Contents 1 History 1.1 Earlier efforts 1.2 Pascal 1.3 Object Pascal 2 Brief description 3 Implementations 3.1 Early Pascal compilers 3.2 The Pascal-P system 3.3 Object Pascal and Turbo Pascal 3.4 Other variants 4 Language constructs 4.1 Data types 4.2 Subrange types 4.3 Set types 4.4 Type declarations 4.5 File type 4.6 Pointer types 4.7 Control structures 4.8 Procedures and functions 4.9 Semicolons as statement separators 5 Resources 5.1 Compilers and interpreters 5.2 IDEs 5.3 Libraries 6 Standards 6.1 ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal 6.2 ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal 6.3 Variations 6.3.1 Borland-like Pascal compilers 6.4 List of related standards 7 Reception 7.1 Early criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


History[edit] Earlier efforts[edit] Much of the history of computer language design during the 1960s traces its history to the ALGOL 60 language. ALGOL was developed during the 1950s with the explicit goal to be able to clearly describe algorithms. It included a number of features for structured programming that remain common in languages to this day. Shortly after its introduction, in 1962 Wirth began working on his dissertation with Helmut Weber on the Euler programming language. Euler was based on ALGOL's syntax and many concepts but was not a derivative. Its primary goal was to add dynamic lists and types, allowing it to be used in roles similar to the Lisp. The language was published in 1965. By this time, a number of problems in ALGOL had been identified, notably the lack of a standardized string system. The group tasked with maintaining the language had begun the ALGOL X process to identify improvements, calling for submissions. Wirth and Tony Hoare submitted a conservative set of modifications to add strings and clean up some of the syntax. These were considered too minor to be worth using as the new standard ALGOL, so Wirth wrote a compiler for the language, which became known as ALGOL W. The ALGOL X efforts would go on to choose a dramatically more complex language, ALGOL 68. The complexity of this language led to considerable difficulty producing high-performance compilers, and it was not widely used in the industry. This left an opening for newer languages. Pascal[edit] Pascal was influenced by the ALGOL W efforts, with the explicit goals of producing a language that would be efficient both in the compiler and at run-time, allow for the development of well-structured programs, and to be useful for teaching students structured programming.[4] A generation of students used Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. One of the early successes for language was the introduction of UCSD Pascal, a version that ran on a custom operating system that could be ported to different platforms. A key platform was the Apple II, where it saw widespread use. This led to the use of Pascal becoming the primary high-level language used for development in the Apple Lisa, and later, the Macintosh. Parts of the original Macintosh operating system were hand-translated into Motorola 68000 assembly language from the Pascal sources.[5] The typesetting system TeX by Donald E. Knuth was written in WEB, the original literate programming system, based on DEC PDP-10 Pascal, while applications like Total Commander, Skype and Macromedia Captivate were written in Delphi (Object Pascal). Apollo Computer used Pascal as the systems programming language for its operating systems beginning in 1980. Variants of Pascal have also frequently been used for everything from research projects to PC games and embedded systems. Newer Pascal compilers exist which are widely used.[6] Object Pascal[edit] During work on the Lisa, Larry Tesler began corresponding with Wirth on the idea of adding object oriented extensions to the language. This led initially to Clascal, introduced in 1983. As the Lisa program faded and was replaced by the Mac, a further version known as Object Pascal was created. This was introduced on the Macintosh in 1985 as part of the MacApp application framework, and became Apple's primary development language into the early 1990s. The Object Pascal extensions were later added to Turbo Pascal, and over the years became the Delphi system for Microsoft Windows. Delphi is still used for developing Windows applications, but also has the ability to cross-compile the same code to Mac, iOS, Android and Linux. Another cross-platform version called Free Pascal, with the Lazarus IDE, is popular with Linux users since it also offers write once, compile anywhere development. CodeTyphon is a Lazarus distribution with more preinstalled packages and cross-compilers.


Brief description[edit] Wirth's intention was to create an efficient language (regarding both compilation speed and generated code) based on structured programming, a recently popularized concept that he promoted in his book Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Pascal has its roots in the ALGOL 60 language, but also introduced concepts and mechanisms which (on top of ALGOL's scalars and arrays) enabled programmers to define their own complex (structured) datatypes, and also made it easier to build dynamic and recursive data structures such as lists, trees and graphs. Important features included for this were records, enumerations, subranges, dynamically allocated variables with associated pointers, and sets. To make this possible and meaningful, Pascal has a strong typing on all objects, which means that one type of data cannot be converted or interpreted as another without explicit conversions. Similar mechanisms are standard in many programming languages today. Other languages that influenced Pascal's development were Simula 67 and Wirth's own ALGOL W. Pascal, like many programming languages of today (but unlike most languages in the C family), allows nested procedure definitions to any level of depth, and also allows most kinds of definitions and declarations inside subroutines (procedures and functions). This enables a very simple and coherent syntax where a complete program is syntactically nearly identical to a single procedure or function (except for the heading, which has one of these three keywords).


