Contents 1 Urban region 1.1 Boroughs 2 General information 2.1 Toponymy 2.2 City seal 3 History 3.1 1000–1600 3.2 17th century 3.3 18th century 3.4 19th century 3.5 1900–present 4 Geography 4.1 Climate 5 Parks and recreation areas 6 Cityscape 6.1 Architecture 7 Politics and government 7.1 2015 elections 8 Economy 9 Environment 10 Education 10.1 Institutions of higher education 11 Culture 11.1 Food 11.2 Museums, galleries 11.3 Music and events 11.4 Performing arts 11.5 Literature 11.6 Media 11.7 Sports 12 Crime 13 Transport 14 Demographics 15 Notable residents 16 International relations 16.1 Twin towns – partner cities – and regions 16.2 Christmas trees as gifts 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Urban region[edit] As of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390.[2] The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus (municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Røyken, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Skedsmo, Ski, Sørum, Gjerdrum, Oppegård); the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084.[18] The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city). To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county [fylke] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 (50 sq mi) is built-up and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).[citation needed] The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county. Boroughs[edit] Main article: List of boroughs of Oslo As defined in January 2004 by the city council[19][note] Boroughs Inhabitants (2015)[20] Area in km² number Alna 48,770 13.7 12 Bjerke 30,502 7.7 9 Frogner 55,965 8.3 5 Gamle Oslo 49,854 7.5 1 Grorud 27,283 8.2 10 Grünerløkka 54,701 4.8 2 Nordre Aker 49,337 13.6 8 Nordstrand 49,428 16.9 14 Sagene 39,918 3.1 3 St. Hanshaugen 36,218 3.6 4 Stovner 31,669 8.2 11 Søndre Nordstrand 37,913 18.4 15 Ullern 32,124 9 6 Vestre Aker 47,024 16.6 7 Østensjø 49,133 12.2 13 Overall 647,676 151.8 ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census.

General information[edit] Toponymy[edit] For full article, see History of Oslo's name The Royal Palace is the home of the Royal Family The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was—in all probability—originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists generally interpret the original Óslo or Áslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered equally likely.[21] Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the very name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros).[22] The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his [idea about] etymology for Oslo.[23] City seal[edit] Main article: Seal of Oslo Oslo is one of very few cities in Norway, besides Bergen and Tønsberg, that does not have a formal coat of arms, but which uses a city seal instead.[24] The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard, with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings.[25]

History[edit] Oslo timeline (major events) See also expanded timeline CA. 1000 AD First traces of buildings. The St. Clement's Church is built. CA. 1050 AD Oslo marked as a city. Mariakirken is built. 1152/53 AD The Cathedral school is established 1299 AD Oslo becomes the capital of Norway CA. 1300 Construction of Akershus Fortress starts. 1350 AD Around 3/4 of the population dies under the Black Death. 1352 AD St. Hallvard's Cathedral and the other Sogne Churches are burned to the ground in a major fire 1624 AD Another major fire, the city is rebuilt and renamed Christiania by Christian IV. 1686 AD Fire ruins 1/4 of the city. 1697 AD Domkirken is finished and opened 1716 AD The city and the fortress conquered by Karl XII. 1813 The University is opened. 1825 The foundations of Slottet are finished. 1836 The National Gallery is finished. 1837 Christiania Theatre is opened. Christiania and Aker get a Mayor and kommunestyre. 1854 Oslo gets its first railway, which leads to Eidsvoll. 1866 Stortinget is completed. 1878 City expanded. Frogner, Majorstuen, Torshov, Kampen and Vålerengen are populated and rebuilt. 113 000 citizens. 1892 The first Holmenkollbakken is finished. 1894 The city gets its first electrical track. 1899 Nationaltheateret is finished. 1925 City renamed as Oslo. 1927 The Monolith is raised. 1928 Oslo first Metro line, Majorstuen-Besserud is opened. 1950 Oslo City Hall opened. 1963 The Munch Museum is opened. 1980 Metro line under the city, Oslo Central Station and Nationaltheatret Station opened. 1997 Population over 500 000. 1998 Rikshospitalet opened. New railway line to Gardermoen. 2000 The city celebrates thousand-years jubilee. 2008 Oslo Opera House is opened. 2011 Several buildings in the Regjeringskvartalet are heavily damaged during a terrorist attack, resulting in 8 deaths. 69 people are massacred on the nearby Utøya island. According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by Harald Hardrada.[26] Recent archaeological research however has uncovered Christian burials which can be dated to prior to AD 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement.[citation needed] This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000. It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway (1299–1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress and the Oslo Kongsgård. A century later, Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.[citation needed] Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, Christian IV of Denmark and Norway ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle and given the name Christiania. Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks.[27] The last Black Death outbreak in Oslo occurred in 1654.[28] In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved. Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825–1848), Storting building (the Parliament) (1861–1866), the University, National Theatre and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1877 the city was renamed Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925.[29] 1000–1600[edit] Main article: Old Town, Oslo Under the reign of Olaf III of Norway, Oslo became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. Hallvard Vebjørnsson became the city's patron saint and is depicted on the city's seal. In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death. On 25 July 1197, Sverre of Norway and his soldiers attacked Oslo from Hovedøya.[30] During the Middle Ages, Oslo reached its heights in the reign of Haakon V of Norway. He started building Akershus Fortress and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway. In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. The Black Death came to Norway in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century. 17th century[edit] Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, Christian IV of Denmark decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city of Christiania. The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Grønland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up filled with citizens of low class status. 18th century[edit] In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port. 19th century[edit] In 1814 the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden. Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population. The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Several important buildings were erected – The Bank of Norway (1828), the Royal Palace (1848), and the Storting (1866).Large areas were incorporated in 1839, 1859 an 1878. The population increased from approximately 10 000 in 1814 to 230 000 in 1900. Christiania expanded its industry from 1840, most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in 1899. 1900–present[edit] The municipality developed new areas such as Ullevål garden city (1918–1926) and Torshov (1917–1925). City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika, from 1931–1950. The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo in 1948, and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982–1998. In the 2011 Norway terror attacks, Oslo was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter, damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister. Eight people were killed in the bomb attack. Map of medieval Oslo by Amund Helland Port of Christiania c. 1800 by John William Edy Christiania in 1814, by M. K. Tholstrup Tallship Christiania in Oslo The Barcode skyline in the harbour district Railway between Christiania and Bergen, 1916.

