Contents 1 History 1.1 Open source as a term 2 Economics 2.1 Licensing alternatives 3 Open-source applications 3.1 Computer software 3.2 Electronics 3.3 Food and beverages 3.4 Digital content 3.5 Medicine 3.6 Science and engineering 3.6.1 Robotics 3.6.2 Transport 3.7 Fashion 3.8 Other 4 Society and culture 4.1 Government 4.2 Ethics 4.3 Religion 4.4 Media 4.5 Education 4.6 Innovation communities 4.7 Arts and recreation 4.8 Other related movements 4.9 Ideologically-related movements 5 See also 5.1 Lists 5.2 Terms based on open source 5.3 Other 6 References 7 Further reading 7.1 Literature on legal and economic aspects 8 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of free and open-source software The sharing of technical information predates the Internet and the personal computer considerably. For instance, in the early years of automobile development a group of capital monopolists owned the rights to a 2-cycle gasoline-engine patent originally filed by George B. Selden.[9] By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit. In 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association (which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association) was formed.[9] The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US automotive manufacturers: although each company would develop technology and file patents, these patents were shared openly and without the exchange of money among all the manufacturers.[9] By the time the US entered World War II, 92 Ford patents and 515 patents from other companies were being shared among these manufacturers, without any exchange of money (or lawsuits).[9] Early instances of the free sharing of source code include IBM's source releases of its operating systems and other programs in the 1950s and 1960s, and the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software.[10][11] Beginning in the 1960s, ARPANET researchers used an open "Request for Comments" (RFC) process to encourage feedback in early telecommunication network protocols. This led to the birth of the early Internet in 1969. The sharing of source code on the Internet began when the Internet was relatively primitive, with software distributed via UUCP, Usenet, IRC, and Gopher. BSD, for example, was first widely distributed by posts to comp.os.linux on the Usenet, which is also where its development was discussed. Linux followed in this model. Open source as a term[edit] The term "open source" was first proposed by a group of people in the free software movement who were critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term "free software" and sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position.[12] In addition, the ambiguity of the term "free software" was seen as discouraging business adoption.[13][14] The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond. Peterson suggested "open source" at a meeting[15] held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator. Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal. Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind.[15][16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License.[17] Raymond was especially active in the effort to popularize the new term. He made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February 1998.[18] Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens.[15] The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly. Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit",[19] the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski, and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, alternatives to the term "free software" were discussed. Tiemann argued for "sourceware" as a new term, while Raymond argued for "open source". The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference the same evening.[19] "Open source" has never managed to entirely supersede the older term "free software", giving rise to the combined term free and open-source software (FOSS).

Economics[edit] Main article: Open-source economics Some economists agree that open-source is an information good[20] or "knowledge good" with original work involving a significant amount of time, money, and effort. The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost – this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product. Copyright creates a monopoly so the price charged to consumers can be significantly higher than the marginal cost of production. This allows the author to recoup the cost of making the original work. Copyright thus creates access costs for consumers who value the work more than the marginal cost but less than the initial production cost. Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create a derivative work—such as a copy of a software program modified to fix a bug or add a feature, or a remix of a song—but are unable or unwilling to pay the copyright holder for the right to do so. Being organized as effectively a "consumers' cooperative", open source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivative works by reducing the restrictions of copyright. Basic economic theory predicts that lower costs would lead to higher consumption and also more frequent creation of derivative works. Organizations such as Creative Commons host websites where individuals can file for alternative "licenses", or levels of restriction, for their works.[21] These self-made protections free the general society of the costs of policing copyright infringement. Others argue that since consumers do not pay for their copies, creators are unable to recoup the initial cost of production and thus have little economic incentive to create in the first place. By this argument, consumers would lose out because some of the goods they would otherwise purchase would not be available. In practice, content producers can choose whether to adopt a proprietary license and charge for copies, or an open license. Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the pharmaceutical industry (which depends largely on patents, not copyright for intellectual property protection) are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles.[22] There is evidence that open-source development creates enormous value.[23] For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g. RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials.[24] The original sharer may receive feedback and potentially improvements on the original design from the peer production community. Licensing alternatives[edit] Further information: Business models for open-source software Alternative arrangements have also been shown to result in good creation outside of the proprietary license model. Examples include:[citation needed] Wikipedia is an example of a global application of the open source model. Creation for its own sake – For example, Wikipedia editors add content for recreation. Artists have a drive to create. Both communities benefit from free starting material. Voluntary after-the-fact donations – used by shareware, street performers, and public broadcasting in the United States.[citation needed] Patron – For example, open access publishing relies on institutional and government funding of research faculty, who also have a professional incentive to publish for reputation and career advancement. Works of the U.S. federal government are automatically released into the public domain.[citation needed] Freemium – Give away a limited version for free and charge for a premium version (potentially using a dual license). Give away the product and charge something related – Charge for support of open-source enterprise software, give away music but charge for concert admission.[citation needed] Give away work in order to gain market share – Used by artists, in corporate software to spoil a dominant competitor (for example in the browser wars and the Android operating system).[citation needed] For own use – Businesses or individual software developers often create software to solve a problem, bearing the full cost of initial creation. They will then open source the solution, and benefit from the improvements others make for their own needs. Communalizing the maintenance burden distributes the cost across more users; free riders can also benefit without undermining the creation process.

