Contents 1 Government 1.1 Relation to other levels of government 1.2 Classification 2 Richest provinces 3 List of provinces 4 Etymologies 5 History 5.1 Formally proposed provinces 5.2 Former provinces 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Government[edit] A provincial government is autonomous of other provinces within the Republic. Each province is governed by two main elected branches of the government: executive and legislative. Judicial affairs are separated from provincial governance and are administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Executive The provincial governor is chief executive and head of each province. Elected to a term of three years and limited to three consecutive terms, he or she appoints the directors of each provincial department which include the office of administration, engineering office, information office, legal office, and treasury office. Legislative Main article: Sangguniang Panlalawigan The vice governor acts as the president for each Sangguniáng Panlalawigan (SP; "Provincial Board"), the province's legislative body. Every SP is composed of regularly elected members from provincial districts, as well as ex officio members. The number of regularly elected SP members allotted to each province is determined by its income class. First- and second-class provinces are provided ten regular SP members; third- and fourth-class provinces have eight, while fifth- and sixth-class provinces have six. Exceptions are provinces with more than five congressional districts, such as Cavite with 14 regularly elected SP members, and Cebu, Negros Occidental and Pangasinan which have twelve each. Every SP has designated seats for ex officio members, given to the respective local presidents of the Association of Barangay Captains (ABC), Philippine Councilors' League (PCL), and Sangguniáng Kabataan (SK; "Youth Council"). The vice governor and regular members of an SP are elected by the voters within the province. Ex officio members are elected by members of their respective organisations. Relation to other levels of government[edit] National government National intrusion into the affairs of each provincial government is limited by the Philippine Constitution. The President of the Philippines however coordinates with provincial administrators through the Department of the Interior and Local Government. For purposes of national representation, each province is guaranteed its own congressional district. One congressional representative represents each district in the House of Representatives. Senatorial representation is elected at an at-large basis and not apportioned through territory-based districts. Cities and municipalities Main articles: Cities of the Philippines and Municipalities of the Philippines Those classified as either "highly urbanized" or "independent component" cities are independent from the province, as provided for in Section 29 of the Local Government Code of 1991.[2] Although such a city is a self-governing first-level entity, in many cases it is often presented as part of the province in which it is geographically located, or in the case of Zamboanga City, the province it last formed part the congressional representation of. Local government units classified as "component" cities and municipalities are under the jurisdiction of the provincial government. In order to make sure that all component city or municipal governments act within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions, the Local Government Code mandates the provincial governor to review executive orders issued by mayors, and the Sangguniang Panlalawigan to review legislation by the Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council) or Sangguniang Bayan (Municipal Council), of all component cities and municipalities under the province's jurisdiction.[2] Barangays The provincial government does not have direct relations with individual barangays. Supervision over a barangay government is the mandate of the mayor and the Sanggunian of the component city or municipality of which the barangay in question is a part.[2] Classification [edit] Provinces based on income classification. Richest provinces of the Philippines as of 2016. Provinces are classified according to average annual income based on the previous 4 calendar years. Effective July 29, 2008, the thresholds for the income classes for cities are:[3] Class Average annual income First ₱450 million or more Second ₱360 million or more but less than ₱450 million Third ₱270 million or more but less than ₱360 million Fourth ₱180 million or more but less than ₱270 million Fifth ₱90 million or more but less than ₱180 million Sixth below ₱90 million A province's income class determines the size of the membership of its Sangguniang Panlalawigan, and also how much it can spend on certain items, or procure through certain means.[2]

Richest provinces[edit] Six provinces from Luzon made it to the list while there are four from Visayas. Cebu remains the wealthiest province in the country.[4] Province Assets in 2016 Cebu ₱32.429 billion Rizal ₱11.73 billion Negros Occidental ₱11.042 billion Batangas ₱9.979 billion Bulacan ₱8.964 billion Palawan ₱8.199 billion Iloilo ₱8.144 billion Laguna ₱7.556 billion Nueva Ecija ₱7.227 billion Leyte ₱7.03 billion

List of provinces[edit] For a list of provinces with independent cities presented separately, see List of primary local government units of the Philippines. ISO[5] Province Capital Population[6] Area[7] Density Founded[A] Division Region Total LGUs % (2015) Town City Bgy. PH-ABR Abra Bangued 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 241,160 7009416525000000000♠4,165.25 km2 (1,608.21 sq mi) 6995580000000000000♠58/km2 (150/sq mi) 000000001846-01-01-00001846 Luzon CAR 27 — 303 PH-AGN Agusan del Norte[i] Cabadbaran[ii][8] 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 691,566 7009354686000000000♠3,546.86 km2 (1,369.45 sq mi) 6996189999999999999♠190/km2 (490/sq mi) 000000001907-09-20-000020 Sep 1907 Mindanao XIII 10 2 252 PH-AGS Agusan del Sur Prosperidad 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 700,653 7009998952000000000♠9,989.52 km2 (3,856.98 sq mi) 6995700000000000000♠70/km2 (180/sq mi) 000000001970-01-01-00001 Jan 1970 [9] Mindanao XIII 13 1 314 PH-AKL Aklan Kalibo 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 574,823 7009182142000000000♠1,821.42 km2 (703.25 sq mi) 6996320000000000000♠320/km2 (830/sq mi) 000000001956-11-08-00008 Nov 1956 [10] Visayas VI 17 — 327 PH-ALB Albay Legazpi 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 