Geography[edit] See also: Oslo Graben A map of the urban areas of Oslo in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre. Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya (0.56 km2 or 0.22 sq mi), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet (3.91 km2 or 1.51 sq mi). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo. Although Eastern Norway has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet, which flows into the fjord in Bjørvika), and Alna. The waterfalls in Akerselva gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway in the 1840s. Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at 629 metres (2,064 ft). Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and green appearance.[citation needed] Aker Brygge Climate[edit] Oslo has a humid continental climate (Dfb). Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night (no darker than nautical twilight), to around 6 hours in midwinter.[31] Oslo has fairly warm summers with two out of three days in July that have high temperatures above 20 °C and on average one out of four days reach a maximum above 25 °C.[32] The highest ever recorded at Blindern was 34.2 °C (94 °F) on 3 August 1982. At the "Observatory" downtown Oslo 35 °C (95 °F) was recorded on 21 July 1901.[33] In January, three out of four days are below freezing (0 °C), on average one out of four days is colder than −10 °C.[32] The coldest temperature recorded is −29.6 °C (−21.3 °F), on 21 January 1841, while the coldest ever recorded at Blindern is −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in January 1941. July 1901 was the warmest month ever recorded with 24-hr monthly mean temperature at 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). The climate table below is for 1981–2010, while extremes (except average annual maximum and minimum temperatures) also includes earlier stations such as the Observatory downtown. Recent decades have seen warming, and 8 of the 12 monthly record lows are from before 1900, while the most recent is the November record low from 1965. Climate data for Oslo 1981–2010 (Blindern, 94 m, extremes 1841–, sunhrs 1961-90) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 15.0 (59) 21.5 (70.7) 25.4 (77.7) 29.9 (85.8) 33.9 (93) 35.0 (95) 34.2 (93.6) 27.3 (81.1) 21.0 (69.8) 14.4 (57.9) 12.8 (55) 35.0 (95) Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 7.4 (45.3) 11.7 (53.1) 18.1 (64.6) 24.1 (75.4) 26.9 (80.4) 28.3 (82.9) 26.5 (79.7) 21.3 (70.3) 15.2 (59.4) 10.2 (50.4) 7.1 (44.8) 28.3 (82.9) Average high °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 0.5 (32.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.1 (50.2) 16.5 (61.7) 20.0 (68) 22.3 (72.1) 20.9 (69.6) 15.7 (60.3) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 0.0 (32) 10.28 (50.49) Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9 (26.8) −2.4 (27.7) 1.0 (33.8) 5.9 (42.6) 11.6 (52.9) 15.3 (59.5) 17.7 (63.9) 16.6 (61.9) 11.9 (53.4) 6.6 (43.9) 1.6 (34.9) −2.3 (27.9) 6.72 (44.1) Average low °C (°F) −5.3 (22.5) −5.3 (22.5) −2.4 (27.7) 1.7 (35.1) 6.7 (44.1) 10.6 (51.1) 13.0 (55.4) 12.2 (54) 8.0 (46.4) 3.8 (38.8) −0.6 (30.9) −4.7 (23.5) 3.14 (37.67) Mean minimum °C (°F) −14.9 (5.2) −13.2 (8.2) −10.3 (13.5) −3.8 (25.2) 1.2 (34.2) 5.8 (42.4) 9.7 (49.5) 6.8 (44.2) 1.9 (35.4) −2.9 (26.8) −7.4 (18.7) −13.8 (7.2) −14.9 (5.2) Record low °C (°F) −29.6 (−21.3) −25.2 (−13.4) −21.3 (−6.3) −16.1 (3) −4.4 (24.1) 0.8 (33.4) 3.7 (38.7) 2.3 (36.1) −3.7 (25.3) −11.2 (11.8) −16.0 (3.2) −23.7 (−10.7) −29.6 (−21.3) Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.9 (2.161) 41.0 (1.614) 50.4 (1.984) 46.9 (1.846) 54.1 (2.13) 70.5 (2.776) 84.7 (3.335) 97.8 (3.85) 80.6 (3.173) 90.4 (3.559) 79.1 (3.114) 52.4 (2.063) 802.8 (31.605) Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10 7 9 8 8 10 11 11 9 11 11 9 114 Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 76 126 178 220 250 246 216 144 86 51 35 1,668 Percent possible sunshine 19.2 29.6 34.7 40.9 41.5 44.4 44.0 44.5 37.2 27.1 22.4 18.9 33.7 Source #1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute Source #2: Meteo-climat 1981–2010 <http://meteo-climat /> Climate data for Gardermoen airport 1961–1990, extremes 1954–1998 (202 m) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 12.4 (54.3) 16.4 (61.5) 24.3 (75.7) 27.0 (80.6) 32.3 (90.1) 31.5 (88.7) 32.6 (90.7) 25.7 (78.3) 20.3 (68.5) 13.6 (56.5) 11.6 (52.9) 32.6 (90.7) Average high °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −2.8 (27) 2.4 (36.3) 7.8 (46) 15.1 (59.2) 19.8 (67.6) 20.7 (69.3) 19.4 (66.9) 14.3 (57.7) 8.3 (46.9) 1.6 (34.9) −2.4 (27.7) 8.36 (47.04) Average low °C (°F) −10.7 (12.7) −10.9 (12.4) −6.5 (20.3) −1.6 (29.1) 3.9 (39) 8.6 (47.5) 10.0 (50) 8.9 (48) 5.3 (41.5) 1.6 (34.9) −4.4 (24.1) −9.2 (15.4) −0.42 (31.24) Record low °C (°F) −31.3 (−24.3) −35.5 (−31.9) −27.2 (−17) −14.8 (5.4) −6.0 (21.2) −2.5 (27.5) 1.9 (35.4) −1.2 (29.8) −6.0 (21.2) −16.1 (3) −23.6 (−10.5) −28.2 (−18.8) −35.5 (−31.9) Average precipitation mm (inches) 59 (2.32) 49 (1.93) 53 (2.09) 48 (1.89) 61 (2.4) 73 (2.87) 79 (3.11) 90 (3.54) 96 (3.78) 100 (3.94) 89 (3.5) 65 (2.56) 862 (33.93) Average precipitation days 10.6 8.0 8.6 7.6 8.8 10.2 11.1 11.1 10.9 11.3 11.6 10.0 119.8 Source: met Norway eklima

