Contents 1 History 1.1 19th century 1.2 Early 20th century 1.3 Later 20th century 2 Current park 3 Transit 4 See also 4.1 Further reading 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Pershing Square, looking north, circa 1909 19th century[edit] In the 1850s, the location was used as a camp by settlers from outside the Pueblo de Los Angeles, which lay to the northeast around the Our Lady Queen of the Angels' church, the Los Angeles Plaza, and present-day Olvera Street. Surveyors drew the site as 10 individual plots of land, but in practicality it was a single 5-acre (20,000 m2) parcel. Canals distributing water from the Zanja Madre were adjacent. In 1866 the site was dedicated as a public square by Mayor Cristobal Aguilar; it was called La Plaza Abaja, or "The Lower Plaza."[1] At some point the owner of a nearby beergarden, German immigrant George "Roundhouse" Lehman, planted small native Monterey cypress trees, fruit trees, and flowering shrubs in the park and maintained them until his death in 1882.[1] In 1867, St. Vincent's College, present-day Loyola Marymount University, was situated across the street, and so the park informally became known as St. Vincent's Park. In 1870, it was officially named Los Angeles Park. In 1886 it was renamed 6th Street Park, and it redesigned with an "official park plan" by Frederick Eaton.[2] In the early 1890s it was renamed Central Park. During this period a bandstand pavilion was added for concerts and orators. The plantings became sub-tropically lush, and the park became a shady oasis and an outdoor destination. In 1894 the park was used as the staging area for the annual crowning of the queen of 'La Fiesta de Los Angeles.[1] Early 20th century[edit] A monument to California's twenty Spanish–American War dead was erected in 1900; it is said to be modeled after a Spanish–American War veteran, 7th California Infantry volunteer Charlie Hammond of San Francisco, and it is believed to be the oldest work of public art in Los Angeles. The Los Angeles City Council declared it a historic-cultural monument in 1990.[1] In 1910 the park was renovated under a design by John Parkinson, who later designed Los Angeles City Hall and Union Station. Parkinson's design featured a three-tier fountain sculpted by Johan Caspar Lachne Gruenfeld, braced by four life-size concrete cherubs supporting a vase of cascading water.[1] In November 1918, a week after Armistice Day ended World War I, the park was renamed Pershing Square, in honor of Gen. John J. Pershing. A plaque was added in his honor some four decades later. In the 1920s and 1930s tropical plants were added to the park. In 1924, a life-size bronze of a World War I doughboy, sculpted by Humberton Pedretti, was unveiled, flanked by old cannons. In 1935, a bronze cannon from the USS Constitution was added. In 1932, a statue of Ludwig van Beethoven was added to honor William Andrews Clark, Jr., founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Later 20th century[edit] The park was in heavy use during World War II for rallies and recruitment. After the war, the park began to decline as commercial decentralization and suburbanization took hold in Greater Los Angeles Area, and Downtown lost importance and intensity of use. Many of the palm trees that were excavated in the 1950s were sent to be used in the Disneyland ride The Jungle Cruise.[3] The entire park was demolished and excavated in 1952 to build a three-level underground parking garage. Atop the garage, concrete was covered by a thin layer of soil with a broad expanse of lawn. Entry and exit ramps cut the square off from the sidewalks around it.[4] In 1954, Kelly Roth, a Hungarian immigrant who had owned a cigar store across from the square, donated $30,000 for twin reflecting pool water features in honor of his late wife and to thank Los Angeles for the opportunities that the city provided him. The Roth fountains were designed by architect Stiles O. Clements.[1] The park continued to be neglected for safe uses. Its problems were noted during the 1960 Democratic National Convention, with nominee and future president John F. Kennedy headquartered at the Biltmore Hotel facing the park. By the 1984 Summer Olympics the park had become a serious eyesore, leading the city to spend $1 million for a temporary renovation.[1] A monument in the park honors local veteran Eugene A. Obregon.[5]

Current park[edit] The current Pershing Square designed by Ricardo Legorreta in 1992, with the fountain and bell tower In 1992, the park was closed for a major $14.5-million redesign and renovation by Mexican architect and landscape architect Ricardo Legorreta and U.S. landscape architect Laurie Olin. The redesigned park opened in 1994 with: a 10-story purple bell tower and fountains. Public art included a walkway representing an earthquake fault line, designed and executed by artist Barbara McCarren, a concert stage, a seasonal ice rink and small plazas with seating. Pavement covers almost the entire block, with copses of trees in raised planters.[1] Seasonal events occur in the park such as a temporary Ice rink in the winter time as well as live concert performances in the summer.

