Contents 1 Name 2 Overview 3 Versions 3.1 Parts before 1997 3.2 Versions after 1997 3.2.1 POSIX.1-2001 3.2.2 POSIX.1-2004 (with two TCs) 3.2.3 POSIX.1-2008 (with two TCs) 4 Controversies 4.1 512- vs 1024-byte blocks 5 POSIX-oriented operating systems 5.1 POSIX-certified 5.2 Mostly POSIX-compliant 5.2.1 POSIX for Microsoft Windows 5.2.2 POSIX for OS/2 5.2.3 POSIX for DOS 5.2.4 Compliant via compatibility feature 6 See also 7 References 8 External links


Name[edit] Originally, the name "POSIX" referred to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, released in 1988. The family of POSIX standards is formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards emerged from a project that began circa 1985. Richard Stallman suggested the name POSIX to the IEEE instead of former IEEE-IX. The committee found it more easily pronounceable and memorable, and thus adopted it.[2][4][better source needed]


Overview[edit] Unix was selected as the basis for a standard system interface partly because it was "manufacturer-neutral". However, several major versions of Unix existed—so there was a need to develop a common denominator system. The POSIX specifications for Unix-like operating systems originally consisted of a single document for the core programming interface, but eventually grew to 19 separate documents (POSIX.1, POSIX.2, etc.).[5] The standardized user command line and scripting interface were based on the UNIX System V shell.[6] Many user-level programs, services, and utilities (including awk, echo, ed) were also standardized, along with required program-level services (including basic I/O: file, terminal, and network). POSIX also defines a standard threading library API which is supported by most modern operating systems. In 2008, most parts of POSIX were combined into a single standard (IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, also known as POSIX.1-2008). As of 2014[update], POSIX documentation is divided in two parts: POSIX.1, 2013 Edition: POSIX Base Definitions, System Interfaces, and Commands and Utilities (which include POSIX.1, extensions for POSIX.1, Real-time Services, Threads Interface, Real-time Extensions, Security Interface, Network File Access and Network Process-to-Process Communications, User Portability Extensions, Corrections and Extensions, Protection and Control Utilities and Batch System Utilities. This is POSIX 1003.1-2008 with Technical Corrigendum 1.) POSIX Conformance Testing: A test suite for POSIX accompanies the standard: VSX-PCTS or the VSX POSIX Conformance Test Suite.[7] The development of the POSIX standard takes place in the Austin Group (a joint working group linking the IEEE, The Open Group and the ISO/IEC JTC 1 organizations).


Versions[edit] Parts before 1997[edit] Before 1997, POSIX comprised several standards: POSIX.1: Core Services (incorporates Standard ANSI C) (IEEE Std 1003.1-1988) Process Creation and Control Signals Floating Point Exceptions Segmentation / Memory Violations Illegal Instructions Bus Errors Timers File and Directory Operations Pipes C Library (Standard C) I/O Port Interface and Control Process Triggers POSIX.1b: Real-time extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993, later appearing as librt—the Realtime Extensions library)[8]) Priority Scheduling Real-Time Signals Clocks and Timers Semaphores Message Passing Shared Memory Asynchronous and Synchronous I/O Memory Locking Interface POSIX.1c: Threads extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995) Thread Creation, Control, and Cleanup Thread Scheduling Thread Synchronization Signal Handling POSIX.2: Shell and Utilities (IEEE Std 1003.2-1992) Command Interpreter Utility Programs Versions after 1997[edit] After 1997, the Austin Group developed the POSIX revisions. The specifications are known under the name Single UNIX Specification, before they become a POSIX standard when formally approved by the ISO. POSIX.1-2001[edit] POSIX.1-2001 (or IEEE Std 1003.1-2001) equates to the Single UNIX Specification version 3.[9] This standard consisted of: the Base Definitions, Issue 6, the System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 6, the Commands and Utilities, Issue 6. POSIX.1-2004 (with two TCs)[edit] IEEE Std 1003.1-2004 involved a minor update of POSIX.1-2001. It incorporated two minor updates or errata referred to as Technical Corrigenda.[10] Its contents are available on the web.[11] POSIX.1-2008 (with two TCs)[edit] As of 2017[update], Base Specifications, Issue 7 (or IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition) represents the current version.[12][13] A free online copy is available.[12] This standard consists of: the Base Definitions, Issue 7, the System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 7, the Commands and Utilities, Issue 7, the Rationale volume.