1,314,826 7009257577000000000♠2,575.77 km2 (994.51 sq mi) 6996509999999999999♠510/km2 (1,300/sq mi) 000000001574-04-03-00003 Apr 1574 [11] Luzon V 15 3 720 PH-ANT Antique San Jose 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 582,012 7009272917000000000♠2,729.17 km2 (1,053.74 sq mi) 6996209999999999999♠210/km2 (540/sq mi) 000000001917-03-10-000010 Mar 1917 Visayas VI 18 — 590 PH-APA Apayao Kabugao[iii] 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 119,184 7009441335000000000♠4,413.35 km2 (1,704.00 sq mi) 6995270000000000000♠27/km2 (70/sq mi) 000000001995-02-14-000014 Feb 1995 Luzon CAR 7 — 133 PH-AUR Aurora Baler 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 214,336 7009314732000000000♠3,147.32 km2 (1,215.19 sq mi) 6995680000000000000♠68/km2 (180/sq mi) 000000001979-08-13-000013 Aug 1979 Luzon III 8 — 151 PH-BAS Basilan[iv] Lamitan[13] 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 459,367 7009132723000000000♠1,327.23 km2 (512.45 sq mi)[14] 6996350000000000000♠350/km2 (910/sq mi) 000000001973-12-27-000027 Dec 1973 Mindanao ARMM[v] 11 2 255 PH-BAN Bataan Balanga 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 760,650 7009137298000000000♠1,372.98 km2 (530.11 sq mi) 6996549999999999999♠550/km2 (1,400/sq mi) 000000001754-01-01-00001754 Luzon III 11 1 237 PH-BTN Batanes Basco 5000000000000000000♠0.0% 17,246 7008219010000000000♠219.01 km2 (84.56 sq mi) 6995790000000000000♠79/km2 (200/sq mi) 000000001783-06-26-000026 Jun 1783 [15] Luzon II 6 — 29 PH-BTG Batangas Batangas City 7000270000000000000♠2.7% 2,694,335 7009311972000000000♠3,119.72 km2 (1,204.53 sq mi) 6996860000000000000♠860/km2 (2,200/sq mi) 000000001581-12-08-00008 Dec 1581 Luzon IV-A 31 3 1,078 PH-BEN Benguet[vi] La Trinidad 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 791,590 7009282659000000000♠2,826.59 km2 (1,091.35 sq mi) 6996279999999999999♠280/km2 (730/sq mi) 000000001966-06-16-000016 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 13 1 269 PH-BIL Biliran Naval 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 171,612 7008536010000000000♠536.01 km2 (206.95 sq mi) 6996320000000000000♠320/km2 (830/sq mi) 000000001992-05-11-000011 May 1992 Visayas VIII 8 — 132 PH-BOH Bohol Tagbilaran 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 1,313,560 7009482095000000000♠4,820.95 km2 (1,861.38 sq mi) 6996270000000000000♠270/km2 (700/sq mi) 000000001854-07-22-000022 Jul 1854 [16] Visayas VII 47 1 1,109 PH-BUK Bukidnon Malaybalay 7000140000000099999♠1.4% 1,415,226 7010104985900000000♠10,498.59 km2 (4,053.53 sq mi) 6996129999999999999♠130/km2 (340/sq mi) 000000001917-03-10-000010 Mar 1917 Mindanao X 20 2 464 PH-BUL Bulacan Malolos 7000330000000000000♠3.3% 3,292,071 7009279610000000000♠2,796.10 km2 (1,079.58 sq mi) 6997119999999999999♠1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi) 000000001578-08-15-000015 Aug 1578 Luzon III 21 3 569 PH-CAG Cagayan Tuguegarao 7000120000000000000♠1.2% 1,199,320 7009929575000000000♠9,295.75 km2 (3,589.11 sq mi) 6996129999999999999♠130/km2 (340/sq mi) 000000001583-06-29-000029 Jun 1583 [17] Luzon II 28 1 820 PH-CAN Camarines Norte Daet 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 583,313 7009232007000000000♠2,320.07 km2 (895.78 sq mi) 6996250000000000000♠250/km2 (650/sq mi) 000000001920-04-15-000015 Apr 1920 [18] Luzon V 12 — 282 PH-CAS Camarines Sur[vii] Pili 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 1,952,544 7009549703000000000♠5,497.03 km2 (2,122.42 sq mi) 6996359999999999999♠360/km2 (930/sq mi) 000000001579-05-27-000027 May 1579 [19] Luzon V 35 2 1,063 PH-CAM Camiguin Mambajao 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 88,478 7008237950000000000♠237.95 km2 (91.87 sq mi) 6996370000000000000♠370/km2 (960/sq mi) 000000001966-06-18-000018 Jun 1966 Mindanao X 5 — 58 PH-CAP Capiz Roxas 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 761,384 7009259464000000000♠2,594.64 km2 (1,001.80 sq mi) 6996290000000000000♠290/km2 (750/sq mi) 000000001917-03-10-000010 Mar 1917 Visayas VI 16 1 473 PH-CAT Catanduanes Virac 6999300000000000000♠0.3% 260,964 7009149216000000000♠1,492.16 km2 (576.13 sq mi) 6996170000000000000♠170/km2 (440/sq mi) 000000001945-09-26-000026 Sep 1945 Luzon V 11 — 315 PH-CAV Cavite Imus City[20] 7000360000000000000♠3.6% 3,678,301 7009157417000000000♠1,574.17 km2 (607.79 sq mi) 6997230000000000000♠2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi) 000000001614-03-10-000010 Mar 1614 [21] Luzon IV-A 17 6 829 PH-CEB Cebu[viii] Cebu City[22] 7000460000000099999♠4.6% 4,632,359 7009534200000000000♠5,342.00 km2 (2,062.56 sq mi) 6996870000000000000♠870/km2 (2,300/sq mi) 000000001565-04-27-000027 Apr 1565 Visayas VII 44 9 1,203 PH-COM Compostela Valley Nabunturan 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 736,107 7009447977000000000♠4,479.77 km2 (1,729.65 sq mi) 6996160000000000000♠160/km2 (410/sq mi) 000000001998-01-31-000031 Jan 1998 Mindanao XI 11 — 237 PH-NCO Cotabato Kidapawan 7000140000000099999♠1.4% 1,379,747 7009900890000000000♠9,008.90 km2 (3,478.36 sq mi) 6996150000000000000♠150/km2 (390/sq mi) 000000001914-09-01-00001 Sep 1914 [23] Mindanao XII 17 1 543 PH-DAV Davao del Norte Tagum 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 1,016,332 7009342697000000000♠3,426.97 km2 (1,323.16 sq mi) 6996300000000000000♠300/km2 (780/sq mi) 000000001967-05-08-00008 May 1967 Mindanao XI 8 3 223 PH-DAS Davao del Sur[ix] Digos 7000220000000000000♠2.2% 2,265,579 7009460759000000000♠4,607.59 km2 (1,779.00 sq mi) 6996490000000000000♠490/km2 (1,300/sq mi) 000000001914-09-01-00001 Sep 1914 Mindanao XI 9 2 414 PH-DVO Davao Occidental Malita 6999300000000000000♠0.3% 316,342 7009216345000000000♠2,163.45 km2 (835.31 sq mi) 6996150000000000000♠150/km2 (390/sq mi) 000000002013-10-28-000028 Oct 2013 Mindanao XI 5 — 105 PH-DAO Davao Oriental Mati 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 558,958 7009567964000000000♠5,679.64 km2 (2,192.92 sq mi) 6995980000000000000♠98/km2 (250/sq mi) 000000001967-05-08-00008 May 1967 Mindanao XI 10 1 183 PH-DIN Dinagat Islands San Jose 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 127,152 7009103633999999999♠1,036.34 km2 (400.13 sq mi) 6996119999999999999♠120/km2 (310/sq mi) 000000002006-12-02-00002 Dec 2006 Mindanao XIII 7 — 100 PH-EAS Eastern Samar Borongan 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 467,160 7009466047000000000♠4,660.47 km2 (1,799.42 sq mi) 6996099999999999999♠100/km2 (260/sq mi) 000000001965-06-19-000019 Jun 1965 Visayas VIII 22 1 597 PH-GUI Guimaras Jordan 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 174,613 