Contents 1 Types 2 Jurisdictions 2.1 Australia 2.2 Brazil 2.3 Canada 2.3.1 Calculating Individual Property Taxes 2.3.2 Land Transfer Tax 2.3.2.1 British Columbia 2.3.2.1.1 First time home buyers program 2.3.2.1.2 New home exemption 2.4 Chile 2.5 Egypt 2.6 Greece 2.7 Hong Kong 2.7.1 Net assessable value 2.8 India 2.9 Ireland 2.10 Jamaica 2.11 Lithuania 2.12 Luxembourg 2.13 Netherlands 2.14 United Kingdom 2.15 United States 3 Places without property tax 3.1 Africa 3.2 Europe 3.3 Oceania 3.4 Asia 3.5 United States 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References


Types[edit] The four broad types of property taxes are land, improvements to land (immovable man-made objects, such as buildings), personal property (movable man-made objects) and intangible property. Real property (also called real estate or realty) is the combination of land and improvements. Forms of property tax vary across jurisdictions. Real property is often taxed based on its class. Classification is the grouping of properties based on similar use. Properties in different classes are taxed at different rates. Examples of property classes are residential, commercial, industrial and vacant real property.[2] In Israel, for example, property tax rates are double for vacant apartments versus occupied apartments.[3] A special assessment tax is sometimes confused with property tax. These are two distinct forms of taxation: one (ad valorem tax) relies upon the fair market value of the property. The other (special assessment) relies upon a special enhancement called a "benefit" for its justification. The property tax rate is typically given as a percentage. It may be expressed as a per mil (amount of tax per thousand currency units of property value), which is also known as a millage rate or mill (one-thousandth of a currency unit). To calculate the property tax, the authority multiplies the assessed value by the mill rate and then divides by 1,000. For example, a property with an assessed value of $50,000 located in a municipality with a mill rate of 20 mills would have a property tax bill of $1,000 per year.[4]


Jurisdictions[edit] Property classes, tax rates, assessment rules and valuations vary by jurisdiction. Australia[edit] Australian property is taxed at both the state and council (local municipal) level. Taxes are payable by property owners - there is no property tax charged to renters. A state tax commonly called "stamp duty" is assessed when is property is purchased or transferred. It is typically around 5% of the purchase price, payable by the purchaser. Other transfer charges may also apply, including special fees for investors from overseas[5]. "Land tax" - also a state tax - is assessed every year on a property's value. Most Australians do not pay land tax, as most states provide a land tax exemption for the primary home or residence. Depending on the state, surcharge tax rates can apply to foreign owners[6]. "Council rates" is a municipal tax levied by local government. This is assessed each year on a property's value. Council rates are around $1300 per annum for an average Australian household[7]. Brazil[edit] Brazil is a Federation Republic, and its federated entities (internal States and Municipalities), as well as the Federal government, levy property taxes. They are all declared in the Federal Constitution. These are the current property taxes: Tax on Rural Territorial Property – federal: levied upon real state property on rural areas; Tax on Urban Territorial Property – municipal: levied upon real state property on urban areas; Tax on Motorized Vehicles Property – state: levied upon the property of cars, trucks, motorcycles, and the likes; Tax on Big Fortunes – federal: it is declared on the Federal Constitution, but there is still no regulation defining its incidence. Canada[edit] Many provinces levy property tax on real estate based upon land use and value. This is the major source of revenue for most municipal governments. While property tax levels vary across municipalities, a common property assessment or valuation criteria is laid out in provincial legislation. The trend is to use a market value standard for valuation purposes with varying revaluation cycles. Multiple provinces established an annual reassessment cycle where market activity warrants, while others have longer periods between valuation periods. Calculating Individual Property Taxes[edit] In Ontario, for most properties (e.g., residential, farms), property taxes can be