Contents 1 History 1.1 Territory 1.2 Changes to divisions 2 Administrative divisions 2.1 Structural hierarchy 2.2 Special municipalities, cities and counties 2.3 Townships, county-controlled cities and districts 2.4 Lower-level administrative divisions 3 Other issues 3.1 Joint Service Centers of Executive Yuan 3.2 Romanization 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


History[edit] See also: Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945) and History of the administrative divisions of China (1912–49) Territory[edit] In 1945, after the World War II, the Republic of China acquired Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores) from the Empire of Japan. In 1949, the government of the Republic of China led by the Kuomintang lost the Chinese Civil War and retreated to Taipei, Taiwan. The government lost almost all its jurisdiction over mainland China, with only some offshore islands remaining. This history gives two different sources of the current Taiwanese administrative divisions on the Free area of the Republic of China or Taiwan Area. The island of Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores): inherited from the divisions of Taiwan under the Empire of Japan. Kinmen (Quemoy) and the Matsu Islands: inherited from the divisions of mainland China under the Republic of China. Changes to divisions[edit] Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control. The two provincial governments were streamlined and much of their functions transferred to the central or county governments. Six special municipalities have been created on the territory belonged to Taiwan Province. Since 1949, the most controversial part of the political division system has been the existence of Taiwan Province, as its existence was part of a larger controversy over the political status of Taiwan. Since 1998, most of the duties and powers of Taiwan Provincial Government have been transferred to the central government, through amendments to the constitution. The much smaller Fukien province, Fujian Provincial Government has been in streamlined form since 1956. There has been some criticism of the current administrative scheme as being inefficient and not conducive to regional planning. In particular, most of the administrative cities are much smaller than the actual metropolitan areas, and there are no formal means for coordinating policy between an administrative city and its surrounding areas. Before 2008, the likelihood of consolidation was low. Many of the cities had political demographics which were very different from their surrounding counties, making the prospect of consolidation highly politically charged. For example, while the Kuomintang argued that combining Taipei City, Taipei County, and Keelung City into a metropolitan Taipei region would allow for better regional planning, the Democratic Progressive Party argued that this was merely an excuse to eliminate the government of Taipei County, which it had at times controlled, by swamping it with votes from Taipei City and Keelung City, which tended to vote Kuomintang. On 1 October 2007, Taipei County was upgraded to a quasi-municipality (準直轄市) on the same level as Kaohsiung City and Taipei City.[2] This allowed the county to have the organizational and budgetary framework of a de jure municipality, but it was still formally styled as a county. Taichung County and Tainan City lobbied the central government for similar status. Taoyuan County was also upgraded to a quasi-municipality on 1 January 2011, as its population was above 2 million on the date of elevation.[3] Under President Ma Ying-jeou's administration, the central government has reorganized more counties and cities.[4] Four mergers and promotions were approved in 2009 and became effective on 25 December 2010 and one more became effective in 25 December 2014.[5][6] The summary of changes on administrative divisions are shown below Name Notes Fujian Province The provincial capital was moved from Fuzhou to Jincheng, Kinmen in 1949. Government was streamlined in 1956. Taiwan Province The provincial capital was moved from Taipei to Zhongxing New Village in 1956. Government was streamlined in 1998. Kaohsiung City Formerly a provincial city, elevated as a special municipality in 1979. In 2010, a new Kaohsiung special municipality was established by merging former Kaohsiung County with the existing Kaohsiung City. New Taipei City Formerly Taipei County, was elevated as a special municipality in 2010. Taichung City Was established by merging Taichung provincial city and Taichung County in 2010. Tainan City Was established by merging Tainan provincial city and Tainan County in 2010. Taipei City Formerly a provincial city, was elevated as a special municipality in 1967. Taoyuan City Formerly Taoyuan County, was elevated as a special municipality in 2014. This brought the top-level divisions of Taiwan (ROC) to its current state: 2 streamlined provinces and 6 special municipalities; and under the provinces, 13 counties and three provincial cities.[7]