7008604570000000000♠604.57 km2 (233.43 sq mi) 6996290000000000000♠290/km2 (750/sq mi) 000000001992-05-22-000022 May 1992 Visayas VI 5 — 98 PH-IFU Ifugao Lagawe 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 202,802 7009262821000000000♠2,628.21 km2 (1,014.76 sq mi) 6995770000000000000♠77/km2 (200/sq mi) 000000001966-06-18-000018 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 11 — 175 PH-ILN Ilocos Norte Laoag 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 593,081 7009346789000000000♠3,467.89 km2 (1,338.96 sq mi) 6996170000000000000♠170/km2 (440/sq mi) 000000001818-02-02-00002 Feb 1818 Luzon I 21 2 557 PH-ILS Ilocos Sur Vigan 6999700000000000000♠0.7% 689,668 7009259600000000000♠2,596.00 km2 (1,002.32 sq mi) 6996270000000000000♠270/km2 (700/sq mi) 000000001572-01-01-00001572 Luzon I 32 2 768 PH-ILI Iloilo[x] Iloilo City[22] 7000240000000000000♠2.4% 2,384,415 7009507917000000000♠5,079.17 km2 (1,961.08 sq mi) 6996470000000000000♠470/km2 (1,200/sq mi) 000000001566-01-01-00001566 Visayas VI 42 2 1,901 PH-ISA Isabela[xi] Ilagan 7000160000000000000♠1.6% 1,593,566 7010124149300000000♠12,414.93 km2 (4,793.43 sq mi) 6996129999999999999♠130/km2 (340/sq mi) 000000001856-05-01-00001 May 1856 Luzon II 34 3 1,055 PH-KAL Kalinga Tabuk 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 212,680 7009323125000000000♠3,231.25 km2 (1,247.59 sq mi) 6995659999999999999♠66/km2 (170/sq mi) 000000001966-06-18-000018 Jun 1966 Luzon CAR 7 1 152 PH-LUN La Union San Fernando 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 786,653 7009149770000000000♠1,497.70 km2 (578.27 sq mi) 6996530000000000000♠530/km2 (1,400/sq mi) 000000001850-03-02-00002 Mar 1850 Luzon I 19 1 576 PH-LAG Laguna Santa Cruz 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 3,035,081 7009191785000000000♠1,917.85 km2 (740.49 sq mi) 6997160000000000000♠1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi) 000000001571-07-28-000028 Jul 1571 Luzon IV-A 24 6 674 PH-LAN Lanao del Norte[xii] Tubod 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 1,019,013 7009415993999999999♠4,159.94 km2 (1,606.16 sq mi) 6996239999999999999♠240/km2 (620/sq mi) 000000001959-07-04-00004 Jul 1959 Mindanao X 22 1 506 PH-LAS Lanao del Sur Marawi 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 1,045,429 7009387289000000000♠3,872.89 km2 (1,495.33 sq mi)[24] 6996270000000000000♠270/km2 (700/sq mi) 000000001914-09-01-00001 Sep 1914 Mindanao ARMM 39 1 1,159 PH-LEY Leyte[xiii] Tacloban[22] 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 1,966,768 7009651505000000000♠6,515.05 km2 (2,515.47 sq mi) 6996300000000000000♠300/km2 (780/sq mi) 000000001735-01-01-00001735 Visayas VIII 40 3 1,641 PH-MAG Maguindanao[xiv] Shariff Aguak 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 1,473,371 7009614653000000000♠6,146.53 km2 (2,373.19 sq mi)[25] 6996239999999999999♠240/km2 (620/sq mi) 000000001973-11-22-000022 Nov 1973 Mindanao ARMM 36 1 545 PH-MAD Marinduque Boac 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 234,521 7008952580000000000♠952.58 km2 (367.79 sq mi) 6996250000000000000♠250/km2 (650/sq mi) 000000001920-02-21-000021 Feb 1920 Luzon IV-B 6 — 218 PH-MAS Masbate Masbate City 6999900000000000000♠0.9% 892,393 7009415177999999999♠4,151.78 km2 (1,603.01 sq mi) 6996209999999999999♠210/km2 (540/sq mi) 000000001901-03-18-000018 Mar 1901 [26] Luzon V 20 1 550 PH-MSC Misamis Occidental Oroquieta 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 602,126 7009205521999999999♠2,055.22 km2 (793.52 sq mi) 6996290000000000000♠290/km2 (750/sq mi) 000000001929-11-08-00008 Nov 1929 Mindanao X 14 3 490 PH-MSR Misamis Oriental[xv] Cagayan de Oro[22] 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 1,564,459 7009354432000000000♠3,544.32 km2 (1,368.47 sq mi) 6996439999999999999♠440/km2 (1,100/sq mi) 000000001901-05-15-000015 May 1901 Mindanao X 23 3 504 PH-MOU Mountain Province Bontoc 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 154,590 7009215738000000000♠2,157.38 km2 (832.97 sq mi) 6995720000000000000♠72/km2 (190/sq mi) 000000001846-01-01-00001846 Luzon CAR 10 — 144 PH-NEC Negros Occidental[xvi] Bacolod[22] 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 3,059,136 7009796521000000000♠7,965.21 km2 (3,075.38 sq mi) 6996379999999999999♠380/km2 (980/sq mi) 000000001890-01-01-00001 Jan 1890 [27] Visayas VI 19 13 662 PH-NER Negros Oriental Dumaguete 7000130000000000000♠1.3% 1,354,995 7009538553000000000♠5,385.53 km2 (2,079.36 sq mi) 6996250000000000000♠250/km2 (650/sq mi) 000000001890-01-01-00001 Jan 1890 [28] Visayas VII 20 6 557 PH-NSA Northern Samar Catarman 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 632,379 7009369293000000000♠3,692.93 km2 (1,425.85 sq mi) 6996170000000000000♠170/km2 (440/sq mi) 000000001965-06-19-000019 Jun 1965 Visayas VIII 24 — 569 PH-NUE Nueva Ecija Palayan[xvii] 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 2,151,461 7009575133000000000♠5,751.33 km2 (2,220.60 sq mi) 6996370000000000000♠370/km2 (960/sq mi) 000000001801-04-25-000025 Apr 1801 [29] Luzon III 27 5 849 PH-NUV Nueva Vizcaya Bayombong 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 452,287 7009397567000000000♠3,975.67 km2 (1,535.01 sq mi) 6996109999999999999♠110/km2 (280/sq mi) 000000001839-05-24-000024 May 1839 [30] Luzon II 15 — 275 PH-MDC Occidental Mindoro Mamburao 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 487,414 7009586571000000000♠5,865.71 km2 (2,264.76 sq mi) 6995830000000000000♠83/km2 (210/sq mi) 000000001950-11-15-000015 Nov 1950 [31] Luzon IV-B 11 — 162 PH-MDR Oriental Mindoro Calapan 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 844,059 7009423838000000000♠4,238.38 km2 (1,636.45 sq mi) 6996199999999999999♠200/km2 (520/sq mi) 000000001663-01-01-00001663 Luzon IV-B 14 1 426 PH-PLW Palawan[xviii] Puerto Princesa[22] 7000110000000000000♠1.1% 1,104,585 7010170307500000000♠17,030.75 km2 (6,575.61 sq mi) 6995650000000000000♠65/km2 (170/sq mi) 000000001902-01-23-000023 Jan 1902 Luzon IV-B 23 1 433 PH-PAM Pampanga[xix] San Fernando 7000260000000000000♠2.6% 2,609,744 7009206246999999999♠2,062.47 km2 (796.32 sq mi) 6997130000000000000♠1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi) 000000001571-12-11-000011 Dec 1571 Luzon III 19 3 538 PH-PAN Pangasinan[xx] Lingayen 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 2,956,726 7009545101000000000♠5,451.01 km2 (2,104.65 sq mi) 6996540000000000000♠540/km2 (1,400/sq mi) 000000001580-04-05-00005 Apr 1580 [32] Luzon I 44 4 1,364 PH-QUE Quezon[xxi] Lucena[22] 7000210000000000000♠2.1% 2,122,830 7009906960000000000♠9,069.60 km2 (3,501.79 sq mi) 6996229999999999999♠230/km2 (600/sq mi) 000000001901-03-02-00002 Mar 1901 Luzon IV-A 39 2 1,242 PH-QUI Quirino Cabarroguis 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 188,991 7009232347000000000♠2,323.47 km2 (897.10 sq mi) 6995809999999999999♠81/km2 (210/sq mi) 000000001966-06-18-000018 Jun 1966 Luzon II 6 — 132 PH-RIZ Rizal Pasig[xxii] 7000290000000000000♠2.9% 2,884,227 7009119194000000000♠1,191.94 km2 (460.21 sq mi) 6997239999999999999♠2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi) 000000001853-02-23-000023 Feb 1853 Luzon IV-A 13 1 188 PH-ROM Romblon Romblon 6999300000000000000♠0.3% 292,781 7009153345000000000♠1,533.45 km2 (592.07 sq mi) 6996189999999999999♠190/km2 (490/sq mi) 000000001901-03-16-000016 Mar 1901 [34] Luzon IV-B 17 — 219 PH-WSA Samar Catbalogan 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 780,481 7009604803000000000♠6,048.03 km2 (2,335.16 sq mi) 6996129999999999999♠130/km2 (340/sq mi) 000000001768-01-01-00001768 Visayas VIII 24 2 951 PH-SAR Sarangani Alabel 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 544,261 7009360125000000000♠3,601.25 km2 (1,390.45 sq mi) 6996150000000000000♠150/km2 (390/sq mi) 000000001992-03-16-000016 Mar 1992 Mindanao XII 7 — 141 PH-SIG Siquijor Siquijor 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 95,984 7008337490000000000♠337.49 km2 (130.31 sq mi) 6996279999999999999♠280/km2 (730/sq mi) 000000001971-09-17-000017 Sep 1971 Visayas VII 6 — 134 PH-SOR Sorsogon Sorsogon City 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 792,949 7009211901000000000♠2,119.01 km2 (818.15 sq mi) 6996370000000000000♠370/km2 (960/sq mi) 000000001894-10-17-000017 Oct 1894 Luzon V 14 1 541 PH-SCO South Cotabato[xxiii] Koronadal 7000150000000000000♠1.5% 1,509,735 7009442881000000000♠4,428.81 km2 (1,709.97 sq mi) 6996340000000000000♠340/km2 (880/sq mi) 000000001966-06-18-000018 Jun 1966 Mindanao XII 10 2 225 PH-SLE Southern Leyte Maasin 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 421,750 7009179861000000000♠1,798.61 km2 (694.45 sq mi) 6996229999999999999♠230/km2 (600/sq mi) 000000001959-05-22-000022 May 1959 Visayas VIII 18 1 500 PH-SUK Sultan Kudarat Isulan 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 812,095 7009529834000000000♠5,298.34 km2 (2,045.70 sq mi) 6996150000000000000♠150/km2 (390/sq mi) 000000001973-11-22-000022 Nov 1973 Mindanao XII 11 1 249 PH-SLU Sulu Jolo 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 824,731 7009160040000000000♠1,600.40 km2 (617.92 sq mi)[35] 6996519999999999999♠520/km2 (1,300/sq mi) 000000001917-03-10-000010 Mar 1917 Mindanao ARMM 19 — 410 PH-SUN Surigao del Norte Surigao City 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 485,088 7009197293000000000♠1,972.93 km2 (761.75 sq mi) 6996250000000000000♠250/km2 (650/sq mi) 000000001901-05-15-000015 May 1901 Mindanao XIII 20 1 335 PH-SUR Surigao del Sur Tandag 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 592,250 7009493270000000000♠4,932.70 km2 (1,904.53 sq mi) 6996119999999999999♠120/km2 (310/sq mi) 000000001960-06-16-000016 Jun 1960 Mindanao XIII 17 2 309 PH-TAR Tarlac Tarlac City 7000140000000099999♠1.4% 1,366,027 7009305360000000000♠3,053.60 km2 (1,179.00 sq mi) 6996450000000000000♠450/km2 (1,200/sq mi) 000000001873-03-28-000028 Mar 1873 [36][37] Luzon III 17 1 511 PH-TAW Tawi-Tawi Bongao[38] 6999400000000000000♠0.4% 390,715 7009108740000000000♠1,087.40 km2 (419.85 sq mi)[39] 6996359999999999999♠360/km2 (930/sq mi) 000000001973-09-11-000011 Sep 1973 Mindanao ARMM 11 — 203 PH-ZMB Zambales[xxiv] Iba 6999800000000000000♠0.8% 823,888 7009383083000000000♠3,830.83 km2 (1,479.09 sq mi) 6996219999999999999♠220/km2 (570/sq mi) 000000001578-01-01-00001578 Luzon III 13 1 247 PH-ZAN Zamboanga del Norte Dipolog 7000100000000000000♠1.0% 1,011,393 7009730100000000000♠7,301.00 km2 (2,818.93 sq mi) 6996139999999999999♠140/km2 (360/sq mi) 000000001952-06-06-00006 Jun 1952 Mindanao IX 25 2 691 PH-ZAS Zamboanga del Sur[xxv] Pagadian 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 1,872,473 7009591416000000000♠5,914.16 km2 (2,283.47 sq mi) 6996320000000000000♠320/km2 (830/sq mi) 000000001914-09-01-00001 Sep 1914 Mindanao IX 26 2 779 PH-ZSI Zamboanga Sibugay Ipil 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 633,129 7009360775000000000♠3,607.75 km2 (1,392.96 sq mi) 6996179999999999999♠180/km2 (470/sq mi) 000000002001-02-22-000022 Feb 2001 Mindanao IX 16 — 389 PH-00 Metro Manila Manila † 7001128000000000000♠12.8% 12,877,253 7008638550000000000♠638.55 km2 (246.55 sq mi) 6998200000000000000♠20,000/km2 (52,000/sq mi) — Luzon NCR[B] 1 16 1,706 ^ Dates could refer to provincehood as established during the Spanish period, American period, or through Republic Acts. ^ Metro Manila is included for comparison although it is not a province but an administrative region. Table notes ^ Figures include the independent city of Butuan. ^ Cabadbaran has been made the official capital of the province, as per Republic Act No. 8811. However, the seat of the provincial government is still in the process of being transferred from Butuan, where the provincial government still holds office. ^ The province maintains another government center in Luna, where many national and provincial agencies now hold office.[12] ^ Figures include the city of Isabela. ^ The city of Isabela is served by the offices of Region IX. ^ Figures include the independent city of Baguio. ^ Figures include the independent city of Naga. ^ Figures include the independent cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue. ^ Figures include the independent city of Davao. ^ Figures include the independent city of Iloilo. ^ Figures include the independent city of Santiago. ^ Figures include the independent city of Iligan. ^ Figures include the independent cities of Ormoc and Tacloban. ^ Figures include the independent city of Cotabato. ^ Figures include the independent city of Cagayan de Oro. ^ Figures include the independent city of Bacolod. ^ The provincial government still uses and maintains facilities in the former capital, Cabanatuan. ^ Figures include the independent city of Puerto Princesa. ^ Figures include the independent city of Angeles. ^ Figures include the independent city of Dagupan. ^ Figures include the independent city of Lucena. ^ The provincial government has already transferred its operations to Antipolo from Pasig, although no legislation on the national level has been enacted yet recognizing the new capital.[33] ^ Figures include the independent city of General Santos. ^ Figures include the independent city of Olongapo. ^ Figures include the independent city of Zamboanga.