calculated by multiplying the phased-in assessment indicated on the Property Assessment Notice by the tax rate. The municipal tax rate x phased-in assessment for the particular taxation year = municipal portion of tax. The county/regional tax rate x phased-in assessment for the particular taxation year = county/regional portion of tax. The education tax rate x phased-in assessment for the particular taxation year = education portion of tax. The municipal portion of tax + county/regional portion of tax + education portion of tax = Total Property Tax. In some cases (e.g., commercial, industrial, multi-residential properties), the Province or municipality may implement measures that affect the actual taxes paid on a property. Land Transfer Tax[edit] Land transfer tax is a provincial tax levied when purchasing a home or land in Canada. All provinces have a land transfer tax, except Alberta and Saskatchewan. In most provinces the tax is calculated as a percentage of the purchase price. In Toronto there is an additional municipal tax. Ontario, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island and the City of Toronto offer land transfer tax rebates for first-time homebuyers. [8][9] British Columbia[edit] In British Columbia the property transfer tax is equal to one percent tax on the first $200,000 of the purchase price, two percent on the remaining amount up to $2 million and three percent on the rest.[10] An additional 15% tax that applies only to non-resident foreign home buyers in Greater Vancouver started on August 2, 2016. The definition of foreign buyer includes international students and temporary foreign workers. Anti-avoidance measures include fines of $100,000 for individuals and $200,000 for corporations.[11] First time home buyers program[edit] The First Time Home Buyers Program is a program by the BC government that offers qualifying first-time homebuyers a reduction or elimination of the property transfer tax. It can be used in conjunction with the B.C. Home Owner Mortgage and Equity Partnership.[12] New home exemption[edit] The Newly Built Home Exemption is a program that reduces or eliminates the property transfer tax on new homes. The amount is limited to $13,000 for qualifying individuals who must be either a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident. The property purchased must be located in British Columbia, have a fair market value of $750,000, be smaller than 1.25 acres and be used as a principle residence. It can be used in conjunction with the B.C. Home Owner Mortgage and Equity Partnership.[13] Chile[edit] The land property tax, called "territorial tax" or "contribution", is an annual amount paid quarterly by the property's owner. It is determined as a percentage of the property's "fiscal value", which is calculated by the Internal Revenue Service, based on the property's land and built area, construction materials, age and use. The fiscal value, which is usually much lower than the market value, may be disputed by the owner. The annual levy varies between 1 and 2% of this value, depending on the property's use (residential, agricultural or commercial). Residential properties valued below US$40K (as of 2013) are not taxed; those above that threshold are taxed only on the amount exceeding US$40K.[14] Revenues go to the municipality administering the property's commune.[15] All municipalities contribute a share of the revenue to a "common municipal fund" that is then redistributed back to municipalities according to a their needs (commune's poverty rate, etc.).[16][17] Additionally, municipalities charge a quarterly trash collection tax, which is often paid together with the territorial tax (if applicable). Egypt[edit] The law imposes a tax on each property. Public buildings are excluded (such as government buildings), as are religious buildings (mosques and churches). Families owning private properties worth up to LE 2 million ($290,000) are exempt. commercial stores with an annual rent value over LE 1,200 are not exempt.