Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Pre-Columbian Era 2.2 Colonization 2.3 Independence and rule of Francia 2.4 Rule of the López 2.5 Paraguayan War (1864–1870) 2.6 20th century 2.7 Stroessner 2.8 Post-1989 2.9 From Lugo's 2008 election to his 2012 impeachment 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Government and politics 4.1 Military 4.2 Administrative subdivisions 5 Economy 5.1 Industry and manufacturing 5.2 Social issues 5.2.1 Social issues of the indigenous 6 Demographics 6.1 Religion 6.2 Languages 6.3 Largest cities 7 Culture 7.1 Sports 8 Education 9 Health 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links


Etymology[edit] The name of the country comes from the river of the same name. There is no consensus regarding the derivation or meaning of Paraguay, although many versions are similar and all of them in Paraguayan Guarani. The most widely believed is that it comes from paragua (compound of para 'sea', and the suffix -gua 'native to, coming from') and y (water, river), which can mean either "water that comes from the sea" or "the water of the people from the sea". Even though it most believed that it means the first, the second meaning is more possible from a linguistic point of view. Friar Antonio Ruiz de Montoya (1585–1652) wrote in his 1639 work Tesoro de la lengua guaraní (Theasaurus of the Guarani Language) that it was a compound of paragua (feather crown) and y, thus meaning "river of crowns" or "the river where men live and are ornate with crowns of verious feathers" The Spanish officer and scientist Félix de Azara (1746–1821) suggests two derivations: the Payaguás (Pajagua y, "river of Payaguás"), referring to the indigenous tribe who lived along the river, or a great cacique named Paraguáio or Paraguájo. Although originally the word in Guarani was Paraguay, the country is called Paraguái and pronounced the same as in Spanish, with the close front unrounded vowel /i/ instead of /ɨ/. The word Paraguay is just used to refer to the river and the capital city of Asunción.


History[edit] Main article: History of Paraguay Pre-Columbian Era[edit] Indigenous peoples have inhabited this area for thousands of years. The Paraguay River was roughly the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not fully pacified until the late 19th century. These indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were generally competitive over resources and territories. They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain. Colonization[edit] The first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516.[12] The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation [13] was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil. They developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the syncretic religion has absorbed native elements. The reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767. The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.[13] In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were strongly resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 18th and 19th centuries. Independence and rule of Francia[edit] Main article: Independence of Paraguay José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguay's first dictator Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with very little outside contact or influence. He intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract.[14] Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that greatly reduced the powers of the Catholic church (Catholicism was then an established state religion) and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.[15] He cut off relations between Paraguay and the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era leaders in 1820 planned a coup d’état against Francia, who discovered the plot and had its leaders either executed or imprisoned for life. Rule of the López[edit] After Francia's death in 1840, Paraguay was ruled by various military officers under a new junta, until Carlos Antonio López (allegedly Rodríguez de Francia's nephew) came to power in 1841. López modernized Paraguay and opened it to foreign commerce. He signed a non-aggression pact with Argentina and officially declared independence of Paraguay in 1842. After López's death in 1862, power was transferred to his eldest son, Francisco Solano López. The regime of the López family was characterized by pervasive and rigid centralism in production and distribution. There was no distinction between the public and the private spheres, and the López family ruled the country as it would a large estate.[16] The government exerted control on all exports. The export of yerba mate and valuable wood products maintained the balance of trade between Paraguay and the outside world.[17] The Paraguayan government was extremely protectionist, never accepted loans from abroad and levied high tariffs against imported foreign products. This protectionism made the society self-sufficient, and it also avoided the debt suffered by Argentina and Brazil. Slavery existed in Paraguay, although not in great numbers, until 1844, when it was legally abolished in the new Constitution.[18] Francisco Solano López, the son of Carlos Antonio López, replaced his father as the President-Dictator in 1862, and generally continued the political policies of his father. Both wanted to give an international image of Paraguay as "democratic and republican", but in fact, the ruling family had almost total control of all public life in the country, including Church and colleges.[19] Militarily, Carlos Antonio López modernized and expanded industry and the Paraguayan Army and greatly strengthened the strategic defences of Paraguay by developing the Fortress of Humaitá.[20] The government hired more than 200 foreign technicians, who installed telegraph lines and railroads to aid the expanding steel, textile, paper and ink, naval construction, weapons and gunpowder industries. The Ybycuí foundry, completed in 1850, manufactured cannons, mortars and bullets of all calibers. River warships were built in the shipyards of Asunción. Fortifications were built, especially along the Apa River and in Gran Chaco.[21]:22 The work was continued by his son Francisco Solano. Political map of the region, 1864 According to George Thompson, C.E., Lieutenant Colonel of Engineers in the Paraguayan Army prior to and during the war, López's government was comparatively a good one for Paraguay: Probably in no other country in the world has life and property been so secure as all over Paraguay during his (Antonio Lopez's) reign. Crime was almost unknown, and when committed, immediately detected and punished. The mass of the people was, perhaps, the happiest in existence. They had hardly to do any work to gain a livelihood. Each family had its house or hut in its own ground. They planted, in a few days, enough tobacco, maize and mandioca for their own consumption [...]. Having at every hut a grove of oranges [...] and also a few cows, they were almost throughout the year under little necessity [...]. The higher classes, of course, lived more in the European way... — George Thompson, C.E.[22] Paraguayan War (1864–1870)[edit] Main article: Paraguayan War Main article: Paraguayan War casualties Francisco Solano López In 12 October 1864, despite Paraguayan ultimatums, the Brazilian Empire (sided with Argentina and the rebellious Gen. Venancio Flores) invaded the Republic of Uruguay (which then was an ally of the Lopez's Government[citation needed]), thus starting the Paraguayan War.[23] The Paraguayans, led by the Marshal of the Republic Francisco Solano López, held a fierce resistance, but were ultimately defeated in 1870 after the Death of Solano López, who was killed in action.[24] The real causes of this war, which remains the bloodiest international conflict in Latin American history, are still highly debated.[25] About the disaster suffered by the Paraguayans at the outcome of the war, William D. Rubinstein wrote: "The normal estimate is that of a Paraguayan population of somewhere between 450,000 and 900,000, only 220,000 survived the war, of whom only 28,000 were adult males."[26] Paraguay also suffered extensive territorial losses to Brazil and Argentina. The Battle of Tuyutí, May 1866 During the pillaging of Asunción in 1869, the Imperial Brazilian Army packed up and transported the Paraguayan National Archives to Rio de Janeiro.[27][28] Brazil's records from the war have remained classified.[29] This has made Paraguayan history in the Colonial and early National periods difficult to research and study. 20th century[edit] Gran Chaco was the site of the Chaco War (1932–35), in which Bolivia lost most of the disputed territory to Paraguay. Paraguayan recruits during the Chaco war In 1904 the Liberal revolution against the rule of Colorados broke out. The Liberal rule started a period of great political instability. Between 1904 and 1954 Paraguay had thirty-one presidents, most of whom were removed from office by force.[30] Conflicts between the factions of the ruling Liberal party led to the Paraguayan Civil War of 1922. The unresolved border conflict with Bolivia over Chaco region finally erupted in early 1930s in the Chaco War. After great losses Paraguay defeated Bolivia and established its sovereignty over most of the disputed Chaco region. After the war, military officers used popular dissatisfaction with the Liberal politicians to seize the power for themselves. On 17 February 1936, the February Revolution brought colonel Rafael Franco to power. Between 1940 and 1948, the country was ruled by general Higinio Morínigo. Dissatisfaction with his rule resulted in the Paraguayan civil war of 1947.[31] In its aftermath Alfredo Stroessner began involvement in a string of plots, which resulted in his military coup d'état of 4 May 1954. Stroessner[edit] See also: El Stronato A series of unstable governments ensued until the establishment in 1954 of the regime of dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who remained in office for more than three decades until 1989. Paraguay was modernized to some extent under Stroessner's regime, although his rule was marked by extensive human rights abuses.