Etymologies[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Philippine provincial name etymologies.

History[edit] This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (August 2013) This section provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. Please help improve the article with a good introductory style. (August 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) When the United States acquired the Philippines from Spain in 1898, the islands were divided into four gobiernos (governments), which were further subdivided into provinces and districts. The American administration initially inherited the Spanish divisions and placed them under military government. As insurgencies were pacified, civil government was gradually organized. November 23, 1900: Civil government of the province of Benguet established through Act No. 49. Capital moved to Baguio. February 6, 1901: Act No. 83 ("The Provincial Government Act") enacted by the Philippine Commission. February 13, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Pampanga through Act No. 85. February 16, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Pangasinan through Act No. 86. Towns of Balungao, Rosales, San Quintin and Umingan annexed from Nueva Ecija. February 18, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Tarlac through Act No. 87. February 27, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Bulacan through Act No. 88. Capital moved to Malolos. March 2, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Bataan through Act No. 92. March 12, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Tayabas through Act No. 103. Capital moved to Lucena. March 16, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Romblon, elevated from Spanish-era status of District, through Act No. 104. March 18, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Masbate, elevated from Spanish-era status of District, through Act No. 105. April 11, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Iloilo, formed through the merging of the Spanish-era Province of Iloilo with the Comandancia of Concepcion, through Act No. 113. April 13, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Antique through Act No. 114. April 15, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Capiz through Act No. 115. April 18, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Cebu through Act No. 116. April 20, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Bohol through Act No. 117. April 22, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Leyte through Act No. 121. April 26, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Albay through Act No. 122. April 27, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Ambos Camarines through Act No. 123. April 30, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Sorsogon through Act No. 124. May 1, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Occidental Negros and Oriental Negros through Acts No. 119 and 120, respectively, enacted on April 20, 1901; Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to newly created Marinduque through Act No. 125. May 2, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Batangas through Act No. 126. May 15, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Surigao, elevated from Spanish-era status of District, through Act No. 127; Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Misamis through Act No. 128. June 11, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to newly created Rizal, formed through the merging of the Politico-Military District of Morong with the entire province of Manila except the territory of the city of Manila, through Act No. 137; Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Cavite through Act No. 138. Annexed Lubang and adjacent islands to the province. Provincial government provided an option to move capital from the town of Cavite; Provisions of the Provincial Government Act extended to Nueva Ecija through Act No. 139. Provincial government provided an option to move capital from the town of San Isidro. July 16, 1901: Catanduanes annexed to Albay through Act No. 169. July 17, 1901: Batangas, Bohol and Cebu placed under the control of military governors through Act No. 173. August 15, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to La Union through Act No. 203. August 16, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Ilocos Sur through Act No. 205. August 19, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Abra, excluding its territory east of the crest of the Cordillera Central, through Act No. 206. August 20, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Ilocos Norte through Act No. 207. August 22, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Cagayan through Act No. 209. The Babuyan Islands and the Spanish-era province of Batanes annexed to the province. August 24, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Isabela through Act No. 210. August 28, 1901: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Zambales through Act No. 211. January 1, 1902: Civil government of the Province of Cebu restored through Act No. 322 enacted on December 20, 1901. January 28, 1902: Civil government of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya established through Act No. 337. April 1, 1902: Civil government of the Province of Bohol restored through Act No. 365 enacted on March 3, 1902. May 28, 1902: Spanish-era comandancias of Amburayan, Bontoc and Lepanto organized into sub-provinces under the new province of Lepanto-Bontoc through Act No. 410. Areas between Abra and Cagayan not yet placed under the jurisdiction of any province annexed as part of the sub-province of Bontoc. June 12, 1902: Spanish-era districts of El Principe and Infanta, including the Polillo Islands, annexed to Tayabas through Act No. 417. June 17, 1902: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to Samar through Act No. 419. June 23, 1902: Civil government of the Province of Paragua established through Act No. 422; Mindoro, Lubang and surrounding small islands annexed to Marinduque through Act No. 423. July 1, 1902: Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to La Laguna through Act No. 424. November 10, 1902: Marinduque annexed to Tayabas through Act No. 499; Provisions of the Provincial Government Act and its amendments extended to newly created Mindoro, separated from Marinduque through Act No. 500. May 14, 1903: Cagayancillo, Balabac and the rest of Palawan Island (south of Tapul and Ulugan rivers) annexed to Paragua through Act No. 747. Provincial government provided the option to choose capital between Cuyo or Puerto Princesa. May 26, 1903: Spanish-era Comandancia of Kayapa annexed to Benguet through Act No. 768. July 15, 1903: Moro Province formed, composed of the districts of Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu, and Zamboanga through Act No. 787 enacted on June 1, 1903. April 1, 1905: Abra annexed to Ilocos Sur as sub-province through Act No. 1306 enacted on February 27, 1905. June 28, 1905: Name of Paragua changed to Palawan through Act No. 1363. January 1, 1906: Masbate annexed to Sorsogon as sub-province through Act No. 1413 enacted on November 23, 1905. May 9, 1907: Apayao and Kalinga established as sub-provinces of Cagayan and Lepanto-Bontoc, respectively, through Act No. 1642. July 15, 1907: Romblon (except the island of Maestro de Campo, annexed to Mindoro) annexed to Capiz as sub-province through Act No. 1665 enacted on July 2, 1907. August 10, 1907: Marinduque declared a sub-province of Tayabas through Act No. 1649 enacted on May 17, 1907. August 20, 1907: Act No. 1693 creates Agusan (composed of the sub-provinces of Butuan and Bukidnon), and establishes Batanes as a sub-province of Cagayan. October 8, 1907: Siquijor established as sub-province of Negros Oriental through Act No. 1753. Catanduanes established as sub-province of Albay through Act No. 1331. August 18, 1908: Mountain Province, with seven sub-provinces, formed by merging territories of the entire province of Lepanto-Bontoc (with Amburayan, Bontoc, Kalinga and Lepanto sub-provinces); the district in the province of Nueva Vizcaya that formerly the comprised the Spanish-era Comandancia of Quiangan (annexed as Ifugao sub-province); the entire province of Benguet except Baguio City (annexed as Benguet sub-province); and Apayao sub-province in Cagayan, through Act No. 1876. May 20, 1909: Batanes re-established as province, separated from Cagayan through Act No. 1952. December 20, 1913: Act No. 2309 renames Moro Province to Department of Mindanao and Sulu and annexes Agusan (with Bukidnon sub-province) to the Department. Department of Mindanao and Sulu formally organized on January 