Contents 1 Geology 2 Ecology 3 History 3.1 California Water Wars 4 Radio observatory 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links


Geology[edit] About three million years ago, the Sierra Nevada Fault and the White Mountains Fault systems became active with repeated episodes of slip earthquakes gradually producing the impressive relief of the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountain escarpments that bound the northern Owens Valley-Mono Basin region. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults—the westernmost in the Basin and Range Province. It is also part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane.[5] The western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada. These unsorted piles of rock, boulders, and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age. An excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168 as it climbs into Buttermilk Country.[5] This graben was formed by a long series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, that have moved the graben down and helped move the Sierra Nevada up. The graben is much larger than the depth of the valley suggests; gravity studies suggest that 10,000 feet (3,000 m) of sedimentary rock mostly fills the graben and that a very steep escarpment is buried under the western length of the valley. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills. The Owens Valley has many mini-volcanoes, such as Crater Mountain. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, for example, by Little Lake. Owens Valley, Alabama Hills, and Owens Lake seen from Whitney Portal Road, west of Lone Pine, CA. Owens Valley, photographed from Sawmill Pass by Ansel Adams, circa 1936.


Ecology[edit] The valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom (Sidalcea covillei), is endemic to Owens Valley.


History[edit] The valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha (also called Panamint or Koso) in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe (also called Owens Valley Paiute) in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family. The closest related languages are Shoshoni and Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language which is also Numic but is more closely related to Northern Paiute. The Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families also have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony. The Eastern Mono live in several colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop. Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley and coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record.[6] On May 1, 1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. Walker and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, and back up the Humboldt River to the Rocky Mountains.[7] In 1845, John C. Fremont named the Owens valley, river and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4, 1862,[8] during the Owens Valley Indian War.[9] From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California. Tule Elk grazing in Owens Valley. California Water Wars[edit] Main article: California Water Wars In the early 20th century, the valley became the scene of a struggle between local residents and the city of Los Angeles over water rights. William Mulholland, superintendent of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), planned the 223-mile (359 km) Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913, which diverted water from the Owens River. The water rights were acquired in a deceitful manner, often splitting water cooperatives and pitting neighbors against one another. In 1924, local farmers were fed up with the purchases and erupted in violence, sabotaging parts of the water system.[2] Eventually Los Angeles acquired a large portion of the water rights to over 300,000 acres (121,000 ha) of land in the valley, almost completely diverting the inflows of water away from Owens Lake. This acquisition was made following negotiations in which Los Angeles and the Owens Valley farmers were engaged in a bilateral monopoly. By modern estimates, Los Angeles would have been willing to pay up to $8.70 per acre-foot ($7.05/thousand cubic meters) of water. Eventually the average actual transaction price was near $4.00 per acre-foot ($3.25/thousand cubic meters). The next best option was continuing to use the land for agricultural uses, which fetched a much lower price. Although this price was lower than Los Angeles' willingness to pay, the farmers of Owens Valley received a premium for their land compared to land values in neighboring counties. Moreover, the farmers who resisted the longest during the Owens Valley Transfers were able to sell their land for even higher prices than the average farmer received due to Los Angeles' willingness to settle.[10] As a result of these acquisitions, the lake subsequently dried up completely, leaving the present alkali flat which plagues the southern valley with alkali dust storms. In 1970, LADWP completed a second aqueduct from Owens Valley. More surface water was diverted and groundwater was pumped to feed the aqueduct. Owens Valley springs and seeps dried and disappeared, and groundwater-dependent vegetation began to die.[2] Years of litigation followed. In 1997, Inyo County, Los Angeles, the Owens Valley Committee, the Sierra Club, and other concerned parties signed a Memorandum of Understanding that specified terms by which the lower Owens River would be rewatered by June 2003.[11] LADWP missed this deadline and was sued again. Under another settlement, this time including the State of California, Los Angeles promised to rewater the lower Owens River by September 2005. As of February 2005, LADWP announced it was unlikely to meet this extended deadline. Finally, in 2008, Los Angeles fulfilled its promise and rewatered the lower Owens River.[12] In July 2004, Los Angeles mayor James Hahn proposed barring all future development on its Owens Valley holdings, by proposing a conservation easement for all LADWP land.[13] As of October 2004, Inyo County officials seemed to be resisting the offer of the easement, perhaps due to the prior history of mistrust over LADWP actions.[citation needed] Los Angeles began using a new, organic method of suppressing airborne dust from the dry bed of Owens Lake in 2014 pursuant to an agreement between the city and Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District, the Owens Valley air quality regulators, ending a bitter decades-long dispute over the water and dust.[14] Owens Valley, and the Sierra Escarpment (Tinemaha Reservoir in the foreground)


Radio observatory[edit] The Owens Valley Radio Observatory located near Westgard Pass is one of ten dishes making up the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA).


See also[edit] Owens River Bibliography of the Sierra Nevada — for further reading.