[32] Stroessner and the Colorado party ruled the country from 1954 to 1989. The dictator oversaw an era of economic expansion, but also had a poor human rights and environmental record (see "Political History"). Torture and death for political opponents was routine. After his overthrow, the Colorado continued to dominate national politics until 2008. The splits in the Colorado Party in the 1980s, and the prevailing conditions: Stroessner's advanced age, the character of the regime, the economic downturn, and international isolation, were catalysts for anti-regime demonstrations and statements by the opposition prior to the 1988 general elections.[citation needed] PLRA leader Domingo Laíno served as the focal point of the opposition in the second half of the 1980s. The government's effort to isolate Laino by exiling him in 1982 had backfired. On his sixth attempt to re-enter the country in 1986, Laino returned with three television crews from the U.S., a former United States ambassador to Paraguay, and a group of Uruguayan and Argentine congressmen. Despite the international contingent, the police violently barred Laino's return.[citation needed] The Stroessner regime relented in April 1987, and permitted Laino to return to Asunción. Laino took the lead in organizing demonstrations and reducing infighting among the opposition party. The opposition was unable to reach agreement on a common strategy regarding the elections, with some parties advocating abstention, and others calling for blank voting. The parties held numerous 'lightning demonstrations' (mítines relámpagos), especially in rural areas. Such demonstrations were gathered and quickly disbanded before the arrival of the police. In response to the upsurge in opposition activities, Stroessner condemned the Accord for advocating "sabotage of the general elections and disrespect of the law." He used national police and civilian vigilantes of the Colorado Party to break up demonstrations. A number of opposition leaders were imprisoned or otherwise harassed. Hermes Rafael Saguier, another key leader of the PLRA, was imprisoned for four months in 1987 on charges of sedition. In early February 1988, police arrested 200 people attending a National Coordinating Committee meeting in Coronel Oviedo. Laino and several other opposition figures were arrested before dawn on the day of the election, 14 February, and held for twelve hours. The government declared Stroessner's re-election with 89% of the vote.[33] The opposition attributed the results in part to the virtual Colorado monopoly on the mass media. They noted that 53% of those polled indicated that there was an "uneasiness" in Paraguayan society. 74% believed that the political situation needed changes, including 45% who wanted a substantial or total change. Finally, 31% stated that they planned to abstain from voting in the February elections.[citation needed] On 3 February 1989, Stroessner was overthrown in a military coup headed by General Andrés Rodríguez. As president, Rodríguez instituted political, legal, and economic reforms and initiated a rapprochement with the international community. Reflecting the deep hunger of the rural poor for land, hundreds immediately occupied thousands of acres of unused territories belonging to Stroessner and his associates; by mid-1990, 19,000 families occupied 340,000 acres (138,000 ha). At the time, 2.06 million people lived in rural areas, more than half of the 4.1 million total population, and most were landless.[34] Post-1989[edit] The June 1992 constitution established a democratic system of government and dramatically improved protection of fundamental human rights. In May 1993, Colorado Party candidate Juan Carlos Wasmosy was elected as Paraguay's first civilian president in almost 40 years, in what international observers deemed fair and free elections. With support from the United States, the Organization of American States, and other countries in the region, the Paraguayan people rejected an April 1996 attempt by then Army Chief General Lino Oviedo to oust President Wasmosy. Oviedo was nominated as the Colorado candidate for president in the 1998 election, however, when the Supreme Court upheld in April his conviction on charges related to the 1996 coup attempt, he was not allowed to run and was detained in jail. His former running mate, Raúl Cubas, became the Colorado Party's candidate, and was elected in May in elections deemed by international observers to be free and fair. One of Cubas' first acts after taking office in August was to commute Oviedo's sentence and release him. In December 1998, Paraguay's Supreme Court declared these actions unconstitutional. In this tense atmosphere, the murder of Vice President and long-time Oviedo rival Luis María Argaña on 23 March 1999, led the Chamber of Deputies to impeach Cubas the next day.[citation needed] On 26 March, eight student anti-government demonstrators were murdered, widely believed to have been carried out by Oviedo supporters. This increased opposition to Cubas, who resigned on 28 March. Senate President Luis González Macchi, a Cubas opponent, was peacefully sworn in as president the same day. In 2003, Nicanor Duarte Frutos was elected as president. For the 2008 general elections, the Colorado Party was favored in polls. Their candidate was Minister of Education Blanca Ovelar, the first woman to be nominated as a candidate for a major party in Paraguayan history. After sixty years of Colorado rule, voters chose Fernando Lugo, a former Roman Catholic Bishop and not a professional politician in civil government. He had long followed liberation theology, which was controversial in South American societies, but he was backed by the center-right Liberal Party, the Colorado Party's traditional opponents. From Lugo's 2008 election to his 2012 impeachment[edit] Lugo achieved a historic victory in Paraguay's presidential election, defeating the ruling party candidate, and ending 61 years of conservative rule. Lugo won with nearly 41% of the vote, compared to almost 31% for Blanca Ovelar of the Colorado party.[35] Outgoing President Nicanor Duarte Frutos hailed the moment as the first time in the history of the nation that a government had transferred power to opposition forces in a constitutional and peaceful fashion. Lugo was sworn in on 15 August 2008. The Paraguayan Congress continued to be dominated by right-wing elected officials. The Lugo administration set its two major priorities as the reduction of corruption and economic inequality.[36] Inauguration of new President Horacio Cartes, 15 August 2013 Political instability following Lugo's election and disputes within his cabinet encouraged some renewal of popular support for the Colorado Party. Reports suggested that the businessman Horacio Cartes became the new political figure amid disputes. Despite the US Drug Enforcement Administration's strong accusations against Cartes related to drug trafficking, he continued to amass followers in the political arena. On 14 January 2011, the Colorado Party convention nominated Horacio Cartes as the presidential candidate for the party. However, the party's constitution didn't allow it.[clarification needed] On 21 June 2012, impeachment proceedings against President Lugo began in the country's lower house, which was controlled by his opponents. Lugo was given less than twenty-four hours to prepare for the proceedings and only two hours in which to mount a defense.[37] Impeachment was quickly approved and the resulting trial in Paraguay's Senate, also controlled by the opposition, ended with the removal of Lugo from office and Vice President Federico Franco assuming the duties of president.[38] Lugo's rivals blamed him for the deaths of 17 people – eight police officers and nine farmers – in armed clashes after police were ambushed by armed peasants when enforcing an eviction order against rural trespassers.[39] Lugo's supporters gathered outside Congress to protest the decision as a "politically motivated coup d'état".[38] Lugo's removal from office on 22 June 2012 is considered by UNASUR and other neighboring countries, especially those currently governed by leftist leaders, as a coup d'état.[40] The Organization of American States, which sent a mission to Paraguay to gather information, concluded that the impeachment process had been carried out in accordance with the Constitution of Paraguay.


Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Paraguay Paraguay map of Köppen climate classification Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay Paraguay is divided by the Río Paraguay into two well differentiated geographic regions. The eastern region (Región Oriental); and the western region, officially called Western Paraguay (Región Occidental) and also known as the Chaco, which is part of the Gran Chaco. The country lies between latitudes 19° and 28°S, and longitudes 54° and 63°W. The terrain consists mostly of grassy plains and wooded hills in the eastern region. To the west are mostly low, marshy plains. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Paraguay The overall climate is tropical to subtropical. Like most lands in the region, Paraguay has only wet and dry periods. Winds play a major role in influencing Paraguay's weather: between October and March, warm winds blow from the Amazon Basin in the North, while the period between May and August brings cold winds from the Andes. The absence of mountain ranges to provide a natural barrier allows winds to develop speeds as high as 161 km/h (100 mph). This also leads to significant changes in temperature within a short span of time; between April and September, temperatures will sometimes drop below freezing. January is the hottest summer month, with an average daily temperature of 28.9 degrees Celsius (84 degrees F). Rainfall varies dramatically across the country, with substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, and semi-arid conditions in the far west. The far eastern forest belt receives an average of 170 centimeters (67 inches) of rain annually, while the western Chaco region typically averages no more than 50 cm (20 in) a year. The rains in the west tend to be irregular and evaporate quickly, contributing to the aridity of the area.


Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Paraguay, Human rights in Paraguay, and Foreign relations of Paraguay Paraguay is a representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system and separation of powers in three branches. Executive power is exercised solely by the President, who is head of state and head of government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the National Congress. The judiciary is vested on tribunals and Courts of Civil Law and a nine-member Supreme Court of Justice, all of them independent of the executive and the legislature. Military[edit] Main article: Military of Paraguay Paraguayan marines at Ancon Marine Base The military of Paraguay consist of the Paraguayan army, navy (including naval aviation and marine corps) and air force. The constitution of Paraguay (article 238) establishes the president of Paraguay as the commander-in-chief.[41] Paraguay has compulsory military service, and all 18-year-old males and 17-year-olds in the year of their 18th birthday are liable for one year of active duty. Although the 1992 constitution allows for conscientious objection, no enabling legislation has yet been approved. In July 2005, military aid in the form of U.S. Special Forces began arriving at Paraguay's Mariscal Estigarribia air base, a sprawling complex built in 1982.[42][43] Administrative subdivisions[edit] Main articles: Departments of Paraguay and Districts of Paraguay Paraguay consists of seventeen departments and one capital district (distrito capital). It is also divided into 2 regions: The "Occidental Region" or Chaco (Boquerón, Alto Paraguay and Presidente Hayes), and the "Oriental Region" (the other departments and the capital district). These are the departments, with their capitals, population, area and the number of districts: Alto Paraguay Boquerón Presidente Hayes Amambay Concepción San Pedro Distrito Capital Guairá Caazapá Alto Paraná Caaguazú Canindeyú Itapúa Paraguarí Misiones Ñeembucú Cordillera Central Brazil Bolivia Argentina ISO 3166-2:PY Departament Capital Population (2002 census) Area (km²) Districts ASU Distrito Capital Asunción 512,112 117 6 1 Concepción Concepción 179,450 18,051 8 2 San Pedro San Pedro 318,698 20,002 20 3 Cordillera Caacupé 233,854 4,948 20 4 Guairá Villarrica 178,650 3,846 18 5 Caaguazú Coronel Oviedo 435,357 11,474 21 6 Caazapá Caazapá 139,517 9,496 10 7 Itapúa Encarnación 453,692 16,525 30 8 Misiones San Juan Bautista 101,783 9,556 10 9 Paraguarí Paraguarí 221,932 8,705 17 10 Alto Paraná Ciudad del Este 558,672 14,895 21 11 Central Areguá 1,362,893 2,465 19 12 Ñeembucú Pilar 76,348 12,147 16 13 Amambay Pedro Juan Caballero 114,917 12,933 4 14 Canindeyú Salto del Guairá 140,137 14,667 12 15 Presidente Hayes Villa Hayes 82,493 72,907 8 16 Alto Paraguay Fuerte Olimpo 11,587 82,349 4 17 Boquerón Filadelfia 41,106 91,669 3 – Paraguay Asunción 5,163,198 406,752 245 The departments are further divided into districts (distritos).


Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Paraguay The macro-economy in Paraguay has some unique characteristics. It is characterized by a historical low inflation rate – 5% average (in 2013, the inflation rate was 3.7%), international reserves 20% of GDP and twice the amount of the external national debt. On top of that, the country enjoys clean and renewable energy production of 8,700 MW (current domestic demand 2,300 MW).[44] Between 1970 and 2013, the country had the highest economic growth of South America,[citation needed] with an average rate of 7.2% per year.[citation needed] In 2010 and 2013, Paraguay experienced the greatest economic expansion of South America, with a GDP growth rate of 14.5% and 13.6% respectively.[45] Graphical depiction of Paraguay's product exports in 28 color-coded categories, 2012 Paraguay is the sixth-largest soybean producer in the world,[46] second-largest producer of stevia, second-largest producer of tung oil, sixth-largest exporter of corn, tenth-largest exporter of wheat and 8th largest exporter of beef.[citation needed] The market economy is distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Nonetheless, over the last 10 years the Paraguayan economy diversified dramatically, with the energy, auto parts and clothing industries leading the way.[47] The country also boasts the third most important free commercial zone in the world: Ciudad del Este, trailing behind Miami and Hong Kong.[48] A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2013 as growing world demand for commodities combined with high prices and favorable weather to support Paraguay's commodity-based export expansion. In 2012, Paraguay's government introduced the MERCOSUR(FOCEM) system in order to stimulate the economy and job growth through a partnership with both Brazil and Argentina.[49] Industry and manufacturing[edit] BBVA Paraguay The mineral industry of Paraguay produces about 25% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 31% of the labor force. Production of cement, iron ore, and steel occurs commonly throughout Paraguay's industrial sector. The growth of the industry was further fueled by the maquila industry, with large industrial complexes located in the eastern part of the country. Paraguay put in place many incentives aimed to attract industries to the country. One of them is the so-called "Maquila law" by which companies can relocate to Paraguay, enjoying minimal tax rates.[50] In the pharmaceutical industry, Paraguayan companies now[when?] meet 70% of domestic consumption and have begun to export drugs. Paraguay is quickly[quantify] supplanting foreign suppliers in meeting the country's drug needs.[citation needed] Strong growth also is evident in the production of edible oils, garments, organic sugar, meat processing, and steel.[citation needed] In 2003 manufacturing made up 13.6% of the GDP, and the sector employed about 11% of the working population in 2000. Paraguay's primary manufacturing focus is on food and beverages. Wood products, paper products, hides and furs, and non-metallic mineral products also contribute to manufacturing totals. Steady growth in the manufacturing GDP during the 1990s (1.2% annually) laid the foundation for 2002 and 2003, when the annual growth rate rose to 2.5%.[51] Social issues[edit] This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2014) Various poverty estimates suggest that 30–50% of the population is poor.[52] In rural areas, 41.20% of the people lack a monthly income to cover basic necessities, whereas in urban centers this figure is 27.6%. The top 10% of the population holds 43.8% of the national income, while the lowest 10% has 0.5%. The economic recession has worsened income inequality, notably in the rural areas, where the Gini coefficient has risen from 0.56 in 1995 to 0.66 in 1999. More recent data (2009)[53] show that 35% of the Paraguayan population is poor, 19% of which live in extreme poverty. Moreover, 71% of the latter live in rural areas of the country. Similarly, land concentration in the Paraguayan countryside is one of the highest in the globe: 10% of the population controls 66% of the land, while 30% of the rural people are landless.[54] In the immediate aftermath of the 1989 overthrow of Stroessner, some 19,000 rural families occupied hundreds of thousands of acres of unused lands formerly held by the dictator and his associates by mid-1990, but many rural poor remained landless. This inequality has caused a great deal of tensions between the landless and land owners.[34] Social issues of the indigenous[edit] Literacy rates are extremely low among Paraguay's indigenous population, who have an illiteracy rate of 51% compared to the 7.1% rate of the general population.[55] Only 2.5% of Paraguay's indigenous population has access to clean drinking water and only 9.5% have electricity.[55]


Demographics[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Demographics of Paraguay and Immigration to Paraguay See also: List of most common surnames in Paraguay Paraguay population density (people per km2) Paraguay's population is distributed unevenly through the country, with the vast majority of people living in the eastern region near the capital and largest city, Asunción, which accounts for 10% of the country's population. The Gran Chaco region, which includes the Alto Paraguay, Boquerón and Presidente Hayes Department, and accounts for about 60% of the territory, is home to less than 2% of the population. About 56% of Paraguayans live in urban areas, making Paraguay one of the least urbanized nations in South America. For most of its history, Paraguay has been a recipient of immigrants, owing to its low population density, especially after the demographic collapse that resulted from the Paraguayan War. Small groups of ethnic Italians, Germans, Russians, Japanese, Koreans, Chinese, Arabs, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Brazilians, and Argentines have also settled in Paraguay. Many of these communities have retained their languages and culture, particularly the Brazilians, who represent the largest and most prominent immigrant group, at around 400,000.[56] Many Brazilian Paraguayans are of German, Italian and Polish descent.[57] There are an estimated 63,000 Afro-Paraguayans, comprising 1% of the population.