Contents 1 Applications 2 Features 3 Format 3.1 Codewords 3.2 Encoding 3.3 Error correction 4 Comparison with other symbologies 5 References 6 External links


Applications[edit] United States Postal Service PDF417 is one of the formats (along with Data Matrix) that can be used to print postage accepted by the United States Postal Service. Airline industry PDF417 is selected by the airline industry's Bar Coded Boarding Pass standard (BCBP) as the 2D bar code symbolism for paper boarding passes. Department of Homeland Security PDF417 is the standard selected by the Department of Homeland Security as the machine readable zone technology for RealID compliant driver licenses and state issued identification cards. FedEx PDF417 is being used on package labels. Starbucks A modified version of PDF417 is being used in their My Starbucks Rewards program as a virtual version of the membership card on their mobile applications. The barcode does not contain the stop pattern, but it can still be recognised by some barcode scanner, and the scanners in store can also recognise the membership code stored in the standard PDF417 format


Features[edit] In addition to features typical of two dimensional bar codes, PDF417's capabilities include: Linking. PDF417 symbols can link to other symbols which are scanned in sequence allowing even more data to be stored. User-specified dimensions. The user can decide how wide the narrowest vertical bar (X dimension) is, and how tall the rows are (Y dimension). Public domain format. Anyone can implement systems using this format without any license.[1] The introduction of the ISO/IEC document states:[1] Manufacturers of bar code equipment and users of bar code technology require publicly available standard symbology specifications to which they can refer when developing equipment and application standards. It is the intent and understanding of ISO/IEC that the symbology presented in this International Standard is entirely in the public domain and free of all user restrictions, licences and fees.


Format[edit] The PDF417 bar code (also called a symbol) consists of 3 to 90 rows, each of which is like a small linear bar code. Each row has: a quiet zone. This is a mandated minimum amount of white space before the bar code begins. a start pattern which identifies the format as PDF417. a "row left" codeword containing information about the row (such as the row number and error correction level) 1-30 data codewords: Codewords are a group of bars and spaces representing one or more numbers, letters, or other symbols. a "row right" codeword with more information about the row. a stop pattern. another quiet zone. All rows are the same width; each row has the same number of codewords. Codewords[edit] PDF417 uses a base 929 encoding. Each codeword represents a number from 0 to 928. The codewords are represented by patterns of dark (bar) and light (space) regions. Each of these patterns contains four bars and four spaces (where the 4 in the name comes from). The total width is 17 times the width of the narrowest allowed vertical bar (the X dimension); this is where the 17 in the name comes from. Each pattern starts with a bar and ends with a space. The row height must be at least 3 times the minimum width: Y ≥ 3 X.[2] There are three distinct bar–space patterns used to represent each codeword. These patterns are organized into three groups known as clusters. The clusters are labeled 0, 3, and 6. No bar–space pattern is used in more than one cluster. The rows of the symbol cycle through the three clusters, so row 1 uses patterns from cluster 0, row 2 uses cluster 3, row 3 uses cluster 6, and row 4 again uses cluster 0. Which cluster can be determined by an equation:[3] K = b 1 − b 2 + b 3 − b 4 + 9 ( mod 9 ) {\displaystyle K=b_{1}-b_{2}+b_{3}-b_{4}+9\,\,{\pmod {9}}} Where K is the cluster number and the bi refer to the width of the i-th black bar in the symbol character (in X units). Alternatively,[4] K = E 1 − E 2 + E 5 − E 6 + 9 ( mod 9 ) {\displaystyle K=E_{1}-E_{2}+E_{5}-E_{6}+9\,\,{\pmod {9}}} Where Ei is the i-th edge-to-next-same-edge distance. Odd indices are the leading edge of a bar to the leading edge of the next bar; even indices are for the trailing edges. One purpose of the three clusters is to determine which row (mod 3) the codeword is in. The clusters allow portions of the symbol to be read using a single scan line that may be skewed from the horizontal.[5] For instance, the scan might start on row 6 at the start of the row but end on row 10. At the beginning of the scan, the scanner sees the constant start pattern, and then it sees symbols in cluster 6. When the skewed scan straddles rows 6 and 7, then the scanner sees noise. When the scan is on row 7, the scanner sees symbols in cluster 0. Consequently, the scanner knows the direction of the skew. By the time the scanner reaches the right, it is on row 10, so it sees cluster 0 patterns. The scanner will also see a constant stop pattern. Encoding[edit] Of the 929 available code words, 900 are used for data, and 29 for special functions, such as shifting between major modes. The three major modes encode different types of data in different ways, and can be mixed as necessary within a single bar code: Byte: each group of 5 code words represents 6 bytes. (Because 9005 > 2566.) Additional bytes are encoded one per code word. Numeric: n digits are encoded in ⌊n/3⌋+1 code words, up to a maximum of 44 digits in 15 code words. Text: Each code word represents two base-30 digits, which are used by a system of four submodes to represent the printable ASCII characters (plus CR, LF and HT): Uppercase: A–Z, SP, Change to lowercase, Change to mixed, Interpret next digit as punctuation Lowercase: a–z, SP, Interpret next digit as uppercase, Change to mixed, Interpret next digit as punctuation Mixed: 0–9, &, CR, HT, comma, :, #, -, period, $, /, +, %, *, =, ^, Change to punctuation, SP, Change to lowercase, Change to uppercase, Interpret next digit as punctuation Punctuation:  ;, <, >, @, [, \, ], _, `, ~, !, CR, HT, comma, :, LF, -, period, $, /, ", |, *, (, ), ?, {, }, ', Change to uppercase Error correction[edit] When the PDF417 symbol is created, from 2 to 512 error detection and correction codewords are added. PDF417 uses Reed–Solomon error correction. When the symbol is scanned, the maximum number of corrections that can be made is equal to the number of codewords added, but the standard recommends that two codewords be held back to ensure reliability of the corrected information.