Parks and recreation areas[edit] Main article: Parks and open spaces in Oslo Frogner Park Oslo has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it. Frogner Park is a large park located a few minutes walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and best-known park in Norway, with a large collection of sculptures by Gustav Vigeland Bygdøy is a large green area, commonly called the Museum Peninsula of Oslo. The area is surrounded by the sea and is one of the most expensive districts in Norway.[citation needed] Ekebergparken Sculpture Park is a sculpture park and a national heritage park with a panoramic view of the city at Ekeberg in the southeast of the city. St. Hanshaugen Park is an old public park on a high hill in central Oslo. 'St. Hanshaugen' is also the name of the surrounding neighborhood as well as the larger administrative district (borough) that includes major parts of central Oslo.[34] Tøyen Park stretches out behind the Munch Museum, and is a vast, grassy expanse. In the north, there is a viewing point known as Ola Narr. The Tøyen area also includes the Botanical Garden and Museum belonging to the University of Oslo.[35] Oslo (with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland). The municipality operates eight public swimming pools.[36] Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering a 50-metre main pool. The outdoor pool Frognerbadet also has the 50-metre range.

Cityscape[edit] Holmenkollen ski jump Bryggetorget Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city. In 2008, an exhibition was held in London presenting the award-winning Oslo Opera House, the urban regeneration scheme of Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the new Deichman Library. Most of the buildings in the city and in neighbouring communities are low in height with only the Plaza, Postgirobygget and the highrises at Bjørvika considerably taller.[37] Architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of Norway Fjordbyen is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdøy in the west to Ormøya in the east. Some areas include: Bjørvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who was educated in Copenhagen, spent some years in Norway around the turn of the 19th century. He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo Katedralskole, completed in 1800.[citation needed] He added a classical portico to the front of an older structure, and a semicircular auditorium that was sequestered by Parliament in 1814 as a temporary place to assemble, now preserved at Norsk Folkemuseum as a national monument. When Christiania was made capital of Norway in 1814, there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions. An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace, designed by Hans Linstow and built between 1824 and 1848. Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate, the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University, the Parliament (Storting) and other institutions. Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch, one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange (1826–1828), the local branch of the Bank of Norway (1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), and the first campus for the University of Oslo (1841–1856). For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858. A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas (1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date. Oslo Harbour Oslo Central Station Oslo Opera House Akershus fortress A typical city block of Oslo Jernbanetorget Aker brygge Art gallery of Astrup Fearnley Museum Highly populated urban area of Bjerke The skyline of Oslo

Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics and government of Oslo Oslo city council 2015–2019 Labour Party 20 (+0) Conservative Party 19 0(−3) Green Party 05 (+4) Liberal Party 04 (−1) Progress Party 04 (+0) Socialist Left Party 03 (−1) Red Party 03 (+1) Christian Democratic Party 01 0(+0) Total 59[38] Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting. Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by nineteen members of parliament. The Labour Party and the Conservative Party have six each, the Progress Party and the Liberals have two each ; the Socialist Left Party, the Christian Democrats and the Green Party have one each [needs update] The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2015-elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively. 2015 elections[edit] Parliament of Norway Oslo City Hall The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Marianne Borgen. Since the local elections of 2015, the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left. Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council. The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The current governing mayor is Raymond Johansen.[38][39]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Greater Oslo Office buildings and apartments in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project. Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012.[11] It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam. Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector. Some of which are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers.[40] Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register.[41] The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers. The gross domestic product of Oslo totalled NOK268.047 billion ( billion) in 2003, which amounted to 17% of the national GDP.[42] This compares with NOK165.915 billion ( billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%.[43] Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world.[44] As of 2006[update], it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting[45] and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.[44] The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. In the 2015 update[46] of the EIU’s Worldwide Cost of Living survey, Oslo now ranks as the third most expensive city in the world.[47] Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo. According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006,[48] Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.