Implementations[edit] Early Pascal compilers[edit] The first Pascal compiler was designed in Zürich for the CDC 6000 series mainframe computer family. Niklaus Wirth reports that a first attempt to implement it in Fortran in 1969 was unsuccessful due to Fortran's inadequacy to express complex data structures. The second attempt was implemented in a C-like language (Scallop by Max Engeli) and then translated by hand (by R. Schild) to Pascal itself for boot-strapping.[7] It was operational by mid-1970. Many Pascal compilers since have been similarly self-hosting, that is, the compiler is itself written in Pascal, and the compiler is usually capable of recompiling itself when new features are added to the language, or when the compiler is to be ported to a new environment. The GNU Pascal compiler is one notable exception, being written in C. The first successful port of the CDC Pascal compiler to another mainframe was completed by Welsh and Quinn at the Queen's University of Belfast (QUB) in 1972. The target was the ICL 1900 series. This compiler, in turn, was the parent of the Pascal compiler for the Information Computer Systems (ICS) Multum minicomputer. The Multum port was developed – with a view to using Pascal as a systems programming language – by Findlay, Cupples, Cavouras and Davis, working at the Department of Computing Science in Glasgow University. It is thought that Multum Pascal, which was completed in the summer of 1973, may have been the first 16-bit implementation. A completely new compiler was completed by Welsh et al. at QUB in 1977. It offered a source-language diagnostic feature (incorporating profiling, tracing and type-aware formatted postmortem dumps) that was implemented by Findlay and Watt at Glasgow University. This implementation was ported in 1980 to the ICL 2900 series by a team based at Southampton University and Glasgow University. The Standard Pascal Model Implementation was also based on this compiler, having been adapted, by Welsh and Hay at Manchester University in 1984, to check rigorously for conformity to the BSI 6192/ISO 7185 Standard and to generate code for a portable abstract machine. The first Pascal compiler written in North America was constructed at the University of Illinois under Donald B. Gillies for the PDP-11 and generated native machine code. The Pascal-P system[edit] To propagate the language rapidly, a compiler "porting kit" was created in Zurich that included a compiler that generated code for a "virtual" stack machine, i.e., code that lends itself to reasonably efficient interpretation, along with an interpreter for that code – the Pascal-P system. The P-system compilers were termed Pascal-P1, Pascal-P2, Pascal-P3, and Pascal-P4. Pascal-P1 was the first version, and Pascal-P4 was the last to come from Zurich. The version termed Pascal-P1 was coined after the fact for the many different sources for Pascal-P that existed. The compiler was redesigned to enhance portability, and issued as Pascal-P2. This code was later enhanced to become Pascal-P3, with an intermediate code backward compatible with Pascal-P2, and Pascal-P4, which was not backward compatible. The Pascal-P4 compiler/interpreter can still be run and compiled on systems compatible with original Pascal. However, it only accepts a subset of the Pascal language. Pascal-P5, created outside the Zurich group, accepts the full Pascal language and includes ISO 7185 compatibility. UCSD Pascal branched off Pascal-P2, where Kenneth Bowles utilized it to create the interpretive UCSD p-System. The UCSD p-System was one of three operating systems available at the launch of the original IBM Personal Computer.[8] UCSD Pascal used an intermediate code based on byte values, and thus was one of the earliest "byte code compilers". Pascal-P1 through Pascal-P4 was not, but rather based on the CDC 6600 60 bit word length. A compiler based on the Pascal-P4 compiler, which created native binaries, was released for the IBM System/370 mainframe computer by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission; it was called the "AAEC Pascal Compiler" after the abbreviation of the name of the Commission.[9] In the early 1980s, Watcom Pascal was developed, also for the IBM System 370. Into the 1990s, Pascal was still running on VAX terminals at George Mason University to teach computer programming. Object Pascal and Turbo Pascal[edit] Apple Computer created its own Lisa Pascal for the Lisa Workshop in 1982, and ported the compiler to the Apple Macintosh and MPW in 1985. In 1985 Larry Tesler, in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, defined Object Pascal and these extensions were incorporated in both the Lisa Pascal and Mac Pascal compilers. In the 1980s, Anders Hejlsberg wrote the Blue Label Pascal compiler for the Nascom-2. A reimplementation of this compiler for the IBM PC was marketed under the names Compas Pascal and PolyPascal before it was acquired by Borland and renamed Turbo Pascal. Turbo Pascal became hugely popular, thanks to an aggressive pricing strategy, having one of the first full-screen integrated development environments, and very fast turnaround time (just seconds to compile, link, and run). It was written and highly optimized entirely in assembly language, making it smaller and faster than much of the competition. In 1986, Anders ported Turbo Pascal to the Macintosh and incorporated Apple's Object Pascal extensions into Turbo Pascal. These extensions were then added back into the PC version of Turbo Pascal for version 5.5. At the same time Microsoft also implemented the Object Pascal compiler.[10][11] Turbo Pascal 5.5 had a large influence on the Pascal community, which began concentrating mainly on the IBM PC in the late 1980s. Many PC hobbyists in search of a structured replacement for BASIC used this product. It also began to be adopted by professional developers. Around the same time a number of concepts were imported from C to let Pascal programmers use the C-based API of Microsoft Windows directly. These extensions included null-terminated strings, pointer arithmetic, function pointers, an address-of operator and unsafe typecasts. Turbo Pascal, and other derivatives with units or module concepts are modular languages. However, it does not provide a nested module concept or qualified import and export of specific symbols. Other variants[edit] Super Pascal is a variant that added non-numeric labels, a return statement and expressions as names of types. The universities of Wisconsin-Madison, Zürich, Karlsruhe and Wuppertal developed the Pascal-SC[12][13] and Pascal-XSC[14][15][16] (Extensions for Scientific Computation) compilers, aimed at programming numerical computations. TMT Pascal the first Borland-compatible compiler for 32-bit DOS protected mode, OS/2 and Win32 operating systems. Also the TMT Pascal language was the first one which allowed function and operator overloading. Development for Pascal-SC started in 1978 supporting ISO 7185 Pascal level 0, but level 2 support was added at a later stage.