Controversies[edit] 512- vs 1024-byte blocks[edit] POSIX mandates 512-byte default block sizes for the df and du utilities, reflecting the typical size of blocks on disks. When Richard Stallman and the GNU team were implementing POSIX for the GNU operating system, they objected to this on the grounds that most people think in terms of 1024 byte (or 1 KiB) blocks. The environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT was introduced to allow the user to force the standards-compliant behaviour.[14] This variable is now also used for a number of other behaviour quirks, where "POSIX and common sense disagree".[citation needed]


POSIX-oriented operating systems[edit] Depending upon the degree of compliance with the standards, one can classify operating systems as fully or partly POSIX compatible. Certified products can be found at the IEEE's website.[15] POSIX-certified[edit] Some versions of the following operating systems have been certified to conform to one or more of the various POSIX standards. This means that they passed the automated conformance tests.[16] AIX[17] HP-UX[18] IRIX[19] EulerOS[20] macOS (since 10.5 Leopard)[21][22][discuss] Solaris[23] Tru64[18] UnixWare[24] QNX Neutrino[25] Inspur K-UX[26] Integrity[27] Mostly POSIX-compliant[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2007) The following, while not officially certified as POSIX compatible, comply in large part: Android (Available through Android NDK)[citation needed] BeOS (and subsequently Haiku) Contiki Darwin (core of OS X/macOS and iOS) FreeBSD[28] illumos Linux (most distributions — see Linux Standard Base) LynxOS MINIX (now MINIX3)S MPE/iX[29] NetBSD Nucleus RTOS NuttX OpenBSD OpenSolaris[30] PikeOS RTOS for embedded systems with optional PSE51 and PSE52 partitions; see partition (mainframe) Redox RTEMS – POSIX API support designed to IEEE Std. 1003.13-2003 PSE52 Sanos SkyOS Syllable VSTa VMware ESXi VxWorks (VxWorks is often used as a shell around non-POSIX Kernels — i.e. TiMOS/SROS[citation needed]) Xenix POSIX for Microsoft Windows[edit] Cygwin provides a largely POSIX-compliant development and run-time environment for Microsoft Windows. MinGW, a fork of Cygwin, provides a less POSIX-compliant development environment and supports compatible C-programmed applications via Msvcrt, Microsoft's old Visual C runtime library. Microsoft POSIX subsystem, an optional Windows subsystem included in Windows NT-based operating systems up to Windows 2000. POSIX-1 as it stood in 1990 revision, without threads or sockets. Interix, originally OpenNT by Softway Systems, Inc., is an upgrade and replacement for Microsoft POSIX subsystem that was purchased by Microsoft in 1999. It was initially marketed as a stand-alone add-on product and then later included it as a component in Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) and finally incorporated it as a component in Windows Server 2003 R2 and later Windows OS releases under the name "Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications" (SUA); later made deprecated in 2012 (Windows 8)[31] and dropped in 2013 (2012 R2, 8.1). It enables full POSIX compliance for certain Microsoft Windows products.[citation needed] Windows Subsystem for Linux is a compatibility layer for running Linux binary executables natively on Windows 10 using an Ubuntu image, acting as an upgrade and replacement for Windows Services for UNIX. It was released in beta in April 2016. UWIN from AT&T Research implements a POSIX layer on top of the Win32 APIs. MKS Toolkit, originally created for MS-DOS, is a software package produced and maintained by MKS Inc. that provides a Unix-like environment for scripting, connectivity and porting Unix and Linux software to both 32- and 64-bit Microsoft Windows systems. A subset of it was included in the first release of Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) in 1998.[32] Windows C Runtime Library and Windows Sockets API implement commonly used POSIX API functions for file, time, environment, and socket access,[33] although the support remains largely incomplete and not fully interoperable with POSIX-compliant implementations.[34][35][discuss] POSIX for OS/2[edit] Mostly POSIX compliant environments for OS/2: emx+gcc – largely POSIX compliant POSIX for DOS[edit] Partially POSIX compliant environments for DOS include: emx+gcc – largely POSIX compliant DJGPP – partially POSIX compliant DR-DOS multitasking core via EMM386 /MULTI – a POSIX threads frontend API extension is available Compliant via compatibility feature[edit] The following are not officially certified as POSIX compatible, but they conform in large part to the standards by implementing POSIX support via some sort of compatibility feature (usually translation libraries, or a layer atop the kernel). Without these features, they are usually noncompliant. eCos – POSIX is part of standard distribution, and used by many applications. 'external links' section below has more information. MorphOS (through the built-in ixemul library) OpenVMS (through optional POSIX package) Plan 9 from Bell Labs APE - ANSI/POSIX Environment[36] RIOT (through optional POSIX module) Symbian OS with PIPS (PIPS Is POSIX on Symbian) Windows NT kernel when using Microsoft SFU 3.5 or SUA Windows 2000 Server or Professional with Service Pack 3 or later. To be POSIX compliant, one must activate optional features of Windows NT and Windows 2000 Server.[37] Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 1 or later Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2008 and Ultimate and Enterprise versions of Windows Vista Windows Server 2008 R2 and Ultimate and Enterprise versions of Windows 7 albeit deprecated, still available for Windows Server 2012 and Enterprise version of Windows 8 UNIX System Services that runs on z/OS (certified as compliant)