Environment[edit] Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and you can access rentable city bikes all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.[49][50]

Education[edit] The faculty of Law, University of Oslo. Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building. University of Oslo Library Institutions of higher education[edit] University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo (UiO))—undergraduate, graduate and PhD programs in most fields. Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus (HiOA)), former Oslo University College. Focuses on 3–4-year professional degree programs. BI Norwegian Business School (Handelshøyskolen BI)—primarily economics and business administration. Norwegian School of Information Technology (Norges Informasjonsteknologiske Høyskole (NITH)) Oslo School of Architecture and Design (Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO)) Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (Norges idrettshøgskole (NIH))—offers opportunities to study at the Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral level[51] Norwegian Academy of Music (Norges musikkhøgskole) MF Norwegian School of Theology (Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet – MF) Oslo National Academy of the Arts (Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo – KHIO)[52] Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelige universitet – NMBU) located in Ås, right outside of Oslo[53] Norwegian Army Academy (Krigsskolen) The Norwegian Defence University College (Forsvarets høgskole) The Norwegian Police University College (Politihøgskolen – PHS) Norwegian School of Veterinary Science (Norges Veterinærhøgskole)[54] Oslo Academy of Fine Arts (Statens kunstakademi)[55] Oslo School of Management (Markedshøyskolen – MH) located at the Campus Kristiania education center. The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education. In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total.[56]

Culture[edit] Oslo has a large and varied number of cultural attractions, which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains a large number of parks and seasites and many museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum."[57] Oslo is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year. Food[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2017) Grønland, the central areas around Youngstorget and Torggata, Karl Johans gate (the main parade street), Aker Brygge and Tjuvholmen, Sørenga, and the boroughs of Frogner, Majorstuen, St. Hanshaugen/Bislett and Grünerløkka has a high concentration of cafes and restaurants. There are several food markets, the largest being Mathallen Food Hall at Vulkan with more than 30 vendors including specialty shops, cafés and eateries.[58] As of march 2018 Oslo has six restaurants mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo is the only restaurant in Norwegian history with three stars. Statholdergaarden, Kontrast and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo has a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans.[citation needed] Museums, galleries[edit] Munch Museum Oslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death.[59] The city council is currently planning a new Munch Museum which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city.[60] The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen.[60] 50 different museums are located around the city.[61] Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church.[62] The Vigeland Museum located in the large Frogner Park, is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life.[63] Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city.[64] There is also a newer landscaped sculpture park, Ekebergparken Sculpture Park, with works by Norwegian and international artists such as Salvador Dalí.[65] Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum The Viking Ship Museum features three Viking ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking age.[66] The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city.[67] The Kon-Tiki Museum houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2.[68] The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art.[69] The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere.[69] The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture.[69] A new National Museum in Oslo will open in 2020 located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center.[70] The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country.[71] The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre.[71] Music and events[edit] Nobel Peace Center A large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years.[72] Oslo's biggest rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Medieval Park east in Oslo and lasts for four days.[73] The Oslo International Church Music Festival[74] has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo. The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December.[75] Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment. The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.[76] Other examples of annual events in Oslo are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese culture[77] and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year.[78] Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo in 1842. Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879.[79] Oslo has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in 1996 and 2010. Performing arts[edit] The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway[80] Oslo houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget.[80] The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages.[81] Literature[edit] Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The longest years; New York 1971). The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Hedda Gabler, Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.[82] In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen, Jo Nesbø and Roy Jacobsen have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke. Media[edit] The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Verdens Gang, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen, and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media and Hjemmet Mortensen AB. Sports[edit] Bislett Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C. Oslo is home to the Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken, the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venues. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon World Championships in 1986, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2016. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics. Oslo is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system. Vålerenga, Lyn and Skeid have won both the league and the cup, while Mercantile and Frigg have won the cup. Ullevål Stadion is the home arena for the Norwegian national football team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship.[83] Røa IL is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city. Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo. The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway.[84] The most successful ice hockey team in Norway, Vålerenga Ishockey, is based in Oslo. Manglerud Star is another Oslo-team who play in the top league. Bislett Stadium is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett Games, part of IAAF Diamond League. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Nordstrand HE and Oppsal IF plays in the women's GRUNDIGligaen in handball, while Bækkelaget HE plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and the national team. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993. Oslo was bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, but later withdrew on 2 October 2014.