[17] Pascal-SC originally targeted the Z80 processor, but was later rewritten for DOS (x86) and 68000. Pascal-XSC has at various times been ported to Unix (Linux, SunOS, HP-UX, AIX) and Microsoft/IBM (DOS with EMX, OS/2, Windows) operating systems. It operates by generating intermediate C source code which is then compiled to a native executable. Some of the Pascal-SC language extensions have been adopted by GNU Pascal. Pascal Sol was designed around 1983 by a French team to implement a Unix-like systems named Sol. It was standard Pascal level-1 (with parametrized array bounds) but the definition allowed alternative keywords and predefined identifiers in French and the language included a few extensions to ease system programming (e.g. an equivalent to lseek).[18] The Sol team later on moved to the ChorusOS project to design a distributed operating system.[19] IP Pascal was an implementation of the Pascal programming language using Micropolis DOS, but was moved rapidly to CP/M-80 running on the Z80. It was moved to the 80386 machine types in 1994, and exists today as Windows/XP and Linux implementations. In 2008, the system was brought up to a new level and the resulting language termed "Pascaline" (after Pascal's calculator). It includes objects, namespace controls, dynamic arrays, along with many other extensions, and generally features the same functionality and type protection as C#. It is the only such implementation that is also compatible with the original Pascal implementation, which is standardized as ISO 7185. Smart Mobile Studio[20] was created by Jon Aasenden and compiles his own dialect of Object Pascal to HTML5/Javascript Smart Mobile Studio has an IDE which includes a visual component set, its language is unusual in that it incorporates extensions for the Javascript language


Language constructs[edit] Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural language and includes the traditional array of ALGOL-like control structures with reserved words such as if, then, else, while, for, and case ranging on a single statement or a begin-end statements block. Pascal also has data structuring constructs not included in the original ALGOL 60 types, like records, variants, pointers, enumerations, and sets and procedure/pointers. Such constructs were in part inherited or inspired from Simula 67, ALGOL 68, Niklaus Wirth's own ALGOL W and suggestions by C. A. R. Hoare. Pascal programs start with the program keyword with a list of external file descriptors as parameters[21] (not required in Turbo Pascal etc.); then follows the main block bracketed by the begin and end keywords. Semicolons separate statements, and the full stop (i.e., a period) ends the whole program (or unit). Letter case is ignored in Pascal source. Here is an example of the source code in use for a very simple "Hello world" program: program HelloWorld(output); begin Write('Hello, world!') {no ";" is required after the last statement of a block - adding one adds a "null statement" to the program;} end. Data types[edit] A type in Pascal, and in several other popular programming languages, defines a variable in such a way that it defines a range of values which the variable is capable of storing, and it also defines a set of operations that are permissible to be performed on variables of that type. The predefined types are: Data type Type of values which the variable is capable of storing integer integer (whole) numbers real floating-point numbers boolean the value True or False char a single character from an ordered character set string a group or "string" of characters The range of values allowed for each (except boolean) is implementation defined. Functions are provided for some data conversions. For conversion of real to integer, the following functions are available: round (which rounds to integer using banker's rounding) and trunc (rounds towards zero). The programmer has the freedom to define other commonly used data types (e.g. byte, string, etc.) in terms of the predefined types using Pascal's type declaration facility, for example type byte = 0..255; signed_byte = -128..127; string = packed array[1..255] of char; (Often-used types like byte and string are already defined in many implementations.) Subrange types[edit] Subranges of any ordinal data type (any simple type except real) can also be made: var x : 1..10; y : 'a'..'z'; Set types[edit] In contrast with other programming languages from its time, Pascal supports a set type: var Set1 : set of 1..10; Set2 : set of 'a'..'z'; A set is a fundamental concept for modern mathematics, and they may be used in many algorithms. Such a feature is useful and may be faster than an equivalent construct in a language that does not support sets. For example, for many Pascal compilers: if i in [5..10] then ... executes faster than: if (i > 4) and (i < 11) then ... Sets of non-contiguous values can be particularly useful, in terms of both performance and readability: if i in [0..3, 7, 9, 12..15] then ... For these examples, which involve sets over small domains, the improved performance is usually achieved by the compiler representing set variables as bit vectors. The set operators can then be implemented efficiently as bitwise machine code operations. Type declarations[edit] Types can be defined from other types using type declarations: type x = integer; y = x; ... Further, complex types can be constructed from simple types: type a = array[1..10] of integer; b = record x : integer; y : char end; c = file of a; File type[edit] As shown in the example above, Pascal files are sequences of components. Every file has a buffer variable which is denoted by f^. The procedures get (for reading) and put (for writing) move the buffer variable to the next element. Read is introduced such that read(f, x) is the same as x := f^; get(f);. Write is introduced such that write(f, x) is the same as f^ := x; put(f); The type text is predefined as file of char. While the buffer variable could be used for inspecting the next character to be used (check for a digit before reading an integer), this leads to serious problems with interactive programs in early implementations, but was solved later with the "lazy I/O" concept. In Jensen & Wirth Pascal, strings are represented as packed arrays of chars; they therefore have fixed length and are usually space-padded. Pointer types[edit] Pascal supports the use of pointers: type pNode = ^Node; Node = record a : integer; b : char; c : pNode {extra semicolon not strictly required} end; var NodePtr : pNode; IntPtr : ^integer; Here the variable NodePtr is a pointer to the data type Node, a record. Pointers can be used before they are declared. This is a forward declaration, an exception to the rule that things must be declared before they are