See also[edit] POSIX signal POSIX Threads POSIX sockets are basically Berkeley sockets[citation needed] TRON project – alternative OS standards to POSIX Common User Access – User interface standard Interix – a full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsoft's Windows NT-based operating systems C POSIX library Real-time operating system Portable character set


References[edit] ^ "POSIX.1 FAQ". The Open Group. 5 October 2011.  ^ a b "POSIX 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12". 2 February 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2006.  ^ "POSIX". Standards. IEEE.  ^ "The origin of the name POSIX". 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2013.  ^ PASC Status (including POSIX) (Report). IEEE Computer Society. 2003-12-04. Retrieved 2015-03-01.  ^ "Shell Command Language - The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, 2013 Edition".  ^ "POSIX". The Open Group.  ^ "librt(3LIB)". docs.oracle.com. man pages section 3: Library Interfaces and Headers. Oracle Corporation. 1998-08-04. Retrieved 2016-02-18. librt, libposix4- POSIX.1b Realtime Extensions library [...] librt is the preferred name for this library. The name libposix4 is maintained for backward compatibility and should be avoided. Functions in this library provide most of the interfaces specified by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension.  ^ "The Open Group announces completion of the joint revision to POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification" (Press release). The Open Group. 30 January 2002. Retrieved 26 July 2009.  ^ "IEEE Std 1003.1" (2004 ed.). Unix.org. Retrieved 26 July 2009  ^ "IEEE Std 1003.1" (2004 ed.). The Open Group . ^ a b "Base Specifications, Issue 7, 2016 Edition". The Open Group. Retrieved 18 December 2014.  ^ "The Austin Common Standards Revision Group". The Open Group. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ "Announce" (Google Groups replica). GNU . ^ "POSIX Certification". IEEE.  ^ "POSIX Certified by IEEE and The Open Group - Program Guide".  ^ "IBM". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ a b "Hewlett-Packard". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ "Silicon Graphics, Inc". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ "Huawei Technology Co., Ltd". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "The Open Brand - Register of Certified Products". Register of Open Branded Products. The Open Group. Retrieved 20 May 2015.  ^ "Apple Inc". Register of Open Branded Products. The Open Group. Retrieved 20 May 2015.  ^ "Oracle Corporation". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ "UnixWare ® 7.1.3 and later". The Open Group. 16 May 2003.  ^ "QNX Achieves New POSIX Certification". QNX. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ "Inspur Co., Ltd". The Open Group. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "POSIX Certification - Product details". get.posixcertified.ieee.org. Retrieved 2016-03-13.  ^ Schweik. "POSIX utilities". FreeBSD.  ^ Enterprise, I. D. G. (1994-11-07). Computerworld. IDG Enterprise.  ^ Solter, Nicholas A.; Jelinek, Jerry; Miner, David (2011-03-21). OpenSolaris Bible. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118080313.  ^ Features Removed or Deprecated in Windows Server 2012 ^ Windows NT Services for UNIX Add-On Pack for NT 4; see also the November '98 press release for MKS toolkit 6.1, also archived elsewhere ^ "MSDN Library: Deprecated CRT Functions". Microsoft. Retrieved 8 Oct 2015.  ^ "MSDN Library: Porting Socket Applications to Winsock". Microsoft. Retrieved 8 Oct 2015.  ^ "Winsock Programmer's FAQ Articles: BSD Sockets Compatibility". Warren Young. 31 Aug 2015. Retrieved 8 Oct 2015.  ^ "APE — ANSI/POSIX Environment". Plan 9. Bell Labs.  ^ "POSIX Compatibility". MS Windows NT Workstation Resource Kit. Microsoft. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to POSIX. "POSIX Certification Authority". 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Commission StandardsList Of International Electrotechnical Commission StandardsIEC 60027IEC 60034IEC 60038Letter And Digit CodeE-series Of Preferred NumbersIEC 60068Comparative Tracking IndexIEC 60228IEC 6026919-inch RackIEC 60309IEC 60320IEC 60364IEC 60446IEEE 754IEC 60601IEC 60870IEC 60870-5IEC 60870-6IEC 60906-1Compact Disc Digital AudioIEC 60929IEC 60958AES3S/PDIFIEC 61030IEC 61131IEC 61131-3FieldbusIEC 61162IEC 61334IEC 61346IEC 61355IEC 61400IEC 61499IEC 61508IEC 61511IEC 61850IEC 61851IEC 61883IEC 61960IEC 61968IEC 61970IP-XACTIEC 62056IEC 62061IEC 62196EN 62262IEC 62264IEC 62304IEC 62325IEC 62351AES47IEC 62366IEC 62379Digital Addressable Lighting InterfaceIEC 62455USBIEC 62682IEC 62700ISO/IEC 646ISO/IEC 2022ISO/IEC 4909ISO/IEC 5218ANSI Escape CodeISO/IEC 6523ISO/IEC 7810ISO/IEC 7811ISO/IEC 7812ISO/IEC 7813ISO/IEC 7816Graphical Kernel SystemOpen Document ArchitectureComputer Graphics MetafileISO/IEC 8652ISO/IEC 8859ISO/IEC 9126File Allocation TablePHIGSPHIGSANSI CISO/IEC 9995ISO/IEC 10021ISO/IEC 10116Guidelines For The Definition Of Managed ObjectsDocument Style Semantics And Specification LanguageUniversal Coded Character SetISO/IEC 10967MPEG-1ISO/IEC 11179ISO/IEC 11404JBIGISO/IEC 11801ISO/IEC 12207Topic MapsUniversal Disk FormatMHEG-5Z NotationMPEG-2ISO/IEC 14443MPEG-4C++ISO/IEC 15288Ada Semantic Interface SpecificationCommon CriteriaJPEG 2000HTMLISO/IEC 15504International Standard Identifier For Libraries And Related OrganizationsISO/IEC 15693ISO/IEC 15897MPEG-7ECMAScriptISO/IEC 17024ISO/IEC 17025ISO/IEC 18000QR CodeISO/IEC 18014ISO/IEC 19752RELAX NGISO/IEC 19770ISO/IEC 19788ISO/IEC 20000MPEG-21ISO/IEC 21827MPEG-AMPEG-DMPEG-HC Sharp (programming Language)Linux Standard BaseCommon LogicISO/IEC 24727ISO/IEC 24744Universal Remote ConsoleOpenDocumentISO/IEC 27000ISO/IEC 27000-seriesISO/IEC 27002ISO/IEC 27040ISO/IEC 29119ISO/IEC 33001ISO/IEC 38500ISO/IEC 42010ISO/IEC 80000International Electrotechnical CommissionHelp:CategoryCategory:Application 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