1, 1914. September 1, 1914: Department of Mindanao and Sulu provided with autonomous government through Act No. 2408 enacted on July 23, 1914. Bukidnon sub-province and the former Moro Province districts of Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu and Zamboanga converted to provinces. March 9, 1917: Abra re-established as regular province, separated from Ilocos Sur through Act No. 2683. December 7, 1917: Romblon re-established as regular province, separated from Capiz through Act No. 2724. March 3, 1919: Ambos Camarines divided into Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur through Act No. 2809. February 4, 1920: Act No. 2877 abolishes Amburayan sub-province in the Mountain Province by annexing its municipal entities to Ilocos Sur and La Union; Lepanto sub-province reduced in size by annexing some of its municipal entities to Ilocos Sur and Benguet. November 21, 1920: Marinduque re-established as regular province, separated from Tayabas through Act No. 2880. December 15, 1920: Masbate re-established as regular province, separated from Sorsogon through Act No. 2934. March 27, 1923: Leyte divided into Occidental Leyte and Oriental Leyte through Act No. 3117, but never proclaimed by the governor-general. November 28, 1939: Division of Misamis into Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental implemented by virtue of Act No. 3777 (enacted on November 29, 1930), the law that amended Act No. 3537 (enacted on November 2, 1929) which first sought the division. June 8, 1940: Provincial government of Romblon abolished, municipal governments reorganized into four "special municipalities" through Commonwealth Act No. 581. January 1, 1942: Executive Order No. 400 issued by Manuel L. Quezon creates the City of Greater Manila, composed of the chartered cities of Manila and Quezon City with the following municipalities from the province of Rizal: Caloocan, Makati, Mandaluyong, Parañaque, Pasay and San Juan. May 18, 1942: Executive Order No. 43 issued by Jorge Vargas of the Japanese-era Philippine Executive Commission abolishes sub-provinces, annexing their municipalities to their respective provinces. Provisions of this order only apply for the duration of the Japanese occupation; revoked after the restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945. August 31, 1942: Executive Order No. 84 issued by Jorge Vargas abolishes the province of Batanes and annexes its municipalities to Cagayan; annexes the municipalities of Baler and Casiguran (corresponding to the entire present-day territory of Aurora) from Tayabas to Nueva Ecija; annexes the municipality of Infanta (including the present-day municipalities of General Nakar and Real) from Tayabas to Laguna; abolishes the province of Marinduque and annexes its municipalities to Tayabas; and abolishes the province of Romblon and annexes its special municipalities to Capiz. Provisions of this order only apply for the duration of the Japanese occupation; revoked after the restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945. November 1, 1942: Executive Order No. 103 issued by Jorge Vargas annexes the Polillo Islands from Tayabas to Laguna. Provisions of this order only apply for the duration of the Japanese occupation; revoked after the restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945. August 1, 1945: Executive Order No. 58 issued by Sergio Osmeña reduces the territory of the City of Greater Manila to only Manila and Quezon City, restoring Caloocan, Makati, Mandaluyong, Parañaque, Pasay and San Juan to Rizal. Republic Act No. 54 of October 10, 1946 later repeals Executive Order No. 400 (series 1942) and Executive Order No. 58 (series 1945), finally abolishing the City of Greater Manila and restoring the pre-war status of the chartered cities of Manila and Quezon City. October 26, 1945: Catanduanes established as regular province, separated from Albay through Commonwealth Act No. 687 enacted on September 26, 1945. September 7, 1946: Name of Tayabas changed to Quezon through Republic Act No. 14. October 1, 1946: CA 581 repealed and Romblon's provincial and municipal governments restored through Republic Act No. 38. June 13, 1950: Mindoro divided into Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro through Republic Act No. 505. June 14, 1951: Aurora established as sub-province of Quezon through Republic Act No. 648. June 6, 1952: Zamboanga divided into Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur through Republic Act No. 711. April 25, 1956: Aklan separated from Capiz through Republic Act No. 1414. June 22, 1956: Camiguin established as sub-province of Misamis Oriental through Republic Act No. 2021. April 8, 1959: Biliran established as sub-province of Leyte through Republic Act No. 2141. May 22, 1959: Lanao province divided into Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur through Republic Act No. 2228. July 1, 1959: Southern Leyte separated from Leyte through Republic Act No. 2227 approved on May 22, 1959. June 19, 1960: Surigao divided into Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur through Republic Act No. 2786. November 19, 1965: Plebiscite approves the division of Samar into Eastern Samar, Northern Samar, and Western Samar by virtue of Republic Act No. 4221 enacted on June 19, 1965. June 18, 1966: Guimaras established as sub-province of Iloilo through Republic Act No. 4667; Camiguin established as regular province, separated from Misamis Oriental through Republic Act No. 4669; Benguet re-established, and Ifugao and Kalinga-Apayao created, from Mountain Province through Republic Act No. 4695; Quirino established as sub-province of Nueva Vizcaya through Republic Act No. 4734; South Cotabato separated from Cotabato through Republic Act No. 4849. May 8, 1967: Davao province divided into Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, and Davao Oriental through Republic Act No. 4867. November 14, 1967: Plebiscite approves the division of Agusan into Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur by virtue of Republic Act No. 4979 enacted on June 17, 1967. June 21, 1969: Name of Western Samar province changed to Samar through Republic Act No. 5650. August 4, 1969: Samal sub-province created from Davao del Norte through Republic Act No. 5999, but never inaugurated. October 4, 1971: Maranaw province created from Lanao del Sur through Republic Act No. 6406, remained unorganized due to the disruption caused by the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines. November 11, 1971: Plebiscites approve the establishment of Quirino and Siquijor as regular provinces by virtue of Republic Act No. 6394 (approved on September 10, 1971) and Republic Act No. 6398 (approved on September 17, 1971), separating them from Nueva Vizcaya and Negros Oriental, respectively. June 17, 1972: Name of Davao del Norte changed to Davao through Republic Act No. 6430. September 11, 1973: Tawi-Tawi separated from Sulu through Presidential Decree No. 302. November 22, 1973: Cotabato divided into Maguindanao, North Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat through Presidential Decree No. 341. December 27, 1973: Basilan province created through Presidential Decree No. 356 out of most of the territory of the City of Basilan, which itself was delimited to only the downtown area of what is now Isabela City, then finally abolished by Presidential Decree No. 840 in 1975. November 7, 1975: Metro Manila established through Presidential Decree No. 824, composed of the four chartered cities of Manila, Caloocan, Pasay and Quezon City, and several municipalities of Rizal and Bulacan, all of which effectively became independent from provincial supervision. August 13, 1979: Aurora proclaimed a regular province, separated from Quezon through Batas Pambansa Blg. 7 enacted on November 21, 1978. Plebiscite held on May 20, 1979, approves provincehood. March 7, 1984: Name of North Cotabato province changed to Cotabato through Batas Pambansa Blg. 660. January 3, 1986: Plebiscite approves the separation of Negros del Norte from Negros Occidental by virtue of Batas Pambansa Blg. 885 enacted on December 3, 1985. August 18, 1986: BP No. 885 found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, Negros del Norte reverts as part of Negros Occidental. May 11, 1992: Plebsicites affirm the establishment of Biliran and Guimaras as regular provinces, separating them from Leyte and Iloilo, respectively, by virtue of Section 462 of Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) approved on October 10, 1991; Plebiscite approves the separation of Sarangani from South Cotabato by virtue of Republic Act No. 7228 approved on March 16, 1992. May 8, 1995: Plebiscite approves the division of