Open-source applications[edit] Open-source model application domains Social and political views have been affected by the growth of the concept of open source. Advocates in one field often support the expansion of open source in other fields. But Eric Raymond and other founders of the open-source movement have sometimes publicly argued against speculation about applications outside software, saying that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story may be less compelling. The broader impact of the open-source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remain to be seen. The open-source movement has inspired increased transparency and liberty in biotechnology research, for example by CAMBIA.[25] Even the research methodologies themselves can benefit from the application of open-source principles.[26] It has also given rise to the rapidly-expanding open-source hardware movement. Computer software[edit] Main article: Free and open source software Blender is an open-source 3D graphics editor. Android, the most popular mobile operating system (as of Nov 2012)[27] Open-source software is software whose source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.[28] Open-source code can evolve through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as large companies. Some of the individual programmers who start an open-source project may end up establishing companies offering products or services incorporating open-source programs.[citation needed] Examples of open-source software products are:[29] Linux (that much of worlds server parks are running) MediaWiki (that wikipedia is based upon) many more List of free and open source software packages List of formerly proprietary software Electronics[edit] Open Source Hardware logo Open-source hardware is hardware whose initial specification, usually in a software format, are published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees. Open-source hardware evolves through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual hardware/software developers, hobbyists, as well as very large companies. Examples of open-source hardware initiatives are: Openmoko: a family of open-source mobile phones, including the hardware specification and the operating system. OpenRISC: an open-source microprocessor family, with architecture specification licensed under GNU GPL and implementation under LGPL. Sun Microsystems's OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor. Sun has released it under GPL.[30] Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers.[31] GizmoSphere, an open-source development platform for the embedded design community; the site includes code downloads and hardware schematics along with free user guides, spec sheets and other documentation.[32] Simputer, an open hardware handheld computer, designed in India for use in environments where computing devices such as personal computers are deemed inappropriate.[33] LEON: A family of open-source microprocessors distributed in a library with peripheral IP cores, open SPARC V8 specification, implementation available under GNU GPL. Tinkerforge: A system of open-source stackable microcontroller building blocks. Allows to control motors and read out sensors with the programming languages C, C++, C#, Object Pascal, Java, PHP, Python and Ruby over a USB or Wifi connection on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. All of the hardware is licensed under CERN OHL (CERN Open Hardware License). Open Compute Project: designs for computer data center including power supply, Intel motherboard, AMD motherboard, chassis, racks, battery cabinet, and aspects of electrical and mechanical design.[34] Lasersaur, an open-source laser cutter.[35] Food and beverages[edit] Vores Øl - An Open Source Beer Barack Obama and Dakota Meyer drinking White House Honey Ale in 2011. The recipe is available for free. Some publishers of open-access journals have argued that data from food science and gastronomy studies should be freely available to aid reproducibility.[36] A number of people have published creative commons licensed recipe books.[37] Open-source colas – cola soft drinks, similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi, whose recipe is open source and developed by volunteers. The taste is said to be comparable to that of the standard beverages. Most corporations producing beverages hold their formulas as closely guarded secrets.[38] Free Beer (originally Vores Øl) – is an open