used. To create a new record and assign the value 10 and character A to the fields a and b in the record, and to initialise the pointer c to NIL, the commands would be: New(NodePtr); ... NodePtr^.a := 10; NodePtr^.b := 'A'; NodePtr^.c := NIL; ... This could also be done using the with statement, as follows: New(NodePtr); ... with NodePtr^ do begin a := 10; b := 'A'; c := NIL end; ... Inside of the scope of the with statement, a and b refer to the subfields of the record pointer NodePtr and not to the record Node or the pointer type pNode. Linked lists, stacks and queues can be created by including a pointer type field (c) in the record (see also NIL). Unlike many languages that feature pointers, Pascal only allows pointers to reference dynamically created variables that are anonymous, and does not allow them to reference standard static or local variables. Pointers also must have an associated type, and a pointer to one type is not compatible with a pointer to another type (e.g. a pointer to a char is not compatible with a pointer to an integer). This helps eliminate the type security issues inherent with other pointer implementations, particularly those used for PL/I or C. It also removes some risks caused by dangling pointers, but the ability to dynamically deallocate referenced space by using the dispose function (which has the same effect as the free library function found in C) means that the risk of dangling pointers has not been entirely eliminated[22] as it has in languages such as Java and C#, which provide automatic garbage collection (but which do not entirely eliminate the related problem of memory leaks). Some of these restrictions can be lifted in newer dialects. Control structures[edit] Pascal is a structured programming language, meaning that the flow of control is structured into standard statements, usually without 'goto' commands. while a <> b do WriteLn('Waiting'); if a > b then WriteLn('Condition met') {no semicolon allowed!} else WriteLn('Condition not met'); for i := 1 to 10 do {no semicolon for single statements allowed!} WriteLn('Iteration: ', i); repeat a := a + 1 until a = 10; case i of 0 : Write('zero'); 1 : Write('one'); 2 : Write('two'); 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10: Write('?') end; Procedures and functions[edit] Pascal structures programs into procedures and functions. program Printing; var i : integer; procedure Print(j : integer); begin ... end; begin { main program } ... Print(i); end. Procedures and functions can nest to any depth, and the 'program' construct is the logical outermost block. Each procedure or function can have its own declarations of goto labels, constants, types, variables, and other procedures and functions, which must all be in that order. This ordering requirement was originally intended to allow efficient single-pass compilation. However, in some dialects (such as Embarcadero Delphi) the strict ordering requirement of declaration sections has been relaxed. Semicolons as statement separators[edit] Pascal adopted many language syntax features from the ALGOL language, including the use of a semicolon as a statement separator. This is in contrast to other languages, such as PL/I, C etc. which use the semicolon as a statement terminator. As illustrated in the above examples, no semicolon is needed before the end keyword of a record type declaration, a block, or a case statement; before the until keyword of a repeat statement; and before the else keyword of an if statement. The presence of an extra semicolon was not permitted in early versions of Pascal. However, the addition of ALGOL-like empty statements in the 1973 Revised Report and later changes to the language in ISO 7185:1983 now allow for optional semicolons in most of these cases. A semicolon is still not permitted immediately before the else keyword in an if statement, because the else follows a single statement, not a statement sequence. In the case of nested ifs, a semicolon cannot be used to avoid the dangling else problem (where the inner if does not have an else, but the outer if does) by putatively terminating the nested if with a semicolon – this instead terminates both if clauses. Instead, an explicit begin...end block must be used.[23] Programmers usually include these extra semicolons out of habit and to avoid changing the last line of a statement sequence when new code is appended.


Resources[edit] Compilers and interpreters[edit] Several Pascal compilers and interpreters are available for general use: Delphi is Embarcadero's (formerly Borland/CodeGear) flagship rapid application development (RAD) product. It uses the Object Pascal language (termed 'Delphi' by Borland), descended from Pascal, to create applications for Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android. The .NET support that existed from D8 through D2005, D2006 and D2007 has been terminated, and replaced by a new language (Prism, which is rebranded Oxygene, see below) that is not fully backward compatible. In recent years Unicode support and generics were added (D2009, D2010, Delphi XE). Free Pascal is a multi-platform compiler written in Object Pascal (and is self-hosting). It is aimed at providing a convenient and powerful compiler, both able to compile legacy applications and to be the means of developing new ones. It is distributed under the GNU GPL, while packages and runtime library come under a modified GNU LGPL. Apart from compatibility modes for Turbo Pascal, Delphi and Mac Pascal, it also has its own procedural and object-oriented syntax modes with support for extended features such as operator overloading. It supports many platforms and operating systems. Current versions also feature an ISO mode. Modern Pascal is a multi-platform interpreter and p-code compiler written in Free Pascal. It is aimed at providing alternative solutions for PHP and node.js, using either an ISO standard pascal dialect or a hybrid supporting JavaScript/C operators. From the CLI it is useful as a Free Pascal interpreter. Turbo51 is a free Pascal compiler for the 8051 family of microcontrollers, with Turbo Pascal 7 syntax. Oxygene (formerly known as Chrome) is an Object Pascal compiler for the .NET and Mono platforms. It was created and is sold by RemObjects Software, and sold for a while by Embarcadero as the backend compiler of Prism. Kylix was a descendant of Delphi, with support for the Linux operating system and an improved object library. It is no longer supported. Compiler and IDE are available now for non-commercial use. GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is the Pascal compiler of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). The compiler itself is written in C, the runtime library mostly in Pascal. Distributed under the GNU General Public License, it runs on many platforms and operating systems. It supports the ANSI/ISO standard languages and has partial Turbo Pascal dialect support. One of the more painful omissions is the absence of a 100% Turbo Pascal-compatible (short)string type. Support for Borland Delphi and other language variations is quite limited. There is some support for Mac-pascal however. DWScript aka DelphiWebScript, is an interpreter created by Matthias Ackermann and Hannes Hernler in 2000. Current version runs a dialect of Object Pascal largely compatible with Delphi, but also supports language constructs elements introduced in Prism. DWScript code can be embedded into Delphi applications similar to PascalScript, compiled into standalone application using SimpleMobileStudio or compiled into JavaScript code and placed on a web page.