[18] Greece[edit] Greece has a Municipal and a Government property tax. The municipal property tax (ΤΑΠ/ΔΤ/ΔΦ) is included in electricity bills and incorporates, among others, charges for street cleaning and lighting. The Government property tax (ENFIA) is a combination of the individual asset's tax based upon floor-area and a progressive real-estate wealth tax per individual which is based on the estimated net-worth of all properties and can reach 2%. Hong Kong[edit] In Hong Kong, the "property tax" is not an ad valorem tax; it is actually an income tax. According to HK Inland Revenue Ordinance IRO s5B, all property owners are not be subject to this tax unless they received a consideration, like rental income for the year of assessment. The property tax is computed on the net assessable value at the standard rate. The period of assessment is from 1 April to 31 March. Net assessable value[edit] The formula is: Net assessable value = 80% of Assessable value. HK property tax payable = Net assessment value X Property tax standard rate Assessable value = Rental income + Premium + (Rental bad debt recovered — Irrecoverable rent) – Rates paid by owner. India[edit] Property tax or 'house tax' is a local tax on buildings, along with appurtenant land. It is and imposed on the Possessor (not the custodian of property as per 1978, 44th amendment of constitution). It resembles the US-type wealth tax and differs from the excise-type UK rate. The tax power is vested in the states and is delegated to local bodies, specifying the valuation method, rate band, and collection procedures. The tax base is the annual rental value (ARV) or area-based rating. Owner-occupied and other properties not producing rent are assessed on cost and then converted into ARV by applying a percentage of cost, usually four percent. Vacant land is generally exempt. Central government properties are exempt. Instead a 'service charge' is permissible under executive order. Properties of foreign missions also enjoy tax exemption without requiring reciprocity. The tax is usually accompanied by service taxes, e.g., water tax, drainage tax, conservancy (sanitation) tax, lighting tax, all using the same tax base. The rate structure is flat on rural (panchayat) properties, but in the urban (municipal) areas it is mildly progressive with about 80% of assessments falling in the first two brackets.[19] Ireland[edit] Main article: Local Property Tax (Ireland) A Local Property Tax came into effect in Republic of Ireland on 1 July 2013, and is collected by the Revenue Commissioners. The tax is on residential properties. The property owner is liable (though in the case of leases over twenty years, the tenant is liable). The revenue funds the provision of services by local authorities. Such services currently include public parks, libraries, open spaces and leisure amenities, planning and development, fire and emergency services, maintenance and street cleaning and lighting. The tax is based upon market value, taxed via a system of market bands. The initial national central rate of the tax is 0.18% of a property's value up to €1 million. Properties valued over €1 million are assessed 0.25% on the excess. From 1 January 2015, local authorities are able to vary LPT rates -/+ 15% of the national central rate. In the case of properties valued over €1 million, no banding applies – 0.18% is charged on the first €1 million (€1,800) and 0.25% on the balance. The government estimates that 85% to 90% of all properties fall within the first five taxation bands.[20][21] Jamaica[edit] This tax is paid annually and is based on a percentage of the unimproved value of a property. Lithuania[edit] The tax period for a property tax is a calendar year. Property tax rate ranging from 0.3% to 1% the tax value of real estate is determined by the municipality. Since January 1st 2015 if the persons property value is higher than 220 000 euros, 0.5 per cent of property tax is applied for exceeding amount. Luxembourg[edit] Property tax in Luxembourg is calculated on the basis of the property's "unitary value" determined by tax authorities and levied by the communes. The tax is calculated as property unitary value * assessment rate * communal rate. The assessment rate is determined by the legislator and generally ranges from 0.7% to 1%. The communal rate is set by the communal authority and varies from 120% to 900% depending on the municipality. Luxembourg has minimal property taxes compared to its neighbours in Benelux or in the European Union. It amounts to more or less €150 for a €500 000 apartment in Luxembourg City.