg E-text of Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw".  ^ Pascal, Valerie, The Disciple and His Devil, McGraw-Hill, 1970. p. 83." ^ "The lesson of a Polish production of 'Pygmalion.'" The Independent on Sunday, 3 July 2001. The Independent ^ Markoff, John (13 March 2008), "Joseph Weizenbaum, Famed Programmer, Is Dead at 85", The New York Times, retrieved 7 January 2009  ^ British Theatre Guide (1997) ^ Tointon's indisposition on 25 August 2011 enabled understudy Rebecca Birch to make her West End début in a leading role (insert to Garrick Theatre programme for Pygmalion). ^ "Julia Stiles Stars in The Makeover".  ^ "IMDb: The Makeover".  ^ "Willy Russell: Welcome". 

External links[edit] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pygmalion Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pygmalion (Shaw). Pygmalion at the Internet Broadway Database Pygmalion stories & art: "successive retellings of the Pygmalion story after Ovid's Metamorphoses" Pygmalion at Project Gutenberg Pygmalion public domain audiobook at LibriVox Shaw's Pygmalion was in a different class 2014 Irish Examiner article by Dr. R. Hume "Bernard Shaw Snubs England and Amuses Germany." The New York Times, 30 November 1913. This article quotes the original script at length ("translated into the vilest American": Letters to Trebitsch, p. 170), including its final lines. Its author, too, hopes for a "happy ending": that after the curtain Eliza will return bearing the gloves and tie. v t e Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw Characters Eliza Doolittle Films Everybody's Woman (1924) Pygmalion (1935) Hoi Polloi (1935) Pygmalion (1937) Pygmalion (1938) Half-Wits Holiday (1947) Pies and Guys (1958) My Fair Lady (1964) The Opening of Misty Beethoven (1976) Man Pasand (1980) Musical My Fair Lady (1956) Television Pygmalion (1948) Galatea (1977) Pygmalion (1983) Totalmente Demais (2015) See also Pygmalion (mythology) Amarilly of Clothes-Line Alley American Princess Ask Any Girl The First Night of Pygmalion Educating Rita Fine Manners Kitty Mighty Aphrodite Never on Sunday Ogo Bodhu Shundori Selfie She's All That "Someone to Watch Over Me" Vapor Pygmalion effect ELIZA v t e Plays by George Bernard Shaw Passion Play Un Petit Drame Widowers' Houses The Philanderer Mrs. Warren's Profession Arms and the Man Candida The Man of Destiny You Never Can Tell The Devil's Disciple The Gadfly Caesar and Cleopatra Captain Brassbound's Conversion The Admirable Bashville Man and Superman John Bull's Other Island How He Lied to Her Husband Major Barbara Passion, Poison, and Petrifaction The Doctor's Dilemma The Interlude at the Playhouse Getting Married The Shewing-Up of Blanco Posnet Press Cuttings The Fascinating Foundling The Glimpse of Reality Misalliance The Dark Lady of the Sonnets Fanny's First Play Androcles and the Lion Overruled Beauty's Duty Pygmalion Great Catherine The Music Cure O'Flaherty V.C. The Inca of Perusalem Augustus Does His Bit Macbeth Skit Annajanska, the Bolshevik Empress Heartbreak House Back to Methuselah A Glimpse of the Domesticity of Franklyn Barnabas Jitta's Atonement Saint Joan The Apple Cart Too True to Be Good How These Doctors Love One Another! Village Wooing On the Rocks The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles The Six of Calais The Millionairess Arthur and the Acetone Cymbeline Refinished Geneva In Good King Charles's Golden Days The British Party System Buoyant Billions Farfetched Fables Shakes versus Shav Why She