[24] Dr. Pascal is an interpreter that runs Standard Pascal. Notable are the "visible execution" mode that shows a running program and its variables, and the extensive runtime error checking. Runs programs but does not emit a separate executable binary. Runs on DOS, Windows in DOS window, and old Macintosh. Dr. Pascal's Extended Pascal Compiler tested on DOS, Windows 3.1, 95, 98, NT. Virtual Pascal was created by Vitaly Miryanov in 1995 as a native OS/2 compiler compatible with Borland Pascal syntax. Then, it had been commercially developed by fPrint, adding Win32 support, and in 2000 it became freeware. Today it can compile for Win32, OS/2 and Linux, and is mostly compatible with Borland Pascal and Delphi. Development was canceled on April 4, 2005. P4 compiler, the basis for many subsequent Pascal-implemented-in-Pascal compilers. It implements a subset of full Pascal. P5 compiler, is an ISO 7185 (full Pascal) adaption of P4. Smart Mobile Studio is a Pascal to HTML5/Javascript compiler Turbo Pascal was the dominant Pascal compiler for PCs during the 1980s and early 1990s, popular both because of its powerful extensions and extremely short compilation times. Turbo Pascal was compactly written and could compile, run, and debug all from memory without accessing disk. Slow floppy disk drives were common for programmers at the time, further magnifying Turbo Pascal's speed advantage. Currently, older versions of Turbo Pascal (up to 5.5) are available for free download from Borland's site. IP Pascal Implements the language "Pascaline" (named after Pascal's calculator), which is a highly extended Pascal compatible with original Pascal according to ISO 7185. It features modules with namespace control, including parallel tasking modules with semaphores, objects, dynamic arrays of any dimensions that are allocated at runtime, overloads, overrides, and many other extensions. IP Pascal has a built-in portability library that is custom tailored to the Pascal language. For example, a standard text output application from 1970's original Pascal can be recompiled to work in a window and even have graphical constructs added. Pascal-XT was created by Siemens for their mainframe operating systems BS2000 and SINIX. PocketStudio is a Pascal subset compiler and RAD tool for Palm OS and MC68xxx processors with some own extensions to assist interfacing with the Palm OS API. It resembles Delphi and Lazarus with a visual form designer, an object inspector and a source code editor. MIDletPascal – A Pascal compiler and IDE that generates small and fast Java bytecode specifically designed to create software for mobiles Vector Pascal Vector Pascal is a language for SIMD instruction sets such as the MMX and the AMD 3d Now, supporting all Intel and AMD processors, and Sony's PlayStation 2 Emotion Engine. Morfik Pascal allows the development of Web applications entirely written in Object Pascal (both server and browser side). WDSibyl – Visual Development Environment and Pascal compiler for Win32 and OS/2 PP Compiler, a compiler for Palm OS that runs directly on the handheld computer. CDC 6000 Pascal compiler is the source code for the first (CDC 6000) Pascal compiler. Pascal-S[25] AmigaPascal is a free Pascal compiler for the Amiga computer. A very extensive list can be found on Pascaland. The site is in French, but it is basically a list with URLs to compilers; there is little barrier for non-Francophones. The site, Pascal Central, a Mac centric Pascal info and advocacy site with a rich collection of article archives, plus links to many compilers and tutorials, may also be of interest. IDEs[edit] Dev-Pascal is a Pascal IDE that was designed in Borland Delphi and which supports Free Pascal and GNU Pascal as backends. Lazarus is a free Delphi-like visual cross-platform IDE for rapid application development (RAD). Based on Free Pascal, Lazarus is available for numerous platforms including Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Microsoft Windows. Libraries[edit] WOL Library for creating GUI applications with the Free Pascal Compiler.


Standards[edit] ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal[edit] In 1983, the language was standardized, in the international standard IEC/ISO 7185,[26] and several local country specific standards, including the American ANSI/IEEE770X3.97-1983, and ISO 7185:1983. These two standards differed only in that the ISO standard included a "level 1" extension for conformant arrays (an array where the boundaries of the array are not known until run time), where ANSI did not allow for this extension to the original (Wirth version) language. In 1989, ISO 7185 was revised (ISO 7185:1990) to correct various errors and ambiguities found in the original document. The ISO 7185 was stated to be a clarification of Wirth's 1974 language as detailed by the User Manual and Report [Jensen and Wirth], but was also notable for adding "Conformant Array Parameters" as a level 1 to the standard, level 0 being Pascal without conformant arrays. This addition was made at the request of C. A. R. Hoare, and with the approval of Niklaus Wirth. The precipitating cause was that Hoare wanted to create a Pascal version of the (NAG) Numerical Algorithms Library, which had originally been written in FORTRAN, and found that it was not possible to do so without an extension that would allow array parameters of varying size. Similar considerations motivated the inclusion in ISO 7185 of the facility to specify the parameter types of procedural and functional parameters. Note that Niklaus Wirth himself referred to the 1974 language as "the Standard", for example, to differentiate it from the machine specific features of the CDC 6000 compiler. This language was documented in The Pascal Report,[27] the second part of the "Pascal users manual and report". On the large machines (mainframes and minicomputers) Pascal originated on, the standards were generally followed. On the IBM PC, they were not. On IBM PCs, the Borland standards Turbo Pascal and Delphi have the greatest number of users. Thus, it is typically important to understand whether a particular implementation corresponds to the original Pascal language, or a Borland dialect of