[58][unreliable source?] A gathering in Caacupé There is no official data on the ethnic composition of the Paraguayan population, as the Department of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses[59] of Paraguay does not ask about race and ethnicity in census surveys, although it does inquire about the indigenous population. According to the census of 2002, the indigenous people made up 1.7% of Paraguay's total population.[60] Traditionally, the majority of the Paraguayan population is considered mixed (mestizo in Spanish). HLA-DRB1 polymorphism studies have shown the genetic distances between Paraguayans and Spanish populations were closer than between Paraguayans and Guaranis. Altogether these results suggest the predominance of the Spanish genetic in the Paraguayan population.[61] According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[11], Paraguay has a population of 6,725,308, 95% of which are mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) and 5% are labelled as "other", which includes members of indigenous tribal groups. They are divided into 17 distinct ethnolinguistic groupings, many of which are poorly documented. Paraguay has one of the most prominent German communities in South America, with some 25,000 German-speaking Mennonites living in the Paraguayan Chaco.[62] German settlers founded several towns as Hohenau, Filadelfia, Neuland, Obligado and Nueva Germania. Several websites that promote German immigration to Paraguay claim that 5–7% of the population is of German ancestry,[dubious – discuss] including 150,000 people of German-Brazilian descent.[better source needed][63][64][65][66][67] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Paraguay Main Catholic Chapel in Concepción, Paraguay Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism, is the dominant religion in Paraguay.[68] According to the 2002 census, 89.9% of the population is Catholic, 6.2% is Evangelical Protestant, 1.1% identify with other Christian sects, and 0.6% practice indigenous religions. A U.S. State Department report on Religious Freedom names Roman Catholicism, evangelical Protestantism, mainline Protestantism, Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform), Mormonism, and the Baha'i Faith as prominent religious groups. It also mentions a large Muslim community in Alto Paraná (as a result of Middle-Eastern immigration, especially from Lebanon) and a prominent Mennonite community in Boquerón.[69] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Paraguay Paraguay is a bilingual nation. Both Spanish and Guaraní are official languages. The Guarani language is a remarkable trace of the indigenous Guaraní culture that has endured in Paraguay, which is generally understood by 95% of the population. Guaraní claims its place as one of the last surviving and thriving of South American indigenous national languages. In 2015, Spanish was spoken by about 87% of the population, while Guaraní is spoken by more than 90%, or slightly more than 5.8 million speakers. 52% of rural Paraguayans are bilingual in Guaraní. While Guaraní is still widely spoken, Spanish is generally given a preferential treatment in government, business, media and education as one of South America's lingua francas.[70][71][72][73] Languages of Paraguay Languages percent Guaraní   90% Spanish   87% Portuguese   10.7% Largest cities[edit]   v t e Largest cities or towns in Paraguay (2002 DGEEC census)[74] Rank Name Department Pop. Rank Name Department Pop. Asunción Ciudad del Este 1 Asunción Capital District 512,112 11 Mariano Roque Alonso Central 65,229 San Lorenzo Luque 2 Ciudad del Este Alto Paraná 222,274 12 Pedro Juan Caballero Amambay 64,592 3 San Lorenzo Central 204,356 13 Villa Elisa Central 53,166 4 Luque Central 170,986 14 Caaguazú Caaguazú 48,941 5 Capiatá Central 154,274 15 Coronel Oviedo Caaguazú 48,773 6 Lambaré Central 119,795 16 Hernandarias Alto Paraná 47,266 7 Fernando de la Mora Central 113,560 17 Presidente Franco Alto Paraná 47,246 8 Limpio Central 73,158 18 Itauguá Central 45,577 9 Ñemby Central 71,909 19 Concepción Concepción 44,070 10 Encarnación Itapúa 67,173 20 Villarrica Guairá 38,961


Culture[edit] Main articles: Music of Paraguay and Cinema of Paraguay Paraguay's cultural heritage can be traced to the extensive intermarriage between the original male Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaraní women. Their culture is highly influenced by various European countries, including Spain. Therefore, Paraguayan culture is a fusion of two cultures and traditions; one European, the other, Southern Guaraní. More than 93% of Paraguayans are mestizos, making Paraguay one of the most homogeneous countries in Latin America. A characteristic of this cultural fusion is the extensive bilingualism present to this day: more than 80% of Paraguayans speak both Spanish and the indigenous language, Guaraní. Jopara, a mixture of Guaraní and Spanish, is also widely spoken.[citation needed] Ovecha Ragué Festival This cultural fusion is expressed in arts such as embroidery (ao po'í) and lace making (ñandutí). The music of Paraguay, which consists of lilting polkas, bouncy galopas, and languid guaranias is played on the native harp. Paraguay's culinary heritage is also deeply influenced by this cultural fusion. Several popular dishes contain manioc, a local staple crop similar to the yuca also known as Cassava root found in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, as well as other indigenous ingredients. A popular dish is sopa paraguaya, similar to a thick corn bread. Another notable food is chipa, a bagel-like bread made from cornmeal, manioc, and cheese. Many other dishes consist of different kinds of cheeses, onions, bell peppers, cottage cheese, cornmeal, milk, seasonings, butter, eggs and fresh corn kernels. The 1950s and 1960s were the time of the flowering of a new generation of Paraguayan novelists and poets such as José Ricardo Mazó, Roque Vallejos, and Nobel Prize nominee Augusto Roa Bastos. Several Paraguayan films have been made. Inside the family, conservative values predominate. In lower classes, godparents have a special relationship to the family, since usually, they are chosen because of their favorable social position, in order to provide extra security for the children. Particular respect is owed them, in return for which the family can expect protection and patronage.[75] Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Paraguay


Education[edit] Main article: Education in Paraguay See also: List of universities in Paraguay and List of schools in Paraguay Literacy was about 93.6% and 87.7% of Paraguayans finish the 5th grade according to UNESCO's last Educational Development Index 2008. Literacy does not differ much by gender.[76] A more recent study[53] reveals that attendance at primary school by children between 6 and 12 years old is about 98%. Primary education is free and mandatory and takes nine years. Secondary education takes three years.[76] Paraguay's universities include: National University of Asunción (public and founded in 1889)[77] Autonomous University of Asunción (private and founded in 1979)[78] Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (private and run by the church).[79] Universidad Americana (private). Universidad del Pacífico (private and founded in 1991). The net primary enrollment rate was at 88% in 2005.[76] Public expenditure on education was about 4.3% of GDP in the early 2000s.[76]


Health[edit] Main article: Health in Paraguay Average life expectancy in Paraguay is rather high given its poverty: as of 2006[update], it was 75 years,[80] equivalent to far wealthier Argentina, and the 8th highest in the Americas according to World Health Organization. Public expenditure on health is 2.6% of GDP, while private health expenditure is 5.1%.[76] Infant mortality was 20 per 1,000 births in 2005.[76] Maternal mortality was 150 per 100,000 live births in 2000.[76] The World Bank has helped the Paraguayan government reduce the country's maternal and infant mortality. The Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Project aimed to contribute to reducing mortality by increasing the use of selected life-saving services included in the country's Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Program (MCBI) by women of child-bearing age, and children under age six in selected areas. To this end, the project also targeted improving the quality and efficiency of the health service network within certain areas, in addition to increasing the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare's (MSPBS) management.[81]


See also[edit] Paraguay portal Latin America portal Bibliography of Paraguay Index of Paraguay-related articles Outline of Paraguay


Notes[edit] ^ The reverse side of the Coat of arms of Paraguay:


References[edit] ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2016). "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ Reed, Richard K. (1 May 1995). "Prophets of Agroforestry: Guaraní Communities and Commercial Gathering". University of Texas Press – via Google Books.  ^ [1]. Population of Paraguay 2018. ^ a b c d [2]. International Monetary Fund ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ "Paraguay – Constitution, Article 140 About Languages". International Constitutional Law Project. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  (see translator's note) ^ "8 LIZCANO" (PDF). Convergencia.uaemex.mx. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "En el corazón de Sudamérica". ABC. Retrieved 12 December 2015.  ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017). "Subsystemic Unipolarities?". Strategic Analysis. 41 (1): 74–86. doi:10.1080/09700161.2016.1249179.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Sacks, Richard S. "Early explorers and conquistadors". In Hanratty & Meditz. ^ a b "Paraguariae Provinciae Soc. Jesu cum Adiacentibg. Novissima Descriptio" [A Current Description of the Province of the Society of Jesus in Paraguay with Neighboring Areas]. World Digital Library (in Latin). 1732.  ^ War of The Triple Alliance, War of the Pacific. Retrieved 14 November 2010 ^ Romero, Simon. "In Paraguay, Indigenous Language With Unique Staying Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ "Carlos Antonio López", Library of Congress Country Studies, December 1988. URL accessed 30 December 2005. ^ Stearns, Peter N (ed.). Encyclopedia of World History (6 ed.). The Houghton Mifflin Company/ Bartleby.com. Page 630  ^ Cunninghame Graham 1933, p. 39-40. ^ Cunninghame Graham 1933, p. 41-42. ^ Robert Cowley, The Reader's Encyclopedia to Military History. New York, New York: Houston Mifflin, 1996. Page 479. ^ Hooker, T.D., 2008, The Paraguayan War, Nottingham: Foundry Books, ISBN 1901543153 ^ Thompson 1869, p. 10. ^ Sir Richard Francis Burton: "Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay", p.76 – Tinsley Brothers Editors – London (1870) – Burton, as a witness of the conflict, marks this date (12–16 October 1864) as the real beginning of the war. He writes (and it's the most logic account, considering the facts): The Brazilian Army invades the Banda Oriental, despite the protestations of President López, who declared that such invasion would be held a "casus belli". ^ Hooker, T.D., 2008, "The Paraguayan War". Nottingham: Foundry Books, pp. 105–108. ISBN 1901543153 ^ The classical view asserts that Francisco Solano López's expansionist and hegemonic views are the main reason for the outbreak of the conflict. The traditional paraguayan view, held by the "lopistas" (supporters of Solano López, both in Paraguay and worldwide), affirms that Paraguay acted in self-defense and for the protection of the "Equilibrium of the Plate Basin". This view is usually contested by the "anti-lopistas" (also known in Paraguay as "legionarios"), who favoured the "Triple Alliance". Revisionist views, both from right and left wing national-populists, put a great emphasis on the influence of the British Empire in the conflict, a view that is discarded by a majority of historians. ^ Rubinsein, W. D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. p. 94. ISBN 0-582-50601-8.  ^ Hipólito Sanchez Quell: "Los 50.000 Documentos Paraguayos Llevados al Brasil". Ediciones Comuneros, Asunción (2006). ^ Some of the documents taken by Brasil during the war, were returned to Paraguay in the collection known as "Colección de Río Branco", nowadays in the National Archives of Asunción, Paraguay ^ Barbara Weinstein (28 January 2008). "Let the Sunshine In: Government Records and National Insecurities". Historians.org. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Hanratty, Dannin M.; Meditz, Sandra W. (1988). "Paraguay: A Country Study". Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.  ^ "Paraguay Civil War 1947". Onwar.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Bernstein, Adam (17 August 2006). "Alfredo Stroessner; Paraguayan Dictator". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Paraguayan Wins His Eighth Term", The New York Times, 15 February 1988. ^ a b Nagel, Beverly Y.(1999) "'Unleashing the Fury': The Cultural Discourse of Rural Violence and Land Rights in Paraguay", in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1999, Vol. 41, Issue 1: 148–181. Cambridge University Press. ^ Nickson, Andrew (2009). "The general election in Paraguay, April 2008". Journal of Electoral Studies. 28 (1): 145–9. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2008.10.001.  ^ "Paraguay". State.gov. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Mark Weisbrot (22 June 2012). "What will Washington do about Fernando Lugo's ouster in Paraguay?". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ a b Mariano Castillo (22 June 2012). "Paraguayan Senate removes president". CNN. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^ Daniela Desantis (21 June 2012). "Paraguay's president vows to face impeachment effort". Reuters US edition. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "COMUNICADO UNASUR Asunción, 22 de Junio de 2012" (in Spanish). UNASUR. 22 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ "Constitution of 1992". Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ "U.S. Military Moves in Paraguay Rattle Regional Relations". International Relations Center. 14 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007.  ^ US Marines put a foot in Paraguay, El Clarín, 9 September 2005 (in Spanish) ^ Focus. opportunitiesinparaguay.com ^ BCP – Banco Central del Paraguay. Bcp.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ "Paraguay un milagro americano" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ "Paraguay". www.exportimportstatistics.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Subsecretaria De Estado De Economia – ¿Qué Es Focem?. Economia.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ ÂżQuĂŠ es Maquila? | Ministerio de Industria y Comercio – Paraguay. Mic.gov.py. Retrieved on 18 June 2016. ^ "Paraguay" (PDF). Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ 2003 Census Bureau Household Survey ^ a b ${w.time}. "En Paraguay, disminuyó la pobreza entre 2003 y 2009 – ABC Color". Abc.com.py. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Marió; et al. (2004). "Paraguay: Social Development Issues for Poverty Alleviation" (PDF). World Bank report. Retrieved 18 June 2007.  ^ a b "Paraguay." Pan-American Health Organization. (retrieved 12 July 2011) ^ Paraguay Information and History. National Geographic. ^ San Alberto Journal: Awful Lot of Brazilians in Paraguay, Locals Say. The New York Times. 12 June 2001. ^ "Afro-Paraguayan". Joshua Project. U.S. Center for World Mission. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  ^ "Dirección General de Estadísticas, Encuestas y Censos". Dgeec.gov.py. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ CAPÍTULO III. Características Socio-Culturales y étnicas, pp. 39ff in Paraguay. Situación de las mujeres rurales (2008) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ^ Benitez, O; Loiseau, P; Busson, M; Dehay, C; Hors, J; Calvo, F; Durand Mura, M; Charron, D (2002). "Hispano-Indian admixture in Paraguay studied by analysis of HLA-DRB1 polymorphism". Pathologie-biologie. 50 (1): 25–9. doi:10.1016/s0369-8114(01)00263-2. PMID 11873625.  ^ Antonio De La Cova (28 December 1999). "Paraguay's Mennonites resent 'fast buck' outsiders". Latinamericanstudies.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Jonathan Ross. "Allgemeines über Paraguay". PY: Magazin-paraguay.de. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Information um und zu Paraguay « Kategorie « Paraguay24 – Die Geschichte unserer Auswanderung". Paraguay24.de. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ Miran Blanco (24 March 2007). "Paraguay Auswandern Einwandern Immobilien Infos für Touristen, Auswanderer Asuncion Paraguay". Auswandern-paraguay.org. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Paraguay – Immobilien – Auswandern – Immobilienschnδppchen, Hδuser, und Grundstόcke um Villarrica". My-paraguay.com. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Paraguay – Auswandern – Immobilien – Reisen". PARAGUAY1.DE. Retrieved 19 October 2012.  ^ The Latin American Socio-Religious Studies Program / Programa Latinoamericano de Estudios Sociorreligiosos (PROLADES) PROLADES Religion in America by country ^ "Paraguay religion". State.gov. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Paraguayan Guaraní, Ethnologue ^ Paraguay. "The Languages spoken in Paraguay". Studycountry.com. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ "Languages of Paraguay". VisitParaguay.net. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ SIMON ROMERO (12 March 2012). "In Paraguay, Indigenous Language With Unique Staying Power - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ "3218.0 - Censo de la DGEEC, 2002". DGEEC. 2002.  ^ "Paraguay - Ritual Kinship". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g "Human Development Report 2009 – Paraguay". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "::Una::". Una.py. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Universidad Autónoma de Asunción: Educación Superior en Paraguay". UAA. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Campus de Asunción – Universidad Católica "Nuestra Señora de la Asunción"". Uca.edu.py. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "WHO | Paraguay". Who.int. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.  ^ "Paraguay Mother & Child Basic Health Insurance" Archived 17 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. The World Bank.