Would Not v t e My Fair Lady by Frederick Loewe and Alan Jay Lerner (Lerner and Loewe) Characters Eliza Doolittle Source Pygmalion (1912 play) by George Bernard Shaw Pygmalion (1938 film) by George Bernard Shaw adapted by W. P. Lipscomb and Cecil Lewis Films My Fair Lady (1964 film) The Opening of Misty Beethoven (1976) Galatea[ru] (1977) Man Pasand (1980) Albums My Fair Lady (1956 Broadway cast recording) My Fair Lady (1956 Shelly Manne album) My Fair Lady (1958 Oscar Peterson Trio album) Nat King Cole Sings My Fair Lady (1963 album) My Fair Lady Loves Jazz (1964 Billy Taylor album) The Great Songs from "My Fair Lady" and Other Broadway Hits (1964 Andy Williams album) Musical numbers "Wouldn't It Be Loverly? " "With a Little Bit of Luck" "The Rain in Spain" "I Could Have Danced All Night" "On the Street Where You Live" "Get Me to the Church on Time" "I've Grown Accustomed to Her Face" Television "My Fair Laddy" "One If by Clam, Two If by Sea" Selfie Related The Street Where I Live v t e Pygmalion from Ovid's Metamorphoses Characters Galatea Propoetides Opera Pigmalion (1748) Pygmalion (1779) Pimmalione (1809) Il Pigmalione (1816) Die schöne Galathée (1863 operetta) Ballet Pygmalion, ou La Statue de Chypre Play Pygmalion (1762) Pygmalion and Galatea (1871) Pygmalion (1912) Musical Pygmalion; or, The Statue Fair (1872) Galatea, or Pygmalion Reversed (1883) One Touch of Venus (1943 musical) My Fair Lady (1956) Video game Galatea Art Pygmalion and the Image series Pygmalion and Galatea (Gérôme) Television "If I Had a Hammer" A Mulher Invisível Literature Pintosmalto Mr Simigdáli Fall Out Toy Works Film Pygmalion and Galatea (1898) Pygmalion (1938) One Touch of Venus (1948) My Fair Lady (1964) Mannequin (1987) Ruby Sparks (2012) Related 96189 Pygmalion Agalmatophilia Gynoid Comic Potential (1998) Authority control GND: 4135520-9 BNF: cb14868266r (data) Retrieved from "" Categories: 1913 books1913 playsWest End playsPlays by George Bernard ShawWorks originally published in Everybody's MagazineLiterature first published in serial formPlays set in LondonBritish plays adapted into filmsHidden categories: CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listCS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyUse dmy dates from May 2015Articles with Project Gutenberg linksArticles with LibriVox linksInterlanguage link template link numberWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

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Pygmalion (disambiguation)Mrs Patrick CampbellGeorge Bernard ShawBurgtheaterRomantic ComedySocial CriticismGeorge Bernard ShawPygmalion (mythology)Pygmalion (mythology)Victorian EraW. S. GilbertPygmalion And Galatea (play)Victorian BurlesqueGalatea, Or Pygmalion ReversedMy Fair LadyMy Fair Lady (film)Alexander Melville BellAlexander John EllisHenry SweetEnlargeEnlargePhilip MerivaleMrs. CampbellBurgtheaterViennaSiegfried TrebitschIrving Place TheatreHerbert Beerbohm TreeHer Majesty's TheatreCovent GardenEnlargeLynn FontanneHenry TraversTheatre GuildTottenham Court RoadHerbert Beerbohm TreeMrs. Patrick CampbellWest End TheatreHappy EndingPygmalion (1938 Film)Gabriel PascalEnlargeEverybody's MagazineAnthony AsquithAd LibitumJohn Of NepomukMy Fair LadyMy Fair Lady (film)Joseph WeizenbaumArtificial IntelligenceELIZAEnlargeLynn FontanneTheatre GuildLynn FontanneAugust Wilson TheatreRaymond MasseyGertrude LawrenceEthel Barrymore TheatreDiana RiggAlbery TheatrePeter O'TooleJackie Smith-WoodShaftesbury TheatreRoy