Crime[edit] Norway Supreme Court Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2,300 employees. Over 1,700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civilian employees. Oslo Police District has five police stations located around the city at Grønland, Sentrum, Stovner, Majorstuen and Manglerud. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (January 2017) Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo is on the rise,[when?] and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo than in New York City per capita.[85][86] According to the Oslo Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. Fewer than one in a hundred cases get solved.[87] On 22 July 2011, Oslo was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo government offices.[88]

Transport[edit] Airports around Oslo Airport IATA/ICAO Passengers (2013) Gardermoen OSL/ENGM 22,956,540 Torp TRF/ENTO 1,856,897 Rygge (closed 2016) RYG/ENRY 1,849,294 Oslo Central Station Oslo has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter.[89] This includes the six-line Oslo Metro,[90] the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo Tramway[91] and the eight-line Oslo Commuter Rail.[92] The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre.[93] Oslo is also covered by a bus network consisting of 32 city lines, as well as regional buses to the neighboring county of Akershus.[94] Oslo Central Station acts as the central hub,[95] and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden.[96] The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen Line. The Drammen Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo Tunnel.[97] Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden are connected by ferry.[98] Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn in Denmark, and to Kiel in Germany.[99] Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway. The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen Airport, located in Ullensaker, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the city centre of Oslo.[100] It acts as the main international gateway to Norway,[101] and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe.[102] Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe. Oslo is also served by a secondary airport, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Torp Airport, 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the city.[103] Airport Express Train; a High-speed rail connecting the city with its main airport, Oslo-Gardermoen Airport Metro train leaving. Nationaltheatret Station Postgirobygget at Oslo central station A rental bicycle station in the city center "Akrobaten" (The Acrobat) Bridge over Oslo Central Station Buses at Jernbanetorget

Demographics[edit] See also: East End and West End of Oslo Population of Oslo from 1801–2006, with yearly data from 1950–2006. Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1500 2,500 —     1801 8,931 +257.2% 1855 31,715 +255.1% 1890 151,239 +376.9% 1951 434,365 +187.2% 1961 475,663 +9.5% Year Pop. ±% 1971 481,548 +1.2% 1981 452,023 −6.1% 1991 461,644 +2.1% 2001 508,726 +10.2% 2011 599,230 +17.8% 2017 672,061 +12.2% Source: Statistics Norway.[18][104] Number of minorities (1st and 2nd gen.) in Oslo by country of origin in 2017[105] Nationality Population (2017)  Pakistan 23,010  Poland 16,624  Somalia 15,137  Sweden 13,018  Iraq 8,215  Sri Lanka 7,064  Morocco 6,830  Iran 6,306  Turkey 6,298  Vietnam 6,276  Philippines 6,164  India 5,671  Afghanistan 3,852  Germany 3,813  Russia 3,802  Denmark 3,787  Bosnia-Herzegovina 3,436  Ethiopia 3,346  Eritrea 3,277  UK 3,059  Lithuania 3,057  China 2,988  Romania 2,941  Kosovo 2,876  France 2,315 The population of Oslo was by 2010 increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital.[106] In 2015, according to Statistics Norway annual report, there were 647,676 permanent residents in the Oslo municipality, of which 628,719 resided in the city proper. There were also 942,084 in the city's urban area[3][18] and an estimated 1.71 million in the Greater Oslo Region, within 100 km (62 mi) of the city centre.[14] According to the most recent census 432,000 Oslo residents (70.4% of the population) were ethnically Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002 (409,000).[107] Oslo has the largest population of immigrants and Norwegians born to immigrant parents in Norway, both in relative and absolute figures. Of Oslo's 624,000 inhabitants, 189,400 were immigrants or born to immigrant parents, representing 30.4 percent of the capital's population. All suburbs in Oslo were above the national average of 14.1 percent. The suburbs with the highest proportions of people of immigrant origin were Søndre Nordstrand, Stovner og Alna, where they formed around 50 percent of the population.[108] Pakistanis make up the single largest ethnic minority, followed by Swedes, Somalis, and Poles. Other large immigrant groups are people from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq and Iran.[109][110][111][112] In 2013, 40% of Oslo's primary school pupils were registered as having a first language other than the Norwegian or Sami.[113] The western part of the city is predominantly ethnic Norwegian, with several schools having less than 5% pupils with an immigrant background.[citation needed] The eastern part of Oslo is more mixed, with some schools up to 97% immigrant share.[114] Schools are also increasingly divided by ethnicity, with white flight being present in some of the northeastern suburbs of the city.[115][116] In the borough Groruddalen in 2008 for instance, the ethnic Norwegian population decreased by 1,500, while the immigrant population increased by 1,600.[117] Religion in Oslo (2016)[118][119] religion percent Church of Norway   51.6% Other christian denominations   8.8% Islam   9.1% Buddhism   0.6% Other religions   0.9% Life stance communities   2.8% Unaffiliated   26.2% Oslo has numerous religious communities. In 2016, 51.6% of the population were members of the Church of Norway, lower than the national average of 71.5%.[120] Other Christian denominations make up 8.8% of the population. Islam is followed by 9.1% and Buddhism by 0.6% of the population. Other religions form 0.9% of the population. Life stance communities, mainly the Norwegian Humanist Association, are represented by 2.8% of the population. 26.2% of the Oslo population are unaffiliated with any religion or life stance community.[118][119]