Transit[edit] The area is served by the Pershing Square station of the Metro Red and Purple lines.

See also[edit] List of parks in Los Angeles Liquid Shard, a 2016 art installation placed in Pershing Square Further reading[edit] Chester Himes (March 22, 2000). "Lunching at the Ritzmore", The Collected Stories of Chester Himes, Da Capo Press. (Set in Pershing Square)

References[edit] ^ a b c d e f g h Cecilia Rasmussen, The (d)evolution of a downtown landmark, Los Angeles Times, August 18, 2007. ^ "Pershing Square". Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks. Retrieved April 18, 2017. ^ "Pershing Square Park". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 February 2012.  ^ Christopher Hawthorne (March 2, 2013), Los Angeles' major public spaces remain broken works in progress Los Angeles Times. ^ Veterans Win OK of Statue to Honor Latino War Hero - Los Angeles Times. accessed 7/27/2010

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pershing Square (Los Angeles, California). "Pershing Square search results". Los Angeles Public Library. Wallach, Ruth (February 2000). "Historic Pershing Square, Los Angeles". University of Southern California Libraries, Public Art in Los Angeles. Holland, Gale (25 October 2012). "Pershing Square vision? Not so good". Los Angeles Times. Coordinates: 34°02′54″N 118°15′11″W / 34.04825°N 118.25301°W / 34.04825; -118.25301 v t e Parks in Los Angeles, California Downtown Grand Park Central Library Park Los Angeles State Historic Park Pershing Square Pueblo de Los Angeles State Historic Park Northeast Bud Wiener Park Ernest E. Debs Regional Park Heritage Square Hollenbeck Park Lincoln Park Mariachi Plaza Rio de Los Angeles State Park Sycamore Grove Northwest Echo Park Elysian Park Lafayette Park Macarthur Park Hollywood Barnsdall Art Park Campo de Cahuenga Griffith Park Runyon Canyon Park Wilshire Hancock Park La Cienega Park Pan-Pacific Park South Los Angeles Exposition Park Gilbert Lindsay Park Jesse Owens Memorial Park Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area Mary Bethune Park Vermont Square Park Westside Cheviot Hills Park De Neve Square Park Holmby Park Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Topanga State Park Veterans Barrington Park Will Rogers State Historic Park Woodbine Park Harbor Alma Park Angels Gate Park Averill Park Cabrillo Beach Ken Malloy Harbor Regional Park Peck Park San Fernando Valley Bell Canyon Park El Escorpión Park Hansen Dam Lake Balboa Limekiln Canyon Los Encinos State Historic Park Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park O'Melveny Park Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park The Japanese Garden Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve Van Nuys Sherman Oaks Park Woodley Park v t e Downtown Los Angeles Districts and neighborhoods Arts District Bunker Hill Chinatown Civic Center Fashion District Financial District Gallery Row Historic Core Jewelry District Little Tokyo Naud Junction Old Bank District Skid Row South Park Spring Street Financial District Toy District Wholesale District Points of interest Angels Flight The Broad Broadway Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels City Hall Convention Center Grand Park L.A. Live MOCA Music Center Olvera Street Pershing Square Staples Center Union Station LA Regions Crescenta Valley Downtown Eastside Harbor Area Greater Hollywood Northeast LA Northwest LA San Fernando Valley South LA Westside Wilshire Mid-City West Mid-Wilshire Retrieved from "" Categories: Downtown Los AngelesParks in Los AngelesSquares in Los AngelesHistory of Los AngelesLandmarks in Los AngelesMonuments and memorials in Los AngelesRicardo Legorreta buildingsHidden categories: Coordinates on Wikidata

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