MarsdenCarli NorrisEmily LloydMichael ElphickRay CooneyAlbery TheatreTim Pigott-SmithMichelle DockeryPeter Hall (director)Old Vic TheatreJefferson MaysClaire DanesBroadway TheatreSimon RobsonCush JumboIan BartholomewManchester Evening News Theatre AwardsGreg HersovRoyal Exchange, ManchesterRupert EverettAlistair McGowanKara TointonGarrick TheatreLondonRisteárd CooperAbbey TheatreDublinEnlargeJulie AndrewsRex HarrisonMy Fair LadyMy Fair LadyAlan Jay LernerFrederick LoeweRex HarrisonJulie AndrewsEnlargeAudrey HepburnPygmalion (1935 Film)Gustaf GründgensJenny JugoPygmalion (1937 Film)Lily BouwmeesterLudwig Berger (director)Pygmalion (1938 Film)Leslie Howard (actor)Wendy HillerKitty (1945 Film)Rosamond MarshallCockneyMy Fair Lady (film)Audrey HepburnRex HarrisonThe Opening Of Misty BeethovenHardcore PornographyConstance MoneyJamie GillisShe's All ThatThe DuffHallmark Hall Of FameJulie Harris (American Actress)James DonaldPlay Of The MonthJames VilliersLynn RedgraveTwiggyRobert PowellPygmalion (1983 Film)Peter O'TooleMargot KidderHallmark Hall Of FameJulia StilesDavid Walton (actor)John Gray (director)Selfie (TV Series)Karen GillanJohn ChoClassic AliceKate HackettTotalmente DemaisJuliana PaesMarina Ruy BarbosaFábio AssunçãoCatalan LanguageSabadellPu La DeshpandeMarathi LanguageMadhu RyeGujarati LanguagePolish LanguageMaciej WojtyszkoPolish TelevisionWarsawAka MorchiladzeGeorgian LanguageMarjanishvili TheatreTbilisiMan PasandBasu ChatterjeeOgo Bodhu ShundoriUttam KumarMy Young AuntieLau Kar-LeungPapiamentoTuba BüyüküstünCansel ElcinNikos SergianopoulosEvelina PapouliaHoi Polloi (1935 Film)The Three StoogesWilly RussellEducating RitaThe First Night Of PygmalionTrading PlacesEddie MurphyDan AykroydConfessions Of A Teenage Drama QueenLindsay LohanMoonlighting (TV Series)Maddie HayesDavid AddisonEliza DoolittleThe Man From U.N.C.L.E.Joan CollinsNoel HarrisonRex HarrisonMy Fair LadyThe Beverly HillbilliesThe Andy Griffith ShowDoctor WhoLeela (Doctor Who)Ghost Light (Doctor Who)Remington SteeleMagnum, P.I.Jonathan HigginsFamily GuyOne If By Clam, Two If By SeaThe Rain In SpainMy Fair LadyStar Trek: VoyagerSomeone To Watch Over Me (Star Trek: Voyager)The SimpsonsPygmoelianMy Fair LaddyGroundskeeper WillieBoy Meets WorldICarlyKing Of The HillThe King Of QueensABC TelevisionSituational ComedySelfie (TV Series)Karen GillanJohn ChoInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8047-1257-3Belasco TheatreInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-670-80545-9Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-15953-9Lee ShubertJohn MarkoffThe New York TimesWikisourceInternet Broadway DatabaseProject GutenbergLibriVoxTemplate:PygmalionTemplate Talk:PygmalionGeorge Bernard ShawEliza DoolittleEverybody's Woman (1924 Film)Pygmalion (1935 Film)Hoi Polloi (1935 Film)Pygmalion (1937 Film)Pygmalion (1938 Film)Half-Wits HolidayPies And GuysMy Fair Lady (film)The Opening Of Misty BeethovenMan PasandMy Fair LadyPygmalion (1948 Film)Pygmalion (1983 Film)Totalmente DemaisPygmalion (mythology)Amarilly Of Clothes-Line AlleyAmerican Princess (2005 TV Series)Ask Any Girl (film)The First Night Of PygmalionEducating RitaFine MannersKitty (1945 Film)Mighty AphroditeNever On SundayOgo Bodhu ShundoriSelfie (TV Series)She's All ThatSomeone To Watch Over Me (Star Trek: Voyager)Vapor (novel)Pygmalion EffectELIZATemplate:George Bernard ShawTemplate Talk:George Bernard ShawGeorge Bernard ShawPassion Play: A Dramatic FragmentUn Petit DrameWidowers' HousesThe PhilandererMrs. Warren's