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paraguay. Wikinews has news related to: Paraguay Government Chief of State and Cabinet Members National Department of Tourism (in Spanish) Ministry of Finance with economic and Government information, available also in English (in Spanish) Paraguay Photos General information Paraguay from the Encyclopædia Britannica "Paraguay". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Paraguay at UCB Libraries GovPubs Paraguay at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Paraguay profile from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Paraguay Geographic data related to Paraguay at OpenStreetMap Key Development Forecasts for Paraguay from International Futures News media La Rueda – Weekly reviews (in Spanish) ABC Color (in Spanish) Última Hora (in Spanish) La Nación (in Spanish) Paraguay.com (in Spanish) Ñanduti (in Spanish) Trade World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Paraguay Travel Paraguay Convention & Visitor's Bureau[permanent dead link] Paraguay.com: Tradition, Culture, Maps, Tourism Paraguay travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism in Paraguay, information, pictures and more. Turismo.com.py (in Spanish) v t e Paraguay articles History Guaraní people Governorate of New Andalusia Jesuit reduction José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia Paraguayan War First Civil War Chaco War Second Civil War Alfredo Stroessner Geography Cities Climate Environmental issues Fauna Flora National parks World Heritage Sites Politics Administrative divisions Departments Districts Congress Chamber of Deputies Senate Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights LGBT LGBT history International rankings Military Political parties Presidents Economy Agriculture Companies Energy Central Bank Guaraní (currency) Science and technology Stock Exchange Telecommunications Internet domain Transport Society Demographics Education Health Crime Immigration Indigenous peoples Languages List of Paraguayans Religion Women Culture Cinema Cuisine Heritage Literature Media Music Public holidays Sport Symbols Anthem Coat of arms Flag Tourism Outline Index Bibliography Category Portal  Republic of Paraguay Politics v t e Heads of state of Paraguay Yegros Rodríguez de Francia Yegros Rodríguez de Francia Ortiz Medina Roque Alonzo C.A. López F.S. López Rivarola Machaín Rivarola Jovellanos Gill Uriarte Bareiro Saguier Caballero Escobar J.G. González M. Morínigo Egusquiza Aceval Carvallo Escurra Gaona Báez Ferreira González Navero Gondra Jara Rojas Peña González Navero Schaerer M. Franco Montero Gondra Eusebio Ayala Eligio Ayala Riart Eligio Ayala Guggiari Eusebio Ayala R. Franco Paiva Estigarribia H. Moríñigo Frutos J.N. González Rolón Molas Chávez Romero Stroessner Rodríguez Wasmosy Cubas González Macchi Duarte Lugo Franco Cartes Italics indicate acting, interim or provisional role. v t e Divisions and cities of Paraguay Administrative subdivisions Departments (17) Alto Paraguay Alto Paraná Amambay Boquerón Caaguazú Caazapá Canindeyú Central Concepción Cordillera Guairá Itapúa Misiones Ñeembucú Paraguarí Presidente Hayes San Pedro Capital District (1) Asunción Largest cities Asunción Ciudad del Este San Lorenzo Luque Capiatá Lambaré Fernando de la Mora Limpio Ñemby Encarnación Mariano Roque Alonso Pedro Juan Caballero Villa Elisa Metropolitan areas Gran Asunción Gran Ciudad del Este v t e Elections and referendums in Paraguay Elections 1928 1943 1948 1950 1953 1954 1958 1960 1963 1967 1968 1973 1977 1978 1983 1988 1989 1991 1993 1998 2000 2003 2008 2013 2018 Referendums 1938 1940 2011 v t e List of wars involving Paraguay Wars Paraguayan War (1864–1870) Paraguayan Civil War (1922) Chaco War (1932–1935) Paraguayan Civil War (1947) Geographic locale v t e Countries and dependencies of South America Sovereign states Entire Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela In part France French Guiana Dependencies Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands UK International membership v t e Andean Community of Nations Members Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru Associate members Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Observers Mexico Panama v t e Union of South American Nations Member states Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Proposed: Trinidad and Tobago Summits 2004 2008 2009 Ecuador 2009 Argentina 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Topics Cusco Declaration Constitutive Treaty President Pro Tempore Secretary General Bank of the South South American Parliament Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America Mercosur Andean Community v t e Mercosur · Mercosul (Southern Common Market) Treaties Treaty of Asunción Protocol of Ouro Preto Members Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela (suspended) Currencies Argentine peso Brazilian real Paraguayan guaraní Uruguayan peso Venezuelan bolívar Gaucho Associates Bolivia Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Observers Mexico New Zealand Institutions Parliament v t e Organization of American States (OAS) Members Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Renounced Venezuela Organization Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights 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Paraguay (disambiguation)Geographic Coordinate SystemSpanish LanguageGuaraní LanguageFlag Of ParaguayFlag Of ParaguayCoat Of Arms [nb 1] Of ParaguayCoat Of Arms Of ParaguayNational Anthem Of ParaguayLocation Of  Paraguay  (dark Green)in South America  (grey)South AmericaAsunciónParaguayan SpanishGuarani LanguageEthnic GroupsMestizoDemonymPolitics Of ParaguayUnitary StatePresidential SystemConstitutional RepublicPresident Of ParaguayHoracio CartesVice President Of ParaguayJuan AfaraCongress Of ParaguayUpper HouseSenate Of ParaguayLower HouseChamber Of Deputies Of ParaguaySpainGeography Of ParaguayList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaDemographics Of ParaguayList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParityList Of Countries By GDP (PPP)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP) Per CapitaGross Domestic ProductList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per CapitaGini CoefficientHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By Human Development IndexParaguayan GuaraníISO 4217UTC–4Coordinated Universal TimeDaylight Saving TimeDaylight Saving Time In ParaguayCoordinated Universal TimeRight- And Left-hand TrafficTelephone Numbers In Paraguay+595ISO 3166ISO 3166-2:PYCountry Code Top-level Domain.pyAmerindianHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/SpanishGuarani LanguageHelp:IPA/GuaraniLandlocked CountrySouth