Contents 1 United States 1.1 Scenic roads 1.2 Early high speed roads 1.3 New Deal roads 1.4 Post-war parkways 2 Canada 3 United Kingdom 3.1 Bristol (and other) park-and-ride railway stations 3.2 Peterborough 3.3 Plymouth 4 Australia 4.1 Australian Capital Territory 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


United States[edit] Brooklyn's Eastern Parkway, the world's first parkway, according to the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Clara Barton Parkway in Maryland Scenic roads[edit] Over the years, many different types of roads have been labeled parkways. The first parkways in the United States were developed during the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Beatrix Farrand as roads segregated for pedestrians, bicyclists, equestrians, and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway, which is credited as the world's first parkway,[2] and Ocean Parkway in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads." Newer roads such as Bidwell in Buffalo, New York and Park Presidio Boulevard in San Francisco, California[3] were designed for automobiles and are broad and divided by large landscaped central medians. During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include limited-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles, with landscaping. These parkways originally provided scenic routes without very slow or commercial vehicles, at grade intersections, or pedestrian traffic such as the Merritt Parkway in Connecticut and the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway in New York. Their success led to more development however, expanding a city's boundaries, eventually limiting their recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway between Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena, California is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics. It and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name parkway. Early high speed roads[edit] See also: Parkways in New York State In New York City, construction on the Long Island Motor Parkway (Vanderbilt Parkway) began in 1906 and planning for the Bronx River Parkway in 1907. In the 1920s, the New York City Metropolitan Area's parkway system grew under the direction of Robert Moses, the president of the New York State Council of Parks and Long Island State Park Commission, who used parkways to create and access state parks, especially for city dwellers. As Commissioner of New York City Parks under Mayor LaGuardia, he extended the parkways to the heart of the city, creating and linking its parks to the greater metropolitan systems. Most of the New York metropolitan parkways were designed by Gilmore Clark. The famed "Gateway to New England" Merritt Parkway in Connecticut was designed in the 1930s as a pleasurable alternative for affluent locals to the congested Boston Post Road, running through forest with each bridge designed uniquely to enhance the scenery. Another example is the Sprain Brook Parkway from The Bronx to become the Taconic State Parkway to Chatham, New York. Landscape architect George Kessler designed extensive parkway systems for Kansas City, Missouri; Memphis, Tennessee; Indianapolis; and other cities at the beginning of the 20th century. The Natchez Trace Parkway New Deal roads[edit] In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal the U.S. federal government constructed National Parkways designed for recreational driving and to commemorate historic trails and routes. These divided four-lane parkways have lower speed limits and are maintained by the National Park Service. An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia. Others are: Skyline Drive in Virginia; the Natchez Trace Parkway in Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee; and the Colonial Parkway in eastern Virginia's Historic Triangle area. [1]. The George Washington Memorial Parkway and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River near Washington, D.C., were also constructed during this era. Post-war parkways[edit] In Kentucky the term "parkway" designates a controlled-access highway in the Kentucky Parkway system, with nine built in the 1960s and 1970s. They were toll roads until the construction bonds were repaid, now being freeways since 2006. The Arroyo Seco Parkway from Pasadena to Los Angeles, built in 1940, was the first segment of the vast Southern California freeway system. It became part of State Route 110 and was renamed the Pasadena Freeway. A 2010 restoration of the freeway brought the Arroyo Seco Parkway designation back. Sign informing truckers it is illegal to use a parkway in New York City. In the New York metropolitan area, contemporary parkways are predominantly controlled-access highways restricted to non-commercial traffic, excluding trucks and tractor-trailers. Some have low overpasses that also exclude buses. The Vanderbilt Parkway, an exception in western Suffolk County, is a surviving remnant of the Long Island Motor Parkway that became a surface street, no longer with controlled-access or non-commercial vehicle restrictions. The Palisades Interstate Parkway is a post-war parkway that starts at the George Washington Bridge, heads north through New Jersey, continuing through Rockland and Orange counties in New York. The Palisades Parkway was built to allow for a direct route from New York City to Harriman State Park. In New Jersey, the Garden State Parkway, connecting the urban Northeast U.S. with the rural Atlantic Ocean shoreline and Atlantic City, is restricted to buses and non-commercial traffic north of the Route 18 interchange but is one of the busiest toll roads in the country.[4] In the Pittsburgh region, two of the major interstates are referred to informally as Parkways. The Parkway East — I-376, formally the Penn-Lincoln Parkway, connects Downtown Pittsburgh to Monroeville, Pennsylvania. The Parkway West — I-376 runs through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and links Downtown to Pittsburgh International Airport, Southbound I-79, Imperial, Pennsylvania, and Westbound US 22/30. The Parkway North — I-279 connects Downtown to Franklin Park, Pennsylvania and Northbound I-79. In Minneapolis, the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway system has 50 miles (80 km) of streets designated as parkways. These are not freeways, having a slow 25-mile per hour speed limit, pedestrian crossings, and stop signs.[5][6] In Cincinnati, parkways are major roads which trucks are prohibited from using. Some Cincinnati parkways, such as Columbia Parkway, are high-speed, limited access roads, while others, such as Central Parkway, are multi-lane urban roads without controlled access. Columbia Parkway carries US-50 traffic from downtown towards east-side suburbs of Mariemont, Anderson, and Milford, and is a limited access road from downtown to the Village of Mariemont.