Notes[edit] ^ "Owens Valley". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  ^ a b c Smith, Genny; Jeff Putnam (1976). Deepest Valley: a Guide to Owens Valley, its roadsides and mountain trails (2nd ed.). Genny Smith books. Sierra Club. ISBN 0-931378-14-1.  ^ Austin, Mary Hunter (1903). Land of Little Rain. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. ISBN 0-8263-0358-7.  ^ "Los Angeles Aqueduct".  LADWP ^ a b Alt; Hyndman (2000). Roadside Geology of Northern and Central California. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87842-409-1.  ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008). Andy Burnham, ed. "Los Osos Back Bay". Megalithic Portal.  ^ Gilbert, Bil (1985) [1983]. Westering Man: The Life of Joseph Walker. Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 144–46. ISBN 0806119349.  ^ Hart, Herbert M. "Camp Independence (Inyo County)". Digital Desert.  ^ Key, V., John W. (1979). The Owens Valley Indian War, 1861-1865 (Thesis). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.  ^ Libecap, Gary D. (2008-04-05). "Chinatown Revisited: Owens Valley and Los Angeles—Bargaining Costs and Fairness Perceptions of the First Major Water Rights Exchange" (PDF). Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. 24 (2).  ^ "The 1997 MOU".  Inyo County Water Department ^ "L.A. Returns Water to the Owens Valley".  NPR ^ Broder, John M. (2004-08-08). "Los Angeles Mayor Seeks To Freeze Valley Growth". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-20.  New York Times ^ Sahagun, Louis (November 14, 2014). "New dust-busting method ends L.A.'s longtime feud with Owens Valley". Los Angeles Times. 


References[edit] Cadillac Desert, Marc Reisner, revised edition, Penguin USA, (1993), ISBN 0-14-017824-4 Geology Underfoot in Death Valley and Owens Valley, Sharp, Glazner (Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula; 1997) ISBN 0-87842-362-1 Spirit in the Desert: Pilgrimages to Sacred Sites in the Owens Valley, Brad Karelius, BookSurge Publishing, (2009). ISBN 1-4392-1721-1, 0-520-07245-6 Western Times and Water Wars, John Walton, University of California Press, (1992). ISBN 978-1-4392-1721-4 The Water Seekers, Remi Nadeau, Crest Publishers, (4th edition: 1997), ISBN 0-9627104-5-8


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Owens Valley. The Owens Valley Committee: The Owens Valley Cenozoic/Mesozoic Volcanism of the Eastern Sierra Nevada Groundwater Quality in the Owens Valley, California United States Geological Survey Lower Owens River Project - 60-mile (97 km) restoration of the lower owens river Inyo County Water Department Eval. of the Hydrologic System and Selected Water-Management Alternatives in the Owens Valley, California Roadside Geology and Mining History of the Owens Valley and Mono Basin v t e  State of California Sacramento (capital) Topics Culture Food Music Myth Sports Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography Climate Ecology Flora Fauna Government Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics Congressional delegations Elections People Protected areas State Parks State Historic Landmarks Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles Regions Antelope Valley Big Sur California Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country Metro regions Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana Counties Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba Most populous cities Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim v t e Internment of Japanese Americans Key topics Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Executive Order 9066 Executive Order 9102 Korematsu v. United States Ex parte Endo Lordsburg Killings War Relocation Authority History of Japanese Americans Propaganda for Japanese-American internment Concentration camps Gila River Granada Heart Mountain Jerome Manzanar Minidoka Poston Rohwer Topaz Tule Lake Assembly centers Arboga Assembly Center Fresno Assembly Center Mayer Assembly Center Merced Assembly Center Owens Valley Reception Center Parker Dam Reception Center Pinedale Assembly Center Pomona Assembly Center Portland Assembly Center Puyallup Assembly Center Sacramento Assembly center Salinas Assembly Center Santa Anita Assembly Center Stockton Assembly Center Tanforan Assembly Center Tulare Assembly Center Turlock Assembly Center Woodland Civil Control Station Citizen Isolation centers Leupp Isolation Center Moab Isolation Center Old Raton Ranch Camp Camp Tulelake Detention facilities Catalina Federal Honor Camp Crystal City Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Lincoln Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Missoula Alien Enemy Detention Facility Fort Stanton Alien Enemy Detention Facility Kenedy Alien Enemy Detention Facility Kooskia Alien Enemy Detention Facility Santa Fe Alien Enemy Detention Facility Seagoville Alien Enemy Detention Facility Tuna Canyon Detention Station Army facilities Camp Blanding Camp Forrest Camp Livingston Camp McCoy Camp Florence Fort Bliss Internment Camp Fort Howard Internment Camp Fort McDowell Internment Camp Fort Meade Internment Camp Fort Lewis Internment Camp Fort Richardson Internment Camp Fort Sam Houston Internment Camp Fort Sill Internment Camp Griffith Park Detention Camp Haiku Internment Camp Honouliuli Internment Camp Kalaheo Stockade Kilauea Military Camp Lordsburg Internment Camp Sand Island Internment Camp Stringtown Internment Camp Notable incarcerees See: Category:Japanese-American internees In the arts Allegiance Born Free and Equal Farewell to Manzanar No-No Boy The Invisible Thread Under the Blood Red Sun When the Emperor was Divine List of documentaries List of feature films Legacy Japanese American redress and court cases Renunciation Act of 1944 Japanese-American Claims Act Day of Remembrance CWRIC Civil Liberties Act of 1988 Japanese American National Museum Densho Long Journey Home Japanese American Exclusion Memorial Japanese American Internment Museum Category Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Owens_Valley&oldid=827340556" Categories: Owens ValleyHidden categories: Coordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2014


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