Kalinga-Apayao into Apayao and Kalinga by virtue of Republic Act No. 7878 approved on February 14, 1995. March 7, 1998: Plebiscite approves the separation of Compostela Valley from Davao by virtue of Republic Act No. 8470 approved on January 30, 1998. Name of Davao changed back to Davao del Norte. February 22, 2001: Plebiscite approves the separation of Zamboanga Sibugay from Zamboanga del Sur by virtue of Republic Act No. 8973 approved on November 7, 2000. October 28, 2006: Plebiscite approves the separation of Shariff Kabunsuan from Maguindanao by virtue of Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 201 enacted on August 28, 2006. December 2, 2006: Plebiscite approves the separation of Dinagat Islands from Surigao del Norte by virtue of Republic Act No. 9355 approved on October 2, 2006. November 18, 2008: MMA Act No. 201 declared void by the Supreme Court, Shariff Kabunsuan reverts as part of Maguindanao. February 11, 2010: RA No. 9355 found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, Dinagat Islands reverts as part of Surigao del Norte. March 30, 2011: Supreme Court reverses its decision on Dinagat Islands and became a province once again. October 28, 2013: Plebiscite approves the separation of Davao Occidental from Davao del Sur by virtue of Republic Act No. 10360 approved on January 21, 2013. Formally proposed provinces[edit] Note: This section lists only those proposals that reached the stage where legislation was enacted for the purpose of establishing a province or sub-province, but never achieved corporate existence. Occidental Leyte and Oriental Leyte (1923) – Leyte was divided into two new provinces by Act No. 3117 on March 27, 1923.[40] The division never took place, however, as no proclamation was issued by the Governor-General. The province of Oriental Leyte would have covered the present-day territories of the entire province of Biliran, the municipalities of Abuyog, Alangalang, Babatngon, Barugo, Burauen, Calubian, Capoocan, Carigara, Dagami, Dulag, Jaro, Javier, Julita, La Paz, Leyte, MacArthur, Mahaplag, Mayorga, Palo, Pastrana, San Isidro, San Miguel, Santa Fe, Tabango, Tabontabon, Tanauan, Tolosa, Tunga and Tacloban City (which was designated as the provincial capital). The province of Occidental Leyte would have covered the present-day territories of the entire province of Southern Leyte, the municipalities of Albuera, Bato, Hilongos, Hindang, Inopacan, Isabel, Kananga, Matag-ob, Matalom, Mérida, Palompon, Villaba and the cities of Baybay and Ormoc. The province capital of Occidental Leyte "SEC. 2. ... shall be designated by the Governor-General, until determined by a plurality vote of the electors of the new province at the next general election." Samal (1969) – The sub-province of Samal was created by Republic Act No. 5999[41] and covered the area of the present-day Island Garden City of Samal. However, the sub-province was never inaugurated. Maranaw (1971) – Republic Act No. 6406,[42] which sought to create a new province out of eastern Lanao del Sur (now corresponding to the province's first congressional district), was approved on October 4, 1971. The province was to consist of the municipalities of Bubong, Ditsaan-Ramain (including what is now Buadiposo-Buntong), Kapai, Lumba-Bayabao (including what is now Maguing), Marantao, Masiu, Mulondo, Saguiaran, Piagapo, Poona Bayabao, Tamparan, Taraka and Wao (including what is now Bumbaran), with the chartered city of Marawi serving as the new province's capital. Lanao del Sur was to retain the remaining municipalities, with Malabang serving as its new capital. Section 4 of RA 6406 provided that "The new provinces as provided in this Act shall come into existence upon the election and qualification of their first elective provincial officials, who shall be elected in a special election simultaneously with the general elections of November, nineteen hundred and seventy-three." The division never took place due to the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines on September 21, 1972, which disrupted the scheduled general elections for 1973 and paved the way for the adoption of a new Constitution and the establishment of the Fourth Philippine Republic. A legacy of this unimplemented division is the existence of two ZIP code series for Lanao del Sur: the 93- series was retained by what were to be the remaining towns of the province (with Malabang, the new capital, being reassigned the code 9300), while a new series (97-) was assigned to what was supposed to be the province of Maranaw (with Marawi City getting the new code 9700). Isabela del Norte and Isabela del Sur (1995) – On February 20, 1995, Republic Act No. 7891,[43] which sought to divide the province of Isabela, was approved. Isabela del Norte was to comprise municipalities belonging to the province's first and second congressional districts with Ilagan serving as capital. Isabela del Sur was to consist of the third and fourth congressional districts (excluding the independent component city of Santiago), with Cauayan as the capital. The proposed division was rejected in a plebiscite held on June 20, 1995. Quezon del Norte and Quezon del Sur (2007) – The act dividing the province of Quezon into two, Republic Act No. 9495,[44] lapsed into law without the President's signature on September 7, 2007. Quezon del Norte was to be composed of the first and second congressional districts of the province, with Lucena City as its capital. Quezon del Sur, with its capital at Gumaca, would have been composed of the third and fourth congressional districts. The COMELEC held the plebiscite on December 13, 2008 and majority of the votes cast rejected the division. Zamboanga Hermosa (2017) – On February 21, 2017, House Bill No. 5040 was introduced in the House of Representatives that seeks to carve out a new province from Zamboanga del Norte, consisting of the 12 municipalities that make up the 3rd legislative district of Zamboanga del Norte:[45][46] Former provinces[edit] Manila (until 1901) – Incorporated into Rizal; portions around Manila later consolidated to form present-day NCR. Lepanto-Bontoc (1902–1908) – Incorporated into Mountain Province. Moro Province (1903–1913) – Converted to the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, composed of seven provinces. Now part of several regions in Mindanao. Ambos Camarines (1901–1908) – Divided into Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, although the wording of Act No. 2809 implies Camarines Norte was created from Ambos Camarines, the remainder of which was renamed Camarines Sur. Camarines Sur retained the provincial capital of Nueva Caceres. Misamis (1901–1939) – Partitioned into Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental. Misamis Oriental retained the provincial capital of Cagayan. Mindoro (1902–1950) – Divided into Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro. Oriental Mindoro retained the provincial capital of Calapan. Zamboanga (1914–1952) – Partitioned into Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur. The de jure provincial capital of Molave was placed under the jurisdiction of Zamboanga del Sur which had its capital in Pagadian. Zamboanga Sibugay later created from Zamboanga del Sur. Lanao (1914–1959) – Divided into Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur. Lanao del Sur retained the provincial capital of Dansalan (now Marawi). Surigao (1901–1967) – Partitioned into Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur. Surigao del Norte retained the provincial capital of Surigao City and the provincial seal. The province of Dinagat Islands was later created from Surigao del Norte. Davao (1914–1967; 1972–1998) – Divided into Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. Davao del Norte was officially known as Davao from 1972 to 1998, when Compostela Valley was later created from Davao province. Davao Occidental later created from Davao del Sur. Agusan (1907–1967) – Partitioned into Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. Agusan del Norte retained the former provincial capital of Butuan. The provincial capital was officially transferred to Cabadbaran in 2000 but the provincial government services and functions are yet to be completely transferred to the new capital.[47] Negros del Norte (1985–1986) – Batas Pambansa Blg. 885,[48] which created a new province out of the northern part of Negros Occidental, took effect on 23 December 1985, with a plebiscite to ratify the law held on 3 January 1986. The province comprised the present-day cities of Cadiz (which was to serve as the capital), Escalante, Sagay, San Carlos, Silay and Victorias, as well as the municipalities of Calatrava, Enrique B. Magalona, Manapla, Salvador Benedicto and Toboso. Despite voters ratifying Batas Pambansa Blg. 885, on 11 July 1986 the Supreme Court declared the law and the proclamation of the province null and void. The ruling states the enabling law was unconstitutional for, among other things, not including the rest of Negros Occidental in the plebiscite, and the proposed province not meeting the 3,500 square kilometre land area requirement of the 1983 Local Government Code.