Canada[edit] The Icefields Parkway runs through the Canadian Rockies in Jasper National Park and Banff National Park. "Parkway" is used in the names of many Canadian roads, including major routes through national parks, scenic drives, major urban thoroughfares, and even regular freeways that carry commercial traffic. Parkways in the National Capital Region are administered by the National Capital Region (Canada). However, some of them are named "Drive" or "Driveway". The term in Canada is also applied to multi-use paths and greenways used by walkers and cyclists.[7][8] Airport Parkway (Ottawa) Aviation Parkway (Ottawa) Colonel By Drive in Ottawa, Ontario Conestoga Parkway in Kitchener, Ontario Don Valley Parkway in Toronto, Ontario Emil Kolb Parkway in Bolton, Ontario Erin Mills Parkway in Mississauga, Ontario Forest Hills Parkway in Halifax, Nova Scotia Hanlon Expressway in Guelph, Ontario Icefields Parkway in Alberta Lauzon Parkway in Windsor, Ontario Lincoln M. Alexander Parkway in Hamilton, Ontario Niagara Parkway in Southern Ontario Ojibway Parkway in Windsor, Ontario Queen Elizabeth Driveway in Ottawa, Ontario Red Hill Valley Parkway in Hamilton, Ontario Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway in Eastern Ontario The Parkway in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Thousand Islands Parkway in Eastern Ontario


United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Parkway (disambiguation) The United Kingdom has parkways in many large towns and cities. Most examples are motorways or A roads. Some parkways including Chelmsford Parkway have flyovers leading to major roads. Bristol (and other) park-and-ride railway stations[edit] Luton Airport Parkway railway station Many English mainly park-and-ride-status railway stations have the suffix Parkway. The etymology is from the original U.S. meaning as the Bristol Parkway railway station was named after the adjacent M32 motorway originally known as the Parkway because of its green-buffered route into the city. Bristol Parkway was the first railway station so named, in 1972. The majority of such stations were late 20th century to relieve pressure on existing city centre stations. Examples such as Didcot Parkway are re-namings following the expansion of the car parking facilities where the name is used promotionally whereas in others with multi-storey car parks serving modest settlements such as Brookwood and Fleet the suffix has not been adopted. Luton Airport Parkway and Southampton Airport Parkway are examples serving Luton and Southampton airports. They were termed as such as not in easy walking distance of an airport terminal; passengers use shuttle bus services, although Southampton Airport is within walking distance of Southampton Airport. Peterborough[edit] Further information: Road transport in Peterborough The city and third-generation new town Peterborough (population of 184,500 as at 2011 census), has an overall free-capacity system of seven Parkways, which provide automotive routes for much through-traffic and local traffic sufficient to cope in most peak hours. The majority are dual carriageways with many of their junctions numbered. Four main parkways (Soke Parkway, Nene Parkway, Fletton Parkway, Frank Perkins Parkway, Paston Parkway) form an orbital outer ring road. Orton Parkway, Werrington Parkway, Longthorpe Parkway are eponymously named after the settlements they link. Plymouth[edit] In the City of Plymouth, the A38 is called 'The Parkway' and bisects a rural belt of the Authority area, which coincides with the geographical centre; it has two junctions to enter the downtown part of the city.


Australia[edit] Australian Capital Territory[edit] The Australian Capital Territory uses the term "Parkway" to refer to roadways of a standard approximately equivalent to what would be designated as an "Expressway", "Freeway", or "Motorway" in other areas. Parkways generally have multiple lanes in each direction of travel, no intersections (crossroads are accessed by interchanges), high speed limits, and are of dual carriageway design (or have high crash barriers on the median).[9]


See also[edit] Look up parkway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Central reservation Green belt Road verge Linear park Prospekt (street)


References[edit] ^ a b "parkway."Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Apr. 2007). ^ http://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/historical-signs/listings?id=196 ^ Alexander, Jeanne. "History of Park Presidio Boulevard". ppnsf.org/history.  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ "TITLE 16. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION - CHAPTER 32. TRUCK ACCESS" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2010.  ^ "Information Center: About the Grand Rounds". Archived from the original on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ "Second Ward, Minneapolis: Traffic Calming Event". Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ BC Parkway, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ^ Welland Canals Parkway Trail, Canada ^ EPBC Referral - Majura Parkway to DEWHA (Revision 1), SMEC, Page 9, 19 August 2009


External links[edit] Look up parkway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. NPS: Blue Ridge Parkway website NPS: Natchez Trace Parkway website Natchez Trace Compact Long Island Motor Parkway Bronx River Parkway Merritt Parkway The Straight Dope "Why do we drive on the parkway and park on the driveway?" NPS Colonial Parkway webpage v t e Streets and roadways Types of road Limited-access Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway By country Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States Main roads Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway systems by country Local roads Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane Other terms Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number Special route Business route Street hierarchy Toll road Road junctions Interchanges (grade-separated) Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet Intersections (at-grade) 3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out (RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround Surfaces Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete Reinforced concrete Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture Road hazards Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road debris Road slipperiness Road train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout Space and time allocation Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road diet Road verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf Demarcation Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone Structures Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel Glossary of road transport terms Road types by features Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parkway&oldid=822517154" Categories: ParkwaysLandscapeTypes of roadsEnvironmental designLimited-access roadsUrban studies and planning terminologyHidden categories: Pages using web citations with no URLArticles with limited geographic scope from January 2010Anglophone-centric


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