ProfessionArms And The ManCandida (play)The Man Of DestinyYou Never Can Tell (play)The Devil's DiscipleThe Gadfly (play)Caesar And Cleopatra (play)Captain Brassbound's ConversionThe Admirable BashvilleMan And SupermanJohn Bull's Other IslandHow He Lied To Her HusbandMajor BarbaraPassion, Poison, And PetrifactionThe Doctor's Dilemma (play)The Interlude At The PlayhouseGetting MarriedThe Shewing-Up Of Blanco PosnetPress CuttingsThe Fascinating FoundlingThe Glimpse Of RealityMisallianceThe Dark Lady Of The SonnetsFanny's First PlayAndrocles And The Lion (play)Overruled (play)Beauty's DutyGreat Catherine: Whom Glory Still AdoresThe Music CureO'Flaherty V.C.The Inca Of PerusalemAugustus Does His BitMacbeth SkitAnnajanska, The Bolshevik EmpressHeartbreak HouseBack To MethuselahA Glimpse Of The Domesticity Of Franklyn BarnabasJitta's AtonementSaint Joan (play)The Apple CartToo True To Be GoodHow These Doctors Love One Another!Village WooingOn The Rocks (play)The Simpleton Of The Unexpected IslesThe Six Of CalaisThe Millionairess (play)Arthur And The AcetoneCymbeline RefinishedGeneva (play)In Good King Charles's Golden DaysThe British Party SystemBuoyant BillionsFarfetched FablesShakes Versus ShavWhy She Would NotTemplate:My Fair LadyTemplate Talk:My Fair LadyMy Fair LadyFrederick LoeweAlan Jay LernerLerner And LoeweEliza DoolittleGeorge Bernard ShawPygmalion (1938 Film)George Bernard ShawW. P. LipscombCecil Arthur LewisMy Fair Lady (film)The Opening Of Misty BeethovenMan PasandMy Fair Lady (Broadway Cast Recording)My Fair Lady (Shelly Manne Album)My Fair Lady (Oscar Peterson Trio Album)Nat King Cole Sings My Fair LadyMy Fair Lady Loves JazzThe Great Songs From "My Fair Lady" And Other Broadway HitsWouldn't It Be LoverlyWith A Little Bit Of LuckThe Rain In SpainI Could Have Danced All NightOn The Street Where You LiveGet Me To The Church On TimeI've Grown Accustomed To Her FaceMy Fair LaddyOne If By Clam, Two If By SeaSelfie (TV Series)The Street Where I LiveTemplate:Pygmalion NavboxTemplate Talk:Pygmalion NavboxPygmalion (mythology)OvidMetamorphosesGalatea (mythology)PropoetidesPigmalion (opera)Pygmalion (opera)PimmalioneIl PigmalioneDie Schöne GalathéePygmalion, Ou La Statue De ChyprePygmalion (Rousseau)Pygmalion And Galatea (play)Pygmalion; Or, The Statue FairGalatea, Or Pygmalion ReversedOne Touch Of VenusMy Fair LadyGalatea (video Game)Pygmalion And The Image SeriesPygmalion And Galatea (Gérôme Painting)If I Had A Hammer (Hercules: The Legendary Journeys)A Mulher InvisívelPintosmaltoMr SimigdáliFall Out Toy WorksPygmalion And Galatea (1898 Film)Pygmalion (1938 Film)One Touch Of Venus (film)My Fair Lady (film)Mannequin (1987 Film)Ruby Sparks96189 PygmalionAgalmatophiliaGynoidComic Potential (play)Help:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileBibliothèque Nationale De FranceHelp:CategoryCategory:1913 BooksCategory:1913 PlaysCategory:West End PlaysCategory:Plays By George Bernard ShawCategory:Works Originally Published In Everybody's MagazineCategory:Literature First Published In Serial FormCategory:Plays Set In LondonCategory:British Plays Adapted Into FilmsCategory:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListCategory:CS1: Julian–Gregorian UncertaintyCategory:Use Dmy Dates From May 2015Category:Articles With Project Gutenberg LinksCategory:Articles With LibriVox LinksCategory:Interlanguage Link Template Link NumberCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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