[49] Kalinga-Apayao (1966–1995) – Divided into Apayao and Kalinga. Kalinga retained the provincial capital of Tabuk. Shariff Kabunsuan (2006–2008) – Republic Act No. 9054 conferred to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao expanded powers, especially the capacity to create provinces (Article VI, Section 19).[50] Based on this, the ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly enacted Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 201 on 28 August 2006. The Act created a new province, comprising all the municipalities in the first congressional district of Maguindanao (except Cotabato City), with its capital at Datu Odin Sinsuat. The province's creation was approved on 28 October 2006 by a majority vote in a plebiscite. Responding to requests for clarification as to which congressional districts form Shariff Kabunsuan for the 2007 elections (specifically whether Cotabato City was part of the representation of the new province), COMELEC issued Resolution No. 7845, which initially held Cotabato City to be the sole remaining LGU in the First District of Maguindanao. COMELEC later amended this with Resolution No. 7902, which maintained the status quo before the province's creation. The COMELEC resolutions became the subject of a case in which the Supreme Court opined that because "the power to create new a province or city inherently involves the power to create a legislative district"—a power that Congress did not explicitly delegate to the ARMM Regional Assembly—the creation of a province by a lower legislative body (the ARMM Regional Assembly) will necessarily entail the creation of a legislative district for a higher legislative body (Congress). Therefore, on July 16, 2008, the Supreme Court declared Section 19, Article VI of RA No. 9054 unconstitutional, MMA Act No. 201 void, and COMELEC Resolution No. 7902 valid.[51]

See also[edit] List of Philippine provinces by population List of Philippine provincial etymologies List of Philippine provinces by Human Development Index List of demonyms for Philippine provinces ISO 3166-2:PH

References[edit] ^ "About the League of Provinces". League of Provinces of the Philippines. Retrieved 2008-01-12  ^ a b c d Republic Act No. 7160 - Local Government Code of 1991 Archived May 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-09-29.  ^ ^ "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter: Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (PDF). ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 30 June 2010. pp. 56–58. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". 2015 Census of Population. Philippine Statistics Authority. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 15 March 2013.  ^ Republic Act No. 8811 of August 16, 2000 ^ "Agusan del Sur..." Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ "Proclamation No. 290, s. 1956". GOVPH. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ "Albay celebrates 439th Foundation Day". balita-dot-ph. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "Apayao gov't center established in Luna". Philippine Information Agency. [dead link] ^ ^ Bangsamoro Development Plan: Environment and Natural Resources ^ "The Batanes Islands". National Commission on Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "No work on Monday, July 23, in observance of Bohol Day". The Bohol Standard. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ "Festivals". Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cagayan. Retrieved 18 December 2015.  ^ "Camarines Norte holds Bantayog fest". Philippine Daily Inquirer (in Filipino). Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ Abad, Danilo. "Kaogma 2015 isasagawa sa Camarines Sur". Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ The provincial government of Cavite makes it clear that Imus City is the provincial capital, while the seat of the provincial government is Trece Martires City. Official Website of the Province of Cavite - Quick Facts Imus is capital of Cavite — Maliksi ^ Census of the Philippine Islands (1920). "Census of the Philippine Islands Vol. I, 1918", pg. 132. Bureau of Printing, Manila. ^ a b c d e f g Because the provincial government holds office within an independent city, in effect the province maintains the seat of its government outside its jurisdiction. ^ Unson, John. "North Cotabato set for Kalivungan fest, 101st anniversary". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Department of Agriculture: Lanao del Sur (The value given at NSCB is unreasonable and must be assumed as erroneous, see Talk:Lanao del Sur#Area.) ^ Provincial Government of Maguindanao: Brief Profile (There seems to be major discrepancies among authoritative sources: 972,904 ha (NSCB); 6,565 km² (Historical Dictionary of the Philippines); 5,176.1 km² (NAMRIA)) ^ "President Aquino declares March 18 as special non-working day in Masbate in commemoration of 112th Foundation Day". Presidential Communications Operations Office. Retrieved 1 January 2016.  ^ "History of Negros Occidental". Official Website of the Provincial Government of Negros Occidental.  ^ "History of Negros Oriental". Official Website of the Provincial Government of Negros Oriental. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15.  ^ "N. Ecija founding date April 25, not Sept. 2". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Babiera, Lester G. (2014-07-14). "Nueva Vizcaya mounts Ammungan fest, celebrates diversity". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2015-10-07.  ^ "Speech of President Aquino during his visit to Occidental Mindoro, November 15, 2012". GOVPH. Retrieved 3 March 2016.  ^ Ramirez, Cesar (2011-03-27). "April 5 a special non-working holiday in Pangasinan". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2015-10-07.  ^ Rosario, Ben (23 September 2017). "Bill seeks to make Antipolo City the capital of Rizal". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ "History of Romblon". United Romblon Ministerial Fellowship. Retrieved 1 January 2016.  ^ Province of Sulu: Brief Profile Archived 2011-02-26 at the Wayback Machine. (There seems to be major discrepancies among authoritative sources: 343,699 ha (NSCB 2007), 175,460 ha (NSCB 2000), 167,377 ha (NAMRIA)) ^ "History of Tarlac". Province of Tarlac. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ "Proclamation No. 109, s. 1998". Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ The National Statistical Coordination Board recognizes both Bongao and Panglima Sugala as capitals of the province. However, the provincial capitol is located in Bongao, the de facto seat of government. ^ Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Department of Agriculture: Tawi-Tawi (There seems to be major discrepancies among authoritative sources: 362,655 ha (NSCB 2007), 120,876 ha (NAMRIA), 1,197 km² (Department of Tourism), 999 km² (Mapcentral)) ^ "Philippines-Archipelago, Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)". Specific information on the division of Leyte provided by David A. Short, webmaster of Philippines-Archipelago, which was updated accordingly after indirectly obtaining a copy of the text of Act No. 3117 from the Legislative Library, House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-05-17  ^ Republic Act No. 5999, Chan-Robles Law Library. ^ Republic Act No. 6406. Chan-Robles Law Library. ^ Republic Act No. 7891 ^ Republic Act No. 9495 ^ Isagani S. Amatong (February 14, 2017). "House Bill No. 5040: An Act Creating the Province of Zamboanga Hermosa from the Province of Zamboanga Del Norte" (PDF). Republic of the Philippines - House of Representatives. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ "Seventeenth Congress First Regular Session 2016 - 2017" (PDF). Journal of the House of Representatives. Journal Service Plenary Affairs Bureau. No. 73. February 21, 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ Republic Act No. 8811 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine., Republic Act No. 8811. ^ Batas Pambansa Blg. 885 ^ G.R. No. 73155 - Tan v. COMELEC and the Provincial Treasurer of Negros Occidental ^ Republic Act No. 9054, Chan-Robles Law Library. ^ G.R. No. 177597 - Sema v. COMELEC, Supreme Court of the Philippines.

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