it. The IBM PC versions of the language began to differ with the advent of UCSD Pascal, an interpreted implementation that featured several extensions to the language, along with several omissions and changes. Many UCSD language features survive today, including in Borland's dialect. ISO/IEC 10206:1990 Extended Pascal[edit] In 1990, an extended Pascal standard was created as ISO/IEC 10206,[28] which is identical in technical content[29] to IEEE/ANSI 770X3.160-1989[30] Variations[edit] Niklaus Wirth's Zurich version of Pascal was issued outside ETH in two basic forms, the CDC 6000 compiler source, and a porting kit called Pascal-P system. The Pascal-P compiler left out several features of the full language. For example, procedures and functions used as parameters, undiscriminated variant records, packing, dispose, interprocedural gotos and other features of the full compiler were omitted. UCSD Pascal, under Professor Kenneth Bowles, was based on the Pascal-P2 kit, and consequently shared several of the Pascal-P language restrictions. UCSD Pascal was later adopted as Apple Pascal, and continued through several versions there. Although UCSD Pascal actually expanded the subset Pascal in the Pascal-P kit by adding back standard Pascal constructs, it was still not a complete standard installation of Pascal. In the early 1990s, Alan Burns and Geoff Davies developed Pascal-FC, an extension to Pl/0 (from the Niklaus' book 'Algorithms+Data Structures=Programs'). Several constructs were added to use Pascal-FC as a teaching tool for Concurrent Programming (such as semaphores, monitors, channels, remote-invocation and resources). To be able to demonstrate concurrency, the compiler output (a kind of P-code) could then be executed on a virtual machine. This virtual machine not only simulated a normal – fair – environment, but could also simulate extreme conditions (unfair mode). Borland-like Pascal compilers[edit] Borland's Turbo Pascal, written by Anders Hejlsberg, was written in assembly language independent of UCSD or the Zurich compilers. However, it adopted much of the same subset and extensions as the UCSD compiler. This is probably because the UCSD system was the most common Pascal system suitable for developing applications on the resource-limited microprocessor systems available at that time. The shrink-wrapped Turbo Pascal version 3 and later incarnations, including Borland's Object Pascal and Delphi and non-Borland near-compatibles became popular with programmers including shareware authors, and so the SWAG library of Pascal code features a large amount of code written with such versions as Delphi in mind. Software products (compilers, and Interactive/Rapid Development Environments with compilers, in this category: Turbo Pascal - "TURBO.EXE" up to version 7, and Turbo Pascal for Windows ("TPW") and Turbo Pascal for Macintosh. Borland Pascal 7 (essentially Turbo Pascal 7 for Windows). Object Pascal - an extension of the Pascal language that was developed at Apple Computer by a team led by Larry Tesler in consultation with Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of Pascal; its features were added to Borland's Turbo Pascal for Macintosh and in 1989 for Turbo Pascal 5.5 for DOS. Delphi - Object Pascal is essentially its underlying language. Free Pascal (or fpc) - Free Pascal adopted the de facto standard dialect of Pascal programmers, Borland Pascal and, later, Delphi. PascalABC.NET - is a new generation Pascal programming language including compiler and integrated development environment (IDE) Borland Kylix is a compiler and integrated development environment (IDE) formerly sold by Borland, but later discontinued. It is a Linux version of the Borland Delphi software development environment and C++Builder. Lazarus - similar to Kylix in function, is a free cross-platform visual integrated development environment (IDE) for rapid application development (RAD) using the Free Pascal compiler, which supports dialects of Object Pascal, to varying degrees. Virtual Pascal - VP2/1 is a fully Borland Pascal and Borland Delphi compatible 32-bit Pascal compiler for OS/2 and Win 32 (with a Linux version "on the way").[31] Sybil is an open source Delphi-like IDE and compiler; implementations include WDSibyl for Microsoft Windows and OS/2, a commercial Borland Pascal compatible environment released by a company called Speedsoft that was later developed into a Delphi like RAD environment called Sybil and then open sourced under the GPL when that company closed down; Open Sybil is an ongoing project, an Open source Pascal RAD (Rapid Application Development) Tool for OS/2 and eCS that was originally based on Speedsoft's WDsybl SPCC (Sibyl Portable Component Classes) and SVDE (Sibyl Visual Development Tool) sources but now the core is SOM, WPS and OpenDoc.[32] List of related standards[edit] ISO 8651-2:1988 Information processing systems – Computer graphics – Graphical Kernel System (GKS) language bindings – Part 2: Pascal


Reception[edit] Pascal generated a wide variety of responses in the computing community, both critical and complimentary. Early criticism[edit] While very popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, implementations of Pascal that closely followed Wirth's initial definition of the language were widely criticized for being unsuitable for use outside teaching. Brian Kernighan, who popularized the C language, outlined his most notable criticisms of Pascal as early as 1981, in his paper Why Pascal Is Not My Favorite Programming Language.[33] The most serious problem described in his article was that array sizes and string lengths were part of the type, so it was not possible to write a function that would accept variable length arrays or even strings as parameters. This made it unfeasible to write, for example, a sorting library. The author also criticized the unpredictable order of evaluation of boolean expressions, poor library support, and lack of static variables, and raised a number of smaller issues. Also, he stated that the language did not provide any simple constructs to "escape" (knowingly and forcibly ignore) restrictions and limitations. More general complaints from other sources[22][34] noted that the scope of declarations was not clearly defined in the original language definition, which sometimes had serious consequences when using forward declarations to define pointer types, or when record declarations led to mutual recursion, or when an identifier may or may not have been used in an enumeration list. Another difficulty was that, like ALGOL 60, the language did not allow procedures or functions passed as parameters to predefine the expected type of their parameters. Most of Kernighan's criticisms were directly addressed in the paper "The Pascal Programming Language",[35] specifically, under Myth 6: Pascal is Not For Serious Programmers.[36] Despite initial criticisms, Pascal continued to evolve, and most of Kernighan's points do not apply to versions of the language which were enhanced to be suitable for commercial product development, such as Borland's Turbo Pascal. As Kernighan predicted in his article, most of the extensions to fix these issues were incompatible from compiler to compiler. Since the early 1990s, however, most of the varieties seem condensed into two categories, ISO and Borland-like. Extended Pascal addresses many of these early criticisms. It supports variable-length strings, variable initialization, separate compilation, short-circuit boolean operators, and default (OTHERWISE) clauses for case statements.[37]