[22][23] Netherlands[edit] Property tax (Dutch: Onroerendezaakbelasting (OZB)) is levied on property on a municipal basis. Only the owners of residential property and people who rent/own commercial space are taxed. People who rent a home do not pay property tax. Municipalities combine their property taxes with a tax for garbage collection and for the sewer system. Owners and users of property and land also pay taxes based on the value of property to the water boards for flood protection and water and wastewater treatment ("waterschapsbelasting"). A percentage of the value of a house ("huurwaardeforfait") is added to the income of the owner, so the owner of a house pays more income tax. All property-related taxes are based on the value of the house estimated by the municipality. United Kingdom[edit] See also: Business rates in England and Wales In the UK the ownership of residential property or land is not taxed, a situation almost unique in the OECD.[24][25][26] Instead, the Council Tax is usually paid by the resident of a property, and only in the case of unoccupied property does the owner become liable to pay it (although owners can often obtain a discount or an exemption for empty properties).[27] Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) guidelines state: "Council Tax is a tax on property. In principle it may be an allowable deduction in those instances where other property-based expenses are deductible."[28] The Valuation Tribunal Service states that: "The tax is a mix of a property tax and a personal tax. Generally, where two or more persons reside in a dwelling the full tax is payable. If one person resides in the dwelling then 75% is payable. An empty dwelling attracts only a 50% charge unless the billing authority has made a determination otherwise."[29] The Council Tax depends on the value of the property, but is not calculated as a simple percentage. Instead, the property is allocated to a Council Tax band, (9 in England and 8 in Scotland and Wales). Valuation is carried out by the Valuation Office Agency under the auspices of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC).[30][31] United States[edit] Main article: Property tax in the United States In the United States, property tax on real estate is usually levied by local government, at the municipal or county level. Rates vary across the states, between about 0% and 4% of the home value.[32] The assessment is made up of two components—the improvement or building value and the land or site value. The property tax is the main tax supporting local education, police/fire protection, local governments, some free medical services and most of other local infrastructure. Many state and local jurisdictions add personal property taxes. (See exceptions below.)


Places without property tax[edit] Africa[edit]  Kenya[33]  Mauritania[34]  Namibia[35] Europe[edit]  Faroe Islands[36]  Malta[37] Oceania[edit]  Palau[38]  Norfolk Island[39]  Cook Islands[40] Asia[edit]  China[citation needed] United States[edit] In Alaska, "...only a small portion of the land mass is subject to a property tax. ...only 24 municipalities in Alaska (either cities or boroughs) levy a property tax."[41] There is no tax on the private land in American Samoa, the Territory of Palmyra Island or Kingman Reef in the Pacific Ocean insular areas.[42]


See also[edit] Allodial title Land value tax Udal title


Further reading[edit] Slack, E., & Bird, R. M. (2014). The Political Economy of Property Tax Reform, OECD Working Papers on Fiscal Federalism 18, OECD Publishing.


References[edit] ^ Millage Rate ^ "Real Property Tax Rates – otr".  ^ Bousso, Nimrod (20 May 2013). "Interior Minister Approves Doubling Property Taxes on Vacant Israeli Apartments" – via Haaretz.  ^ "Connecticut Office of Policy Management: Mill Rates". Retrieved 2010-10-04.  ^ Office, Australian Taxation. "State and territory taxes". www.ato.gov.au. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ content_publisher (2016-11-23). "Land tax surcharge". www.revenue.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ Australia, Local Government Association of South. "Council Rates". Retrieved 2018-01-08.  ^ "Land Transfer Tax Calculator Canada – Rates & Rebates".  ^ "Land Transfer Tax".  ^ "B.C. to hit foreign buyers of Metro Vancouver homes with 15% property tax".  ^ "Ontario considers following B.C. on taxing foreign real estate investors".  ^ "First Time Home Buyers' Program – Housing Action".  ^ "Newly Built Home Exemption – Housing Action".  ^ "DFL-1 16-DIC-1998 MINISTERIO DE HACIENDA – Ley Chile – Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional".  ^ "Preguntas Frecuentes de Bienes Raíces".  ^ [1][dead link] ^ REGLAMENTO PARA LA APLICACION DEL ARTICULO 38 DEL DECRETO LEY N° 3.063, DE 1979, MODIFICADO POR EL ARTICULO 1° DE LA LEY N° 20.237 ^ "Egypt's amended property tax law to take effect in July: Finance ministry – Economy – Business – Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2017-01-27.  ^ Datta, Abhijit. (1992). Local Government Finances: Trends, Issues and Reforms, in Bagchi, Amaresh. et al. (Eds.), State Finances in India, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House for the NIPFP... ^ Revenue Commissioners (Ireland) – Local Property Tax (LPT), Frequently Asked Questions (5 December 2012) ^ Budget 2013 (Ireland) – ANNEX B – Local Property Tax (LPT) (5 December 2013) ^ "Property Tax | Le Gouvernement du Grand Duché de Luxembourg". www.guichet.public.lu. Retrieved 2016-02-22.  ^ "Luxembourg Tax Smart Card". www.nexvia.lu/#!tax-smart-card/glc4v. Retrieved 2016-02-22.  ^ editor, Patrick Wintour Political (7 December 2015). "Labour has 'moral mission' to tackle inequality, says Tristram Hunt" – via The Guardian.  ^ "Opinion".  ^ "The Real Hope for Home Ownership".  ^ "Council Tax – GOV.UK".  ^ "BIM46840 – Specific deductions: rent and rates: Council Tax". www.hmrc.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-18.  ^ "Council Tax Guidelines". Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.  ^ "Council Tax bands and rates | Westminster City Council". www.westminster.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-18.  ^ "Council tax bands and rates – guide | Lambeth Council". www.lambeth.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-18.  ^ "The Tax Foundation — Property Taxes on Owner-Occupied Housing by State, 2004–2009". 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-04.  ^ Deloitte Kenya Highlights 2013 pdf ^ Deloitte Mauritania Highlights 2013 pdf ^ Deloitte Namibia Highlights 2013 pdf ^ eTax, Nordisk. "Faroe Islands".  ^ "British Expat Forum • View forum – Malta".  ^ "Palau (US department of State)".  ^ "A hidden paradise with no income tax or property tax… – Sovereign Man".  ^ "Why Invest in the Cook Islands – is it that good – really?".  ^ "Alaska Tax Facts". Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development: Office of the State Assessor. Retrieved May 9, 2017.  ^ "GAO/OGC-98-5 – U.S. Insular Areas: Application of the U.S. Constitution". U.S. Government Printing Office. November 7, 1997. Retrieved May 9, 2017.  v t e Property By owner Communal land Marital property (USA) Cooperative Estate in land Private Public State Crown land By nature Croft Intangible Intellectual indigenous Personal Tangible immovable real Common resources Common land Common-pool resource Digital Global Information Knowledge Theory Bundle of rights Commodity fictitious commodities Common good (economics) Excludability First possession appropriation homestead principle Free rider problem Game theory Georgism Gift economy Labor theory of property Law of rent rent-seeking Legal plunder Natural rights Ownership common customary self state Property rights primogeniture usufruct women's Right to property Rivalry Tragedy of the commons anticommons Applications Acequia (watercourse) Ejido (agrarian land) Forest types Inheritance Land tenure Property law alienation easement restraint on alienation real estate title Rights Air Fishing Forest-dwelling (India) Freedom to roam Grazing pannage Hunting Land aboriginal indigenous squatting Littoral Mineral Bergregal Right of way Water prior-appropriation riparian Disposession/ redistribution Bioprospecting Collectivization Eminent domain Enclosure Eviction Expropriation Farhud Forced migration population transfer Illegal fishing Illegal logging Land reform Legal plunder Piracy Poaching Primitive accumulation Privatization Regulatory taking Slavery bride-buying human trafficking wage wife selling Tax inheritance poll progressive property Theft Scholars (key work) Frédéric Bastiat Ronald Coase Henry George Garrett Hardin David Harvey John Locke Two Treatises of Government Karl Marx Marcel Mauss The Gift John Stuart Mill Elinor Ostrom Karl Polanyi The Great Transformation Pierre-Joseph Proudhon What Is Property? David Ricardo Murray N. Rothbard The Ethics of Liberty Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Categories: Property Property law by country Authority control NDL: 00566785 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Property_tax&oldid=825803334" Categories: Real property lawProperty taxesHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from January 2017Use dmy dates from March 2013All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2017


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