Notable residents[edit] Main category: People from Oslo Morten Harket (b. 1959), singer, songwriter and leader of a-ha; Knight of S.Olav order. Sigrid Undset (1882–1949), writer, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1928 Jens Stoltenberg (b. 1959), former Prime Minister of Norway, Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Fabian Stang (b. 1955), lawyer, mayor of Oslo 2007–2015 Kjetil André Aamodt (b. 1971), alpine skier Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862–1951), meteorologist Espen Bredesen (b. 1968), ski jumper, Olympic champion Gro Harlem Brundtland (b. 1939), former Prime Minister and Director-General of WHO 1998–2003 Lars Saabye Christensen (b. 1953), author Sandra Drouker (1875–1944), pianist and pedagogue Thorbjørn Egner (1912–1990), playwright, songwriter and illustrator John Fredriksen (b. 1944), shipping magnate Ragnar Frisch (1895–1973), economist, Nobel Prize laureate (1969) Johan Galtung (b. 1930), sociologist, founder of peace and conflict studies Torleif S. Knaphus (1881–1965), monument sculptor in America Christian Krohg (1852–1925), painter Hans Gude[121] (1825–1903), landscape painter Tine Thing Helseth (b. 1987), trumpeter Sonja Henie (1912–1969), Norwegian figure skater and actress Eva Joly (b. 1943), magistrate Henrik Ibsen (1828–1906), playwright, theatre director and poet Erling Kagge (b. 1963), polar explorer Espen Knutsen (b. 1972), former professional ice hockey player Edvard Munch (1863–1944), painter Fridtjof Nansen (1861–1930), polar explorer, scientist, diplomat, Nobel laureate Jo Nesbø (b. 1960), author and musician Lars Onsager (1903–1976), physical chemist, Nobel Prize laureate Børge Ousland (b. 1962), polar explorer, writer Grete Waitz (1953–2011), marathon runner Knut Johannesen (b. 1933), speed skater Paul Waaktaar-Savoy (b. 1961), guitarist, songwriter of A-ha and Savoy; Knight of S.Olav order Magne Furuholmen (b. 1962), keyboardist, songwriter of A-ha and Apparatjik; Knight of S.Olav order Trygve Lie (1896–1968), first Secretary-General of the United Nations Nico & Vinz (2009–present), singers Mats Zuccarello (b. 1987), professional ice hockey player Joshua King (b. 1992), professional football player

International relations[edit] Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission's Intercultural cities programme, along with a number of other European cities.[122][123] Twin towns – partner cities – and regions[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Norway Oslo has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions:[124] Gothenburg, Sweden Mbombela, South Africa Saint Petersburg, Russia Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Shanghai, China Vilnius, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland Oslo was formerly twinned with Madison, Wisconsin, Tel Aviv and Vilnius, but has since abolished the concept of twin cities. Christmas trees as gifts[edit] Oslo has a tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.; New York; London; Edinburgh; Rotterdam; Antwerp and Reykjavík.[125] Since 1947, Oslo has sent a 65-to-80-foot-high (20-to-24-metre), 50 to 100-year-old spruce, as an expression of gratitude toward Britain for its support of Norway during World War II.[126][127]

See also[edit] Norway portal Oslo Accords Timeline of transport in Oslo

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"Intercultural city: Oslo, Norway". Retrieved 22 May 2011.  ^ Wood, Phil (2009). "Intercultural Cities" (PDF). Council of Europe. Retrieved 10 January 2016.  ^ "Co-operating cities and regions". Oslo Kommune. 12 February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.  ^ Juletrær til utland Ordføreren, Oslo kommune (Municipality of Oslo Website, Mare's office), published november 2013, accessed 7 April 2014. ^ Her tennes juletreet i London, VG, 3 December 2009. ^ Ina Louise Stovner. "juletre". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ As of 1 January 2017. Includes immigrants and children of two immigrants. Does not include children of one immigrant, or grandchildren, great grandchildren etc. of immigrants. No statistic exists which accounts for ethnicity or race. The share of the population which was not counted as immigrant or as children of two immigrants was 67.2%.