See also[edit] Concurrent Pascal Comparison of Pascal and Borland Delphi Comparison of Pascal and C Modula-2 Oberon (programming language) Object Pascal Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal


References[edit] ^ "We looked very carefully at Delphi Object Pascal and built a working prototype of bound method references in order to understand their interaction with the Java programming language and its APIs ... Our conclusion was that bound method references are unnecessary and detrimental to the language. This decision was made in consultation with Borland International, who had previous experience with bound method references in Delphi Object Pascal." (from About Microsoft's "Delegates" Archived 2012-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. at java.sun.com. ^ TechMetrix Research (1999). "History of Java" (PDF). Java Application Servers Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-29. The project went ahead under the name "green" and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code  ^ "A Conversation with James Gosling - ACM Queue". Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ Essential Pascal Archived 2017-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. by Marco Cantù ^ Hertzfeld, Andy. "Hungarian folklore.org Archived 2015-11-18 at the Wayback Machine.: Macintosh Stories. Retrieved 2012-03-06. ^ tiobe.com Archived 2012-03-15 at the Wayback Machine., Programming Community Index for January 2011. ^ Computers and Computing. A Personal Perspective. Archived 2017-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. by Niklaus Wirth ^ "An Interview with JOHN BRACKETT AND DOUG ROSS", p15, Charles Babbage Institute, 2004 ^ "AUSTRALIAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, LUCAS HEIGHTS, NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BRANCH REPORT 1977, DIVISIONAL RESEARCH", p.22, International Atomic Energy Agency (IEAE) ^ Jon Udell, Crash of the Object-Oriented Pascals, BYTE, July, 1989. ^ M.I.Trofimov, The End of Pascal?, BYTE, March, 1990, p.36. ^ "An introduction to the scientific computing language Pascal-SC". Computers. 14: 53–69. doi:10.1016/0898-1221(87)90181-7.  ^ PI (1986-08-29). "Cadmus jetzt mit Kulisch-Arithmetik - Uni Karlsruhe gibt Pascal-Compiler nach München" [Cadmus now comes with Kulisch arithmetic - University Karlsruhe delivers Pascal compiler to Munich]. Computerwoche (in German). Munich / Karlsruhe, Germany: IDG Business Media GmbH. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30.  ^ "PASCAL-XSC: PASCAL for Extended Scientific Computing". Archived from the original on 2014-01-05.  ^ "XSC Software". Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ "Universitaet Wuppertal: Wissenschaftliches Rechnen / Softwaretechnologie". Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ Bamberger, Lothar; Davenport, James H.; Fischer, Hans-Christoph; Kok, Jan; Schumacher, Günter; Ullrich, Christian; Wallis, Peter J. L.; Winter, Dik T.; Wolff von Gudenberg, Jürgen (1990). Wallis, Peter J. L., ed. Improving Floating-Point Programming (1st ed.). Bath, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-471-92437-7.  ^ Michel Gien, "The SOL Operating System", in Usenix Summer '83 Conference, Toronto, ON, (July 1983), pp. 75-78 ^ cs.berkeley.edu Archived 2015-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://smartmobilestudio.com Archived 2014-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pascal ISO 7185:1990 Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. 6.10 ^ a b J. Welsh, W. J. Sneeringer, and C. A. R. Hoare, "Ambiguities and Insecurities in Pascal", Software Practice and Experience 7, pp. 685–696 (1977) ^ Pascal, Nell Dale and Chip Weems, "Dangling Else", p. 160–161 Archived 2017-03-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Flock-JSCodeGenDemo.7z - dwscript - "Flock" DWScript / JavaScript CodeGen demo - Delphi Web Script general purpose scripting engine - Google Project Hosting". Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ "Pascal-S: A Subset and Its Implementation", N. Wirth in Pascal – The Language and Its Implementation, by D.W. Barron, Wiley 1979. ^ ISO/IEC 7185:1990 Pascal (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  ^ Wirth, Niklaus (July 1973). The Programming Language Pascal (Revised Report) (PDF). ETH Zürich. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  ^ Extended Pascal: ISO/IEC 10206:1990. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  ^ "Language standards: Pascal, Extended Pascal, Fortan". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  ^ 770X3.160-1989 - IEEE/ANSI Standard for the Programming Language Extended Pascal. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  ^ "Virtual Pascal for OS/2". Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "netlabs.org - Project: Open Sibyl". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ Brian W. Kernighan (1981). Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language Archived 2009-04-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ O. Lecarme, P. Desjardins, "More Comments on the Programming Language Pascal," Acta Informatica 4, pp. 231–243 (1975) ^ The Pascal Programming Language Archived 2008-02-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pascal Myths Archived 2015-09-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Extended Pascal Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.