AmericaArgentinaBrazilBoliviaParaguay RiverBoliviaAfro-EurasiaLandlocked CountryAmericasIndigenous PeopleGuaraní PeopleSpanish EmpireGran ChacoGuaycuruSociety Of JesusReductionsChristianitySpanish EmpireIndependence Of ParaguayIsolationismProtectionismParaguayan WarAuthoritarianAlfredo StroessnerMilitary DictatorshipMulti-party SystemParaguayan Communist PartyUruguayMercosurAsunciónMestizoGuarani LanguageGuarani LanguageAntonio Ruiz De MontoyaFélix De AzaraPayaguá PeopleIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasCaciqueHistory Of ParaguayIndigenous Peoples In ParaguayParaguay RiverEthnolinguisticsJuan De Salazar De EspinosaAsunciónSpanish Colonization Of The AmericasSociety Of JesusJesuit ReductionBandeirantesSyncreticJesuit Missions Of La Santísima Trinidad De Paraná And Jesús De TavarangueWorld Heritage SitesUNESCOMestizoIndependence Of ParaguayEnlargeJosé Gaspar Rodríguez De FranciaJosé Gaspar Rodríguez De FranciaUtopianJean-Jacques RousseauThe Social ContractMulattoesMixed-raceFulgencio YegrosMilitary JuntaCarlos Antonio LópezNon-aggression PactFrancisco Solano LópezYerba MateTariffProtectionismFrancisco Solano LópezParaguayan ArmyFortress Of HumaitáTelegraphRailroadYbycuíCannonMortar (weapon)WarshipAsunciónFortificationApa RiverGran ChacoEnlargeParaguayan WarParaguayan War CasualtiesEnlargeFrancisco Solano LópezEmpire Of BrazilVenancio FloresWikipedia:Citation NeededParaguayan WarGrand MarshalBattle Of Cerro CoráKilled In ActionWilliam D. RubinsteinEnlargeBattle Of TuyutíImperial Brazilian ArmyRio De JaneiroEnlargeGran ChacoChaco WarEnlargePresident Of ParaguayParaguayan Civil War (1922)Chaco WarFebruary Revolution (Paraguay)Rafael FrancoHiginio MorínigoParaguayan Civil War (1947)Alfredo StroessnerCoup D'étatEl StronatoAlfredo StroessnerInternational IsolationWikipedia:Citation NeededAuthentic Radical Liberal PartyDomingo LaínoWikipedia:Citation NeededVigilantesCoronel OviedoWikipedia:Citation NeededAndrés Rodríguez (President)Juan Carlos WasmosyOrganization Of American StatesLino OviedoRaúl CubasLuis María ArgañaWikipedia:Citation NeededLuis González MacchiBlanca OvelarFernando LugoLiberation TheologyEnlargeHoracio CartesDrug Enforcement AdministrationWikipedia:Please ClarifyImpeachment Of Fernando LugoCoup D'étatUNASUROrganization Of American StatesConstitution Of ParaguayGeography Of ParaguayEnlargeEnlargeGran ChacoRío ParaguayGran Chaco19th Parallel South28th Parallel South54th Meridian West63rd Meridian WestClimate Of ParaguayTropical ClimateSubtropical ClimatePolitics Of ParaguayHuman Rights In ParaguayForeign Relations Of ParaguayRepresentative DemocraticSeparation Of PowersPresident Of ParaguayHead Of StateHead Of GovernmentLegislative PowerCongress Of ParaguayJudicial BranchTribunalsCivil Law (legal System)Military Of ParaguayEnlargeMilitary Of ParaguayArmyNavyNaval AviationMarine CorpsAir ForceConstitution Of ParaguayPresident Of ParaguayCommander-in-chiefConscriptionActive DutySpecial ForcesMariscal EstigarribiaDepartments Of ParaguayDistricts Of ParaguayAlto Paraguay DepartmentBoquerón DepartmentPresidente Hayes DepartmentAmambay DepartmentConcepción Department (Paraguay)San Pedro Department, ParaguayAsunciónGuairá DepartmentCaazapá DepartmentAlto Paraná DepartmentCaaguazú DepartmentCanindeyú DepartmentItapúa DepartmentParaguarí DepartmentMisiones DepartmentÑeembucú DepartmentCordillera DepartmentCentral DepartmentBrasilBoliviaArgentinaISO 3166-2:PYAsunciónConcepción Department (Paraguay)Concepción, ParaguaySan Pedro Department, ParaguaySan Pedro, ParaguayCordillera DepartmentCaacupéGuairá DepartmentVillarrica, ParaguayCaaguazú DepartmentCoronel OviedoCaazapá DepartmentCaazapáItapúaEncarnación, ParaguayMisiones DepartmentSan Juan Bautista, ParaguayParaguarí DepartmentParaguaríAlto Paraná DepartmentCiudad Del EsteCentral DepartmentAreguáÑeembucúPilar, ParaguayAmambayPedro Juan Caballero, ParaguayCanindeyúSalto Del GuairáPresidente HayesVilla HayesAlto ParaguayFuerte OlimpoBoquerón DepartmentFiladelfia, ParaguayAsunciónEconomy Of ParaguayWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeSoybeanSteviaTung OilWikipedia:Citation NeededCiudad Del EsteMiamiHong KongEnlargeBanco Bilbao Vizcaya ArgentariaMineral Industry Of ParaguayCementIron OreSteelMaquilaPharmaceutical IndustryWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersExportWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededGini CoefficientWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalWikipedia:CITEWikipedia:VHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalDemographics Of ParaguayImmigration To ParaguayList Of Most Common Surnames In South AmericaEnlargeAsunciónGran ChacoAlto Paraguay DepartmentBoquerón DepartmentPresidente Hayes DepartmentJapanese ParaguayanKoreans In ParaguayLebanese Migration To ParaguayUkrainians In ParaguayPolesJewsBrazilian PeopleAfro-ParaguayansWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesEnlargeCaacupéMestizoGermans In ParaguayMennoniteGran ChacoHohenau, ParaguayFiladelfiaNeuland ColonyObligadoNueva GermaniaWikipedia:Accuracy DisputeTalk:ParaguayWikipedia:NOTRSReligion In ParaguayEnlargeConcepción, ParaguayRoman CatholicismEvangelicalismMormonismBaha'i FaithAlto ParanáLebanonLanguages Of ParaguayLingua FrancasGuaraní LanguageSpanish LanguagePortuguese LanguageTemplate:Largest Cities Of ParaguayTemplate Talk:Largest Cities Of ParaguayList Of Cities In Paraguay By PopulationList Of Cities In ParaguayDepartments Of ParaguayList Of Cities In Paraguay By PopulationList Of Cities In Paraguay By PopulationList Of Cities In ParaguayDepartments Of ParaguayList Of Cities In Paraguay By PopulationAsunciónAsunciónCiudad Del EsteCiudad Del EsteAsunciónMariano Roque AlonsoCentral DepartmentSan LorenzoSan Lorenzo, ParaguayLuqueLuqueCiudad Del EsteAlto Paraná DepartmentPedro Juan Caballero, ParaguayAmambay DepartmentSan Lorenzo, ParaguayCentral DepartmentVilla Elisa, ParaguayCentral DepartmentLuqueCentral DepartmentCaaguazú DistrictCaaguazú DepartmentCapiatáCentral DepartmentCoronel OviedoCaaguazú DepartmentLambaréCentral DepartmentHernandarias DistrictAlto Paraná DepartmentFernando De La Mora, ParaguayCentral DepartmentPresidente Franco DistrictAlto Paraná DepartmentLimpioCentral DepartmentItauguáCentral DepartmentÑembyCentral DepartmentConcepción, ParaguayConcepción Department (Paraguay)Encarnación, ParaguayItapúa DepartmentVillarrica, ParaguayGuairá DepartmentMusic Of ParaguayCinema Of ParaguayInterracial MarriageGuarani PeopleMestizosSpanish LanguageGuaraní LanguageJoparaWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeNandutiMusic Of ParaguayGuarania (music)ManiocCassavaSouthwestern United StatesMexicoSopa ParaguayaCorn BreadChipaBagelCornmealJosé Ricardo MazóRoque VallejosAugusto Roa BastosCinema Of ParaguaySport In ParaguayEducation In ParaguayList Of Universities In ParaguayList Of Schools In ParaguayLiteracyUNESCONational University Of AsunciónAutonomous University Of AsunciónUniversidad Católica Nuestra Señora De La AsunciónUniversidad AmericanaHealth In ParaguayWorld BankPortal:ParaguayPortal:Latin AmericaBibliography Of ParaguayIndex Of Paraguay-related ArticlesOutline Of ParaguayEdit Section: ReferencesWorld BankDigital Object IdentifierUnited Nations Department Of Economic And Social AffairsBartleby.comInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1901543153International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1901543153International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-582-50601-8Digital Object IdentifierInternational Relations CenterClarín (Argentine Newspaper)Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United NationsDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierWayback MachineEncyclopædia BritannicaThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyDMOZBBC NewsOpenStreetMapInternational FuturesWikipedia:Link RotVoy:ParaguayTemplate:Paraguay TopicsTemplate Talk:Paraguay TopicsIndex Of Paraguay-related ArticlesHistory Of ParaguayGuaraní PeopleGovernorate Of New AndalusiaJesuit ReductionJosé Gaspar Rodríguez De FranciaParaguayan WarParaguayan Civil War (1922)Chaco WarParaguayan Civil War (1947)Alfredo StroessnerCoat Of Arms Of ParaguayGeography Of ParaguayList Of Cities In ParaguayClimate Of ParaguayEnvironmental Issues In ParaguayCategory:Fauna Of ParaguayCategory:Flora Of ParaguayList Of National Parks Of ParaguayCategory:World Heritage Sites In ParaguayPolitics Of ParaguayAdministrative Divisions Of ParaguayDepartments Of ParaguayDistricts Of ParaguayCongress Of ParaguayChamber Of Deputies Of ParaguaySenate Of ParaguayConstitution Of ParaguayElections In ParaguayForeign Relations Of ParaguayHuman Rights In ParaguayLGBT Rights In ParaguayLGBT History In ParaguayInternational Rankings Of ParaguayMilitary Of ParaguayList Of Political Parties In ParaguayPresident Of ParaguayEconomy Of ParaguayAgriculture In ParaguayCategory:Companies Of ParaguayEnergy In ParaguayCentral Bank Of ParaguayParaguayan GuaraníCategory:Science And Technology In ParaguayBolsa De Valores Y Productos De Asunción (BVPASA)Telecommunications In Paraguay.pyTransport In ParaguayCategory:Paraguayan SocietyDemographics Of ParaguayEducation In ParaguayHealth In ParaguayCrime In ParaguayImmigration To ParaguayIndigenous Peoples In ParaguayLanguages Of ParaguayList Of ParaguayansReligion In ParaguayWomen In ParaguayCulture Of ParaguayCinema Of ParaguayParaguayan CuisineParaguayan LiteratureMedia Of ParaguayMusic Of ParaguayPublic Holidays In ParaguaySport In ParaguayCategory:National Symbols Of ParaguayNational Anthem Of ParaguayCoat Of Arms Of ParaguayFlag Of ParaguayTourism In ParaguayOutline Of ParaguayIndex Of Paraguay-related ArticlesBibliography Of ParaguayCategory:ParaguayPortal:ParaguayRepublic Of ParaguayTemplate:Presidents Of ParaguayTemplate Talk:Presidents Of ParaguayPresident Of ParaguayFulgencio YegrosJosé Gaspar Rodríguez De FranciaFulgencio YegrosJosé Gaspar Rodríguez De FranciaManuel Antonio OrtizJuan José MedinaMariano Roque AlonzoCarlos Antonio LópezFrancisco Solano LópezCirilo Antonio RivarolaFacundo MachaínCirilo Antonio RivarolaSalvador JovellanosJuan Bautista GillHiginio UriarteCándido BareiroAdolfo SaguierBernardino CaballeroPatricio EscobarJuan Gualberto GonzálezMarcos MorínigoJuan Bautista EgusquizaEmilio AcevalAndrés Héctor CarvalloJuan Antonio EscurraJuan Bautista GaonaCecilio BáezBenigno FerreiraEmiliano González NaveroManuel GondraAlbino JaraLiberato Marcial RojasPedro PeñaEmiliano González NaveroEduardo SchaererManuel FrancoJosé Pedro MonteroManuel GondraEusebio AyalaEligio AyalaLuis Alberto RiartEligio AyalaJosé Patricio GuggiariEusebio AyalaRafael FrancoFélix PaivaJosé Félix EstigarribiaHiginio MoríñigoJuan Manuel FrutosJuan Natalicio GonzálezRaimundo RolónFelipe Molas LópezFederico ChávezTomás Romero PereiraAlfredo StroessnerAndrés Rodríguez (President)Juan Carlos WasmosyRaúl Cubas GrauLuis Ángel González MacchiNicanor DuarteFernando LugoFederico FrancoHoracio CartesTemplate:Geography Of ParaguayTemplate Talk:Geography Of ParaguayDepartments Of ParaguayAlto Paraguay DepartmentAlto Paraná DepartmentAmambay DepartmentBoquerón DepartmentCaaguazú DepartmentCaazapá DepartmentCanindeyú DepartmentCentral DepartmentConcepción Department, ParaguayCordillera DepartmentGuairá DepartmentItapúa DepartmentMisiones DepartmentÑeembucú DepartmentParaguarí DepartmentPresidente Hayes DepartmentSan Pedro Department, ParaguayAsunciónAsunciónCiudad Del EsteSan Lorenzo, ParaguayLuqueCapiatáLambaréFernando De La Mora, ParaguayLimpioÑembyEncarnación, ParaguayMariano Roque AlonsoPedro Juan Caballero, ParaguayVilla Elisa, ParaguayGran AsunciónGran Ciudad Del EsteTemplate:Paraguayan ElectionsTemplate Talk:Paraguayan ElectionsParaguayElections In ParaguayParaguayan General Election, 1953Paraguayan Presidential Election, 1954Paraguayan General Election, 1958Paraguayan Parliamentary Election, 1960Paraguayan General Election, 1963Paraguayan Constitutional Assembly Election, 1967Paraguayan General Election, 1968Paraguayan General Election, 1973Paraguayan Constitutional Assembly Election, 1977Paraguayan General Election, 1978Paraguayan General Election, 1983Paraguayan General Election, 1988Paraguayan General Election, 1989Paraguayan Constitutional Assembly Election, 1991Paraguayan General Election, 1993Paraguayan General Election, 1998Paraguayan Vice Presidential Election, 2000Paraguayan General Election, 2003Paraguayan General Election, 2008Paraguayan General Election, 2013Paraguayan General Election, 2018Paraguayan Chaco Treaty Referendum, 1938Paraguayan Constitutional Referendum, 1940Paraguayan Expatriate Voting Referendum, 2011Template:Paraguayan WarsTemplate Talk:Paraguayan WarsList Of Wars Involving ParaguayParaguayan WarParaguayan Civil War (1922)Chaco WarParaguayan Civil War (1947)Template:Countries Of South AmericaTemplate Talk:Countries Of South AmericaList Of Sovereign States And Dependent Territories In South AmericaSovereign StateArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaEcuadorGuyanaPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuelaFranceFrench GuianaSouth AmericaDependent TerritoryFalkland IslandsSouth Georgia And The South Sandwich IslandsBritish Overseas TerritoriesTemplate:Andean Community Of NationsTemplate Talk:Andean Community Of NationsAndean Community Of NationsBoliviaColombiaEcuadorPeruFlag Of The Andean Community Of NationsArgentinaBrazilChileUruguayVenezuelaMexicoPanamaTemplate:Union Of 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