Comparison with other symbologies[edit] PDF417 is a stacked barcode that can be read with a simple linear scan being swept over the symbol.[6] Those linear scans need the left and right columns with the start and stop code words. Additionally, the scan needs to know what row it is scanning, so each row of the symbol must also encode its row number. Furthermore, the reader's line scan won't scan just a row; it will typically start scanning one row, but then cross over to a neighbor and possibly continuing on to cross successive rows. In order to minimize the effect of these crossings, the PDF417 modules are tall and narrow — the height is typically three times the width. Also, each code word must indicate which row it belongs to so crossovers, when they occur, can be detected. The code words are also designed to be delta-decodable, so some code words are redundant. Each PDF data code word represents about 10 bits of information (log2(900) ≈ 9.8), but the printed code word (character) is 17 modules wide. Including a height of 3 modules, a PDF417 code word takes 51 square modules to represent 10 bits. That area does not count other overhead such as the start, stop, row, format, and ECC information. Other 2D codes, such as DataMatrix and QR, are decoded with image sensors instead of uncoordinated linear scans. Those codes still need recognition and alignment patterns, but they do not need to be as prominent. An 8 bit code word will take 8 square modules (ignoring recognition, alignment, format, and ECC information). In practice, a PDF417 symbol takes about four times the area of a DataMatrix or QR Code.[7]


References[edit] ^ a b http://www.iso.org/iso/fr/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43816 ^ ISO/IEC 2006, p. 28, 5.8.2. ^ ISO/IEC 2006, p. 9, 5.3.1. ^ ISO/IEC 2006, pp. 76–78 ^ ISO/IEC 2006, 5.11.1. ^ For example, the Symbol Technologies LS-4000 series. ^ Using Barcodes in Documents – Best Practices (PDF), Tampa, FL: Accusoft, 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2012, retrieved May 9, 2012  ISO/IEC (2006), Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – PDF417 bar code symbology specification (PDF) (second ed.), ISO/IEC 15438:2006(E)  US 5243655, Wang, Ynjiun P., "System for Encoding and Decoding Data in Machine Readable Graphic Form", issued September 7, 1993 . PDF417 patent.


External links[edit] PDF417 Description Free font, Windows encoder and detailed explanation PDF417 Barcode Generator ZXing PDF417 online decoder PDF417 online decoder v t e Barcodes Linear barcodes Automatic Car Identification Code 11 Code 39 Code 93 Code 128 Codabar European Article Number GS1 DataBar ITF-14 Interleaved 2 of 5 MSI Barcode Patch Code Pharmacode Plessey Telepen UPC UPC-A MaxiCode Post office barcodes CPC Binary Barcode Facing Identification Mark PostBar POSTNET RM4SCC Intelligent Mail barcode PLANET 2D barcodes (stacked) GS1 DataBar PDF417 2D barcodes (matrix) Aztec Code Data Matrix (Semacode) MaxiCode QR code Polar coordinate barcodes MaxiCode ShotCode Other High Capacity Color Barcode (Microsoft Tag) Technological issues Barcode reader Barcode printer Other data tags RFID Bokode Related topics Supply Chain Management Object hyperlinking Matrix Mobile tagging CueCat v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=PDF417&oldid=819100365" Categories: Barcodes


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