Further reading[edit] Niklaus Wirth: The Programming Language Pascal. 35–63, Acta Informatica, Volume 1, 1971. C. A. R. Hoare: Notes on data structuring. In O-J Dahl, E W Dijkstra and C A R Hoare, editors, Structured Programming, pages 83–174. Academic Press, 1972. C. A. R. Hoare, Niklaus Wirth: An Axiomatic Definition of the Programming Language Pascal. 335–355, Acta Informatica, Volume 2, 1973. Kathleen Jensen and Niklaus Wirth: PASCAL – User Manual and Report. Springer-Verlag, 1974, 1985, 1991, ISBN 0-387-97649-3 and ISBN 3-540-97649-3. Niklaus Wirth: Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Prentice-Hall, 1975, ISBN 0-13-022418-9. Niklaus Wirth: An assessment of the programming language PASCAL. 23–30 ACM SIGPLAN Notices Volume 10, Issue 6, June 1975. N. Wirth, and A. I. Wasserman, ed: Programming Language Design. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1980 D. W. Barron (Ed.): Pascal – The Language and its Implementation. John Wiley 1981, ISBN 0-471-27835-1 Peter Grogono: Programming in Pascal, Revised Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1980 Richard S. Forsyth: Pascal in Work and Play, Chapman and Hall, 1982 N. Wirth, M. Broy, ed, and E. Denert, ed: Pascal and its Successors in Software Pioneers: Contributions to Software Engineering. Springer-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-540-43081-4 N. Wirth: Recollections about the Development of Pascal. ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Volume 28, No 3, March 1993.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pascal (programming language). Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Pascal The Pascal Programming Language Standard Pascal – resources and history of original, standard Pascal Free Pascal SciTech portal – with applications of Lazarus and Free Pascal for Science, medicine and technology Pascal-P – the Pascal-P compiler and versions Pascal-P5 – Pascal-P5 web page Pascal-P5 source code – SourceForge project for P5 Online Vintage Pascal8000 Compiler – for small experiments v t e Programming languages Comparison Timeline History Assembly BASIC C C++ C# COBOL Fortran Go Groovy Haskell Java JavaScript (JS) Kotlin Lisp Lua Objective-C Pascal Perl PHP Python Rexx Ruby Shell Smalltalk Swift Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) VBScript more... Category Lists Alphabetical Categorical Generational Non-English-based v t e Pascal programming language family Dialects Pascal Object Pascal Pascal Script Oxygene Clascal Concurrent Pascal SuperPascal Compilers Current Delphi Oxygene PocketStudio HP Pascal IP Pascal Free Pascal (Lazarus) PascalABC.NET GNU Pascal Turbo51 MIDletPascal Pic Micro Pascal ACK Historic Virtual Pascal Apple Pascal Turbo Pascal Microsoft Pascal UCSD Pascal JRT Pascal/MT+ API CLX FCL FireMonkey LCL Object Windows Library OpenWire RTL Turbo Vision Visual Component Library Comparison of Pascal and C Comparison of Pascal and Delphi Related to ALGOL (1958) Modula-2 (1977) Ada (1983) Oberon (1986) Modula-3 (1988) Oberon-2 (1991) Component Pascal (1991) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Authority control LCCN: sh85098423 BNF: cb11941547z (data) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pascal_(programming_language)&oldid=818818990" Categories: Academic programming languagesEducational programming languagesPascal (programming language)Programming languagesProgramming languages created in 1970Programming languages with an ISO standardHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 German-language sources (de)Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersArticles with example Pascal code


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(IDE)PascalABC.NETGNU PascalTurbo51MIDletPascalPic Micro PascalAmsterdam Compiler KitVirtual PascalApple PascalTurbo PascalMicrosoft PascalUCSD PascalJRT (programming Language)Pascal/MT+Application Programming InterfaceComponent Library For Cross PlatformFree Component LibraryFireMonkeyLazarus Component LibraryObject Windows LibraryOpenWire (library)Free Pascal Runtime LibraryTurbo VisionVisual Component LibraryComparison Of Pascal And CComparison Of Pascal And DelphiALGOLModula-2Ada (programming Language)Oberon (programming Language)Modula-3Oberon-2Component PascalTemplate:ISO StandardsTemplate Talk:ISO StandardsInternational Organization For StandardizationList Of International Organization For Standardization StandardsList Of ISO RomanizationsList Of IEC StandardsISO 1ISO 2Preferred NumberISO 4ISO 5ISO 6ISO 7ISO 9A440 (pitch Standard)ISO 31ISO 31-0ISO 31-1ISO 31-2ISO 31-3ISO 31-4ISO 31-5ISO 31-6ISO 31-7ISO 31-8ISO 31-9ISO 31-10ISO 31-11ISO 31-12ISO 31-13ISO 128ISO 216ISO 217ISO 226British Standard Pipe ThreadISO 233ISO 259EnvelopeKappa NumberVicat Softening PointISO 428ISO 518ISO 519ISO 639ISO 639-1ISO 639-2ISO 639-3ISO 639-5ISO 639-6ISO/IEC 646ISO 690ISO 732Antimagnetic WatchISO 843ISO 898ISO 965ISO 1000Magnetic Ink Character Recognition135 FilmOCR-A FontISO 1413ALGOL 60ISO 1745ISO 1989ISO 2014ISO 2015ISO/IEC 2022ISO 2047International Standard Book NumberISO 2145ISO 2146ISO 2240Water Resistant MarkISO 2709ISO 2711ISO 2788ISO 2848ISO 2852126 FilmISO 3103ISO 3166ISO 3166-1ISO 3166-2ISO 3166-3International Standard Serial NumberISO 3307Kunrei-shiki RomanizationISO 3864International Standard Recording CodeISO 3977ISO 4031ISO 4157ISO 4217ISO/IEC 4909ISO/IEC 5218ISO 5428ISO 5775ISO 5776ISO 5800ISO 5964ISO 6166ISO 6344ISO 6346ISO 6385Water Resistant MarkANSI Escape CodeISO 6438ISO 6523ISO 6709ISO 7001ISO 7002PinyinISO 7200OSI ModelISO 7736ISO/IEC 7810ISO/IEC 7811ISO/IEC 7812ISO/IEC 7813ISO/IEC 7816ISO 8000ISO 8178Fuel OilFTAMISO 8583ISO 8601Computer Graphics MetafileISO/IEC 8652ISO 8691Language Of Temporal Ordering SpecificationISO/IEC 8820-5ISO/IEC 8859ISO/IEC 8859-1ISO/IEC 8859-2ISO/IEC 8859-3ISO/IEC 8859-4ISO/IEC 8859-5ISO/IEC 8859-6ISO/IEC 8859-7ISO/IEC 8859-8ISO-8859-8-IISO/IEC 8859-9ISO/IEC 8859-10ISO/IEC 8859-11ISO/IEC 8859-12ISO/IEC 8859-13ISO/IEC 8859-14ISO/IEC 8859-15ISO/IEC 8859-16Standard Generalized Markup LanguageISO 9000SQLISO/IEC 9126File Allocation TableISO 9241ISO 9362Shoe SizeManufacturing Message SpecificationISO 9529ISO 9564X.500ISO 9660ISO 9897C (programming Language)POSIXISO 9984ISO 9985ISO/IEC 9995ISO 10005ISO 10006ISO 10007ISO/IEC 10116Whirlpool (cryptography)ISO 10160ISO 10161Guidelines For The Definition Of Managed ObjectsDocument Style Semantics And Specification LanguageISO 10206ISO 10218ISO 10303EXPRESS (data Modeling Language)ISO 10303-21ISO 10303-22ISO 10303-28STEP-NCISO 10383ISO 10487ArmSCIIIS-ISUniversal Coded Character SetTorxRM-ODPMultibusInternational Standard Music NumberISO 10962ISO/IEC 10967ISO/IEEE 11073ISO 11170ISO/IEC 11179ISO/IEC 11404JBIGISO 11783ISO 11784 & 11785ISO 11784 & 11785ISO/IEC 11801ISO 11898ISO 11940ISO 11940-2ISO/TR 11941ISO/TR 11941ISO 11992ISO 12006ISO/IEC TR 12182ISO/IEC 12207Tag Image File Format / Electronic PhotographyPrologPrologPrologIsofixTopic MapsISO 13399ISO 13406-2110 FilmISO 13485ISO 13490ISO 13567Z NotationISO 13584International Bank Account NumberISO 14000ISO 14031ISO 14224PDF/UAHorsepowerISO/IEC 14443MPEG-4MPEG-4 Part 2MPEG-4 Part 3Delivery Multimedia Integration FrameworkH.264/MPEG-4 AVCMPEG-4 Part 11MPEG-4 Part 12MPEG-4 Part 14MPEG-4 Part 14MPEG-4 Part 14ISO 14644STEP-NCISO 14651ISO 14698ISO 14750Software MaintenanceC++ISO 14971ISO 15022ISO 15189ISO/IEC 15288Ada Semantic Interface SpecificationISO 15292ISO 15398Common CriteriaJPEG 2000Motion JPEG 2000HTMLPDF417ISO/IEC 15504International Standard Identifier For Libraries And Related OrganizationsISO 15686ISO/IEC 15693International Standard Audiovisual NumberISO 15706-2International Standard 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