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Oslo

External links[edit] Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Oslo. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oslo. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Christiania. Look up oslo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. City of Oslo: Official website (in Norwegian) City of Oslo: Official website (in English) Official Travel and Visitors Guide to Oslo Oslo travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Christiania". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.  Links to related articles v t e Subdivisions, counties, traditional districts, and municipalities of Norway Agder Aust-Agder Nedenes Arendal Birkenes Froland Gjerstad Grimstad Lillesand Risør Tvedestrand Vegårshei Åmli Otrudal/ Råbyggelaget Bygland Evje og Hornnes Iveland Setesdal Bykle Valle Vest-Agder Lister Audnedal Farsund Flekkefjord Kvinesdal Lyngdal Åseral Mandal Hægebostad Kristiansand Lindesnes Mandal Marnardal Sirdal Songdalen Søgne Vennesla Eastern Norway Akershus Follo Enebakk Frogn Nesodden Oppegård Ski Vestby Ås Romerike (Nedre, Øvre) Aurskog-Høland Eidsvoll Fet Gjerdrum Hurdal Lørenskog Nannestad Nes Nittedal Rælingen Skedsmo Sørum Ullensaker Others Asker Bærum Oslo Buskerud Hallingdal Flå Nes Gol Hol Hemsedal Ål Numedal Flesberg Nore og Uvdal Rollag Ringerike Hole Krødsherad Modum Ringerike Sigdal Vestfold Drammen Eiker (Nedre, Øvre) Kongsberg Lier Vingulmark Hurum Røyken Hedmark Glåmdal Eidskog Kongsvinger Odal, Norway (Nord, Sør) Hedmarken Gjøvik Hamar Løten Ringsaker Stange Solør Grue Våler Åsnes Østerdalen Alvdal Elverum Engerdal Folldal Os Rendalen Stor-Elvdal Tolga, Norway Trysil Åmot Oppland Gudbrandsdalen Dovre Fron (Nord, Sør) Gausdal Lesja Lillehammer Lom Ringebu Sel Skjåk Vågå Øyer Hadeland Gran Lunner Jevnaker Land Nordre Søndre Toten Østre Vestre Valdres Aurdal (Nord, Sør) Etnedal Slidre (Vestre, Øystre) Vang Telemark Aust- Telemark Bø Hjartdal Nome Notodden Sauherad Tinn Vest- Telemark Fyresdal Kviteseid Nissedal Seljord Tokke Vinje Grenland Bamble Drangedal Kragerø Porsgrunn Siljan Skien Vestfold Færder Holmestrand Horten Larvik Re Sande Sandefjord Svelvik Tønsberg Østfold Aremark Askim Eidsberg Fredrikstad Halden Hobøl Hvaler Marker Moss Rakkestad Rygge Rømskog Råde Sarpsborg Skiptvet Spydeberg Trøgstad Våler Northern Norway Finnmark Aust-Finnmark Bearalváhki Báhcavuotna Gáŋgaviika Davvesiidda Unjárga Mátta-Várjjat Deatnu Čáhcesuolu Várggát Vest-Finnmark Ákŋoluokta Áltá Davvinjárga Fálesnuorri Guovdageaidnu Hámmárfeasta Kárášjohka Láhppi Muosát Porsáŋgu Nordland Helgeland Alstahaug Bindal Brønnøy Dønna Grane Hattfjelldal Hemnes Herøy Leirfjord Lurøy Nesna Rana Rødøy Sømna Træna Vefsn Vega Vevelstad Lofoten Flakstad Moskenes Røst Vestvågøy Værøy Vågan Ofoten Ballangen Evenes Lødingen Narvik Tjeldsund Tysfjord Salten Beiarn Bodø Fauske Gildeskål Hamarøy Meløy Saltdal Steigen Sørfold Vesterålen Andøy Bø Hadsel Sortland Øksnes Troms Midt-Troms Bardu Berg Dyrøy Lenvik Målselv Sørreisa Torsken Tranøy Nord-Troms Balsfjord Karlsøy Kåfjord Kvænangen Lyngen Nordreisa Skjervøy Storfjord Tromsø Sør-Troms Gratangen Harstad Ibestad Kvæfjord Lavangen Salangen Skånland Central Norway Trøndelag Fosen Bjugn Frøya Hitra Indre Fosen Osen Roan Åfjord Ørland Innherred Inderøy Levanger Snåsa Steinkjer Verdal Verran Namdalen Flatanger Fosnes Grong Høylandet Leka Lierne Namdalseid Namsos Namsskogan Nærøy Overhalla Røyrvik Vikna Stjørdalen Frosta Meråker Stjørdal Gauldalen Holtålen Melhus Midtre Gauldal Røros Orkdalen Agdenes Hemne Meldal Oppdal Orkdal Rennebu Snillfjord Stjørdalen Klæbu Malvik Selbu Skaun Trondheim Tydal Western Norway Hordaland Hardanger Eidfjord Granvin Jondal Kvam Odda Ullensvang Ulvik Midt- Hordland Askøy Austevoll Bergen Fjell Fusa Os, Hordaland Samnanger Sund Øygarden Nord- Hordland Austrheim Fedje Lindås Masfjorden Meland Modalen Osterøy Radøy Vaksdal Sunn- Hordland Bømlo Etne Fitjar Kvinnherad Stord Sveio Tysnes Voss Voss Møre og Romsdal Nordmøre Aure Averøy Eide Gjemnes Halsa Kristiansund Rindal Smøla Sunndal Surnadal Tingvoll Romsdal Aukra Fræna Midsund Molde Nesset Rauma Sandøy Vestnes Sunnmøre Giske Haram, Norway Hareid Herøy Norddal Sande Skodje Stordal Stranda Sula Sykkylven Ulstein Vanylven Volda Ålesund Ørskog Ørsta Rogaland Dalane Bjerkreim Eigersund Lund Sokndal Haugaland Bokn Haugesund Karmøy Tysvær Utsira Vindafjord Jæren Gjesdal Hå Klepp Randaberg Sandnes Sola Stavanger Time Ryfylke Finnøy Forsand Hjelmeland Kvitsøy Rennesøy Sauda Strand Suldal Sogn og Fjordane Nordfjord Bremanger Eid Gloppen Hornindal Selje Stryn Vågsøy Sunnfjord Askvoll Fjaler Flora Førde Gaular Jølster Naustdal Sogn Aurland Balestrand Gulen Høyanger Hyllestad Leikanger Luster Lærdal Sogndal Solund Vik Årdal italics denote a historical area; see Historical maps of Norway v t e Boroughs of Oslo Alna Bjerke Frogner Gamle Oslo Grorud Grünerløkka (Marka) Nordstrand Nordre Aker Østensjø Sagene (Sentrum) Søndre Nordstrand St. Hanshaugen Stovner Ullern Vestre Aker v t e Most populous urban areas of Norway As of 1 January 2014, according to Statistics Norway [1] 1. Oslo 942,084 2. Bergen 251,281 3. Stavanger/Sandnes 207,439 4. Trondheim 172,226 5. Drammen 112,123 6. Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg 107,920 7. Porsgrunn/Skien 91,349 8. Kristiansand 59,681 9. Tønsberg 50,372 10. Ålesund 50,345 11. Moss 45,017 12. Sandefjord 42,345 13. Arendal 42,145 14. Haugesund 40,631 15. Bodø 39,384 16. Tromsø 33,319 17. Hamar 26,232 18. Halden 24,707 19. Larvik 23,579 20. Askøy 21,911 21. Kongsberg 20,670 22. Harstad 20,533 23. Molde 20,327 24. Horten 20,036 25. Gjøvik 19,604 26. Lillehammer 19,586 27. Mo i Rana 18,592 28. Kristiansund 18,300 29. Korsvik 16,385 30. Tromsdalen 16,271 31. Jessheim 15,966 32. Hønefoss 15,154 33. Ski 14,446 34. Alta 14,430 35. Elverum 14,326 36. Narvik 14,202 37. Askim 13,822 38. Leirvik 13,717 39. Drøbak 13,445 40. Nesoddtangen 12,428 41. Osøyro 12,296 42. Vennesla 12,242 43. Steinkjer 12,224 44. Grimstad 12,172 45. Arna 11,960 46. Kongsvinger 11,938 47. Råholt 11,828 48. Stjørdalshalsen 11,453 v t e Most populous metropolitan areas in Norway As of 2013, according to Statistics Norway [2] 1. Oslo 1,502,604 2. Bergen 407,935 3. Stavanger 319,822 4. Trondheim 267,132 5. Kristiansand 155,648 6. Drammen 151,769 7. Fredrikstad 138,682 8. Haugesund 128,797 9. Tønsberg 120,747 10. Sandvika 118,115 11. Skien 112,082 12. Sandefjord 90,532 13. Ålesund 82,165 14. Tromsø 73,631 15. Sandnes 71,462 16. Moss 56,210 17. Sarpsborg 54,049 18. Bodø 52,768 19. Arendal 43,755 20. Larvik 42,637 21. Porsgrunn 35,504 22. Hamar 30,921 23. Halden 30,116 24. Gjøvik 29,618 25. Ski 29,482 26. Askøy 27,273 27. Lillehammer 27,044 28. Horten 26,701 29. Kongsberg 26,296 30. Molde 26,027 v t e Counties of Norway Akershus Aust-Agder Buskerud Finnmark Hedmark Hordaland Møre og Romsdal Nordland Oppland Oslo Østfold Rogaland Sogn og Fjordane Telemark Troms Trøndelag Vest-Agder Vestfold v t e 50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden 1. Stockholm 1,372,565 2. Copenhagen 1,263,698 3. Helsinki 1,214,210 4. Oslo 958,378 5. Gothenburg 549,839 6. Tampere 325,025 7. Malmö 280,415 8. Aarhus 261,570 9. Turku 260,367 10. Bergen 250,420 11. Stavanger 210,874 12. Reykjavík 209,510 13. Oulu 193,817 14. Trondheim 175,068 15. Odense 173,814 16. Uppsala 140,454 17. Aalborg 132,578 18. Jyväskylä 120,306 19. Lahti 117,424 20. Drammen 113,534 21. Västerås 110,877 22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636 23. Örebro 107,038 24. Linköping 104,232 25. Helsingborg 97,122 26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737 27. Jönköping 89,396 28. Norrköping 87,247 29. Kuopio 86,034 30. Pori 84,509 31. Lund 82,800 32. Umeå 79,594 33. Esbjerg 72,060 34. Gävle 71,033 35. Vaasa 66,911 36. Borås 66,273 37. Joensuu 65,686 38. Eskilstuna 64,679 39. Södertälje 64,619 40. Karlstad 61,685 41. Randers 61,664 42. Täby 61,272 43. Växjö 60,887 44. Kristiansand 60,583 45. Kolding 58,757 46. Halmstad 58,577 47. Horsens 56,536 48. Lappeenranta 55,429 49. Vejle 53,975 50. Kotka 52,600 v t e Capitals of European states and territories Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Western Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK) Northern Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark) Central Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland Southern Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia Eastern Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3 1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union and Brussels and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country v t e Eurovision Song Contest History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography Contests 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Countries Active Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Inactive Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey Former Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia Relations Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine National selections Current Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Former Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show Ireland The Late Late Show You're a Star Israel Latvia Eirodziesma Dziesma Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia Other awards Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE OGAE Video Contest OGAE Second Chance Contest Television and concerts Eurovision Song Contest Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision Song Contest's Greatest Hits Category Portal v t e Winter Olympic Games host cities 1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168817305 LCCN: n79018884 GND: 4043968-9 NDL: 00628309 Retrieved from "" Categories: Oslo1048 establishments11th-century establishments in NorwayCapitals in EuropeCities and towns in NorwayCounties of NorwayPopulated coastal places in NorwayPopulated places established in the 11th centuryPort cities and towns in NorwayPort cities and towns of the North SeaViking Age populated placesHidden categories: CS1 Norwegian-language sources (no)CS1 Norwegian Nynorsk-language sources (nn)Webarchive template wayback linksArticles with Norwegian-language external linksAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from May 2016CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listUse dmy dates from July 2014Coordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2017Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2015Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2013All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2006All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles to be expanded from August 2017All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesArticles with unsourced statements from March 2018Articles needing POV-check from January 2017All articles with vague or ambiguous timeVague or ambiguous time from January 2017Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American CyclopaediaWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource referenceWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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