Administrative divisions[edit] Structural hierarchy[edit] Level 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Division type Special municipality (直轄市 zhíxiáshì) (6) Mountain indigenous district (原住民區 yuánzhùmín qū) (6) Urban village (里 lǐ) Neighborhood (鄰 lín) District (區 qū) (164) Province (省 shěng) (2) (Streamlined) Provincial city (市 shì) (3) County (縣 xiàn) (13) County-controlled city (縣轄市 xiànxiáshì) (14) Urban township (鎮 zhèn) (38) Rural township (鄉 xiāng) (122) Rural village (村 cūn) Mountain indigenous township (山地鄉 shāndì xiāng) (24) Total 22 368 7,851 147,785 Note: Since the provinces are streamlined, special municipalities are usually counted with provincial cities and counties. In Chinese, all special municipalities, provincial cities, and county-controlled cities are all referred to as 市 (shì) in their full official names. Provincial cities are sometimes called 省轄市 (shěngxiáshì) to distinguish them from the other two types of cities. Under the administrative scheme, some cities and counties may share the same name but are independent administrations; this occurs with Chiayi City and Chiayi County, and Hsinchu City and Hsinchu County. Special municipalities, cities and counties[edit] Administrative divisions since 2014 Taipei New Taipei Keelung Taoyuan Hsinchu County Hsinchu Miaoli Taichung Changhua Penghu Nantou Yunlin Chiayi County Chiayi Tainan Kaohsiung Pingtung Yilan Hualien Taitung Taiwan Province Kinmen Lienchiang (Matsu) Fukien Province Main articles: Special municipality (Taiwan), Provincial city (Taiwan), and County (Taiwan) See also: List of administrative divisions of Taiwan Currently there are three types and in total 22 administrative divisions are directly governed by the central government (Executive Yuan). According to the Local Government Act of Taiwan, a place with population more than 1.25 million may become a special municipality, a place with population between 0.5 and 1.25 million may become a provincial city. Counties with population more than 2 million may grant some extra privileges in local autonomy that was designed for special municipalities. Name Chinese Pinyin Pe̍h-ōe-jī No.     Special municipality 直轄市 zhíxiáshì ti̍t-hat-chhī 6     Provincial city 市 shì chhī 3     County 縣 xiàn koān 13 These 22 divisions are also regulated by the Local Government Act as local self-governance bodies. Each division has its own executive called "city/county government" and own legislature called "city/county council". The city mayors, county magistrates and all legislators are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. Geographically, Six special municipalities, three provincial cities and 10 counties are on the main island of Taiwan Special municipalities Provincial cities Counties Kaohsiung City New Taipei City Taichung City Tainan City Taipei City Taoyuan City Chiayi City Hsinchu City Keelung City Changhua County Chiayi County Hsinchu County Hualien County Miaoli County Nantou County Pingtung County Taitung County Yilan County Yunlin County Penghu County administers Penghu Islands. Kinmen County administers Kinmen Islands and Wuqiu Islands. Lienchiang County administers Matsu Islands. Note that Kaohsiung also administers the Dongsha Islands and Taiping Island of the South China Sea Islands. Townships, county-controlled cities and districts[edit] Main articles: Township (Taiwan), County-controlled city, and District (Taiwan) See also: List of townships, cities and districts of Taiwan The 22 main divisions in the country are further divided into 368 subdivisions. These 368 divisions can be categorized as the following. Name Chinese Pinyin Pe̍h-ōe-jī Administered by Self-gov. No. Mountain indigenous township 山地鄉 shāndì xiāng soaⁿ-tē hiong County Yes 24 Rural township 鄉 xiāng hiong County Yes 122 Urban township 鎮 zhèn tìn County Yes 38 County-controlled city 縣轄市 xiànxiáshì koān-hat-chhī County Yes 14 Mountain indigenous district 原住民區 yuánzhùmín qū gôan-chū-bîn khu Special municipality Yes 6 District 區 qū khu Special municipality Provincial city No 164 According to the Local Government Act, a county is divided into townships and county-controlled cities. The county seat or place with population between 100,000 and 500,000 may become a county-controlled city. A special municipality or a provincial city is divided into districts. The townships, county-controlled cities in counties, and mountain indigenous district in special municipalities are also local self-governance bodies. Each division has its own executive called "township/city/district office" and own legislature called "township/city/district council". The city mayors, township/district chiefs and all legislators are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. The normal districts in special municipalities and provincial cities are governed as branches of the municipality/city government and do not hold any local self-governance power. The mountain indigenous township and districts are created for its significant population of Taiwanese aborigines, in these divisions, only Taiwanese aborigines may be elected to be the township/district chiefs. Lower-level administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Village (Taiwan) The 368 divisions are further divided into villages and to neighborhoods. Name Chinese Pinyin Pe̍h-ōe-jī Administered by No. Rural village 村 cūn chhun Mountain indigenous township Rural township 7835 Urban village 里 lǐ lí Urban township County-controlled city Mountain indigenous district District Neighborhood 鄰 lín lîn Rural village Urban village 147,877 The village chiefs are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. The neighborhood chiefs are appointed by the village chief.


Other issues[edit] Joint Service Centers of Executive Yuan[edit] See also: Regions of Taiwan The central government operates five regional Joint Service Centers (JSC, 區域聯合服務中心) outside Taipei as outposts of the government ministries in the Executive Yuan, similar to the cross-departmental mode of working in the former Government Offices in England. These regions, laid out the Comprehensive National Spatial Development Plan for Taiwan (臺灣地區國土綜合開發計劃), can be considered a de facto level of government, perhaps equivalent to the English regions or the federal districts of Russia. Name Chinese Date of creation Service area Southern Taiwan JSC 南部聯合服務中心 Jun. 1, 1998 Kaohsiung, Penghu, Pingtung Central Taiwan JSC 中部聯合服務中心 May 14, 2003 Changhua, Miaoli, Nantou, Taichung Eastern Taiwan JSC 東部聯合服務中心 Sep. 29, 2007 Hualien, Taitung Yunlin-Chiayi-Tainan JSC 雲嘉南區聯合服務中心 Mar. 27, 2012 Chiayi (city and county), Tainan, Yunlin Kinmen-Matsu JSC 金馬聯合服務中心 Jan. 18, 2017 Kinmen, Lienchiang The divisions of northern Taiwan are not covered by any JSC, including Hsinchu (city and county), Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan and Yilan. They are served directly by the headquarter of Executive Yuan in Taipei. Romanization[edit] Main article: Chinese language romanization in Taiwan The romanization used for Taiwanese placenames above the county level is a modified form of Wade–Giles, ignoring the apostrophes and hyphens of the original, thus yielding "Taipei" instead of "T'ai-pei" and "Yilan" instead of "I-lan", for example. Some postal romanizations also exist, like "Keelung" and "Kinmen". In 2002, the ROC adopted Tongyong Pinyin as its national standard for romanization. Most townships and county-controlled cities changed their romanization to Tongyong Pinyin at that time. However, some local administrations, like Taipei and Taichung, decided to use Hanyu Pinyin. In 2009, Tongyong Pinyin was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin as the ROC government standard.[8][9] Currently, most of the divisions are romanized by Hanyu Pinyin system, but some local governments still use Tongyong Pinyin, like Kaohsiung. In 2011, the ROC Ministry of the Interior restored historical romanizations for two towns, Lukang and Tamsui.


See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Administrative divisions of Taiwan. History of Taiwan History of the Republic of China Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945) History of the administrative divisions of China (1912–49) ISO 3166-2:TW


References[edit] ^ Hwang, Jim (October 1999). "Gone with the Times". Taiwan Review. Retrieved 2012-01-11.  ^ "歷時28年 臺北縣今升格為準直轄市 (After 28 years, Taipei County today is promoted to quasi-municipality status)". 國立教育廣播電台新聞. 2007-10-01. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009.  ^ "升格為準直轄市 / 元旦改制日 桃園人口須維持200萬)". Liberty Times. 2010-12-07.  ^ "三都十五縣 馬指示漸進推動 (Ma directs gradual progression towards 3 municipalities and 15 counties)". Liberty Times. 2008-12-27. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009.  ^ "縣市升格 北中高過關 南縣市補考 (Promotion of Cities and Counties: Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung approved; Tainan awaits further examination)". Liberty Times. 2009-06-24. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009.  ^ "臺灣再添直轄市". Wikinews. 2009-06-29.  ^ 中華民國國情簡介 政府組織 Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. 2008-09-18.  ^ "Gov't to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 2008-09-18. 


External links[edit] Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Annotated Republic of China Laws/Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China/Article 9 "Local Government Act (地方制度法)". Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  "Romanizations for county-level and township-level entities" (PDF). Department of Land Administration, Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  v t e Administrative divisions of Taiwan Special municipalities (6) Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan Provincial cities (3) Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung Counties (13) Changhua Chiayi Hsinchu Hualien Kinmen Lienchiang Miaoli Nantou Penghu Pingtung Taitung Yilan Yunlin Free area of the Republic of China Streamlined Provinces Taiwan Fujian List of administrative divisions of Taiwan v t e List of administrative divisions of Taiwan Administrative divisions of Taiwan Special municipalities Provincial cities Counties Kaohsiung City New Taipei City Taichung City Tainan City Taipei City Taoyuan City Chiayi City Hsinchu City Keelung City Changhua County Chiayi County Hsinchu County Hualien County Kinmen County Lienchiang County Miaoli County Nantou County Penghu County Pingtung County Taitung County Yilan County Yunlin County Districts County-controlled cities and Townships See also Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945) and Political divisions of China (1912–49) v t e Taiwan articles History Timeline of Taiwanese history Prehistory archaeological sites Dutch Formosa Spanish Formosa Kingdom of Tungning Qing Empire Republic of Formosa Empire of Japan Republic of China Geography Overviews Cities Climate Earthquakes Endemic species / Protected species Hot springs Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Rivers Scenic areas Superlatives Volcanoes Government Politics Economy Government and politics Censorship Constitution Elections Government Human rights LGBT rights LGBT history Intelligence Law enforcement nationality Legislative Yuan (parliament) Military conscription President Political parties Propaganda North–South divide Administrative divisions Special municipalities Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan Cities Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung Counties Changhua Chiayi Hsinchu Hualien Kinmen Matsu Miaoli Nantou Pingtung Taitung Yilan Yunlin Political issues Foreign relations Cross-Strait relations Political status of Taiwan One Country on Each Side Special non-state-to-state relations Two Chinas Chinese Taipei Taiwanization De-Sinicization Taiwanese nationalism Chinese nationalism Taiwan independence Chinese unification Economy Banks Central bank Companies Dollar (currency) Economic history Energy Electricity Mining Metropolitan areas Stock exchange Taiwan Miracle Telecommunications Transportation Taxation Uniform Invoice lottery People Society Culture People Demographics Taiwanese people Taiwanese aborigines Hans Hoklos Hakkas Languages Chinese Mandarin Hokkien Hakka Formosan languages Amis Atayal Bunun Paiwan Puyuma Rukai Saisiyat Seediq Thao Tsou Yami Sign Language Society Anthem Architecture Education Universities Academia Sinica Scholarships History Ministry of Science and Technology Academia Sinica Flag Flag Anthem Emblem Healthcare Inventions and discoveries International rankings Public holidays Superlatives Women Culture Animation Cinema Cuisine Cultural history Gambling Glove puppetry Literature Media NCC television Public Television Service Music Taiwanese opera Night markets Photography Religion Smoking Sports Tea Tourist attractions Category Portal v t e Administrative divisions of Asia Sovereign states Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan Dependencies and other territories British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau v t e Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries Sovereign states Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan1 Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China province municipality autonomous region SAR Cyprus Egypt1 Georgia1 India Indonesia1 Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan1 North Korea province special city South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestine Philippines Qatar Russia1 Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste (East Timor) Turkey1 Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen1 States with limited recognition Northern Cyprus Taiwan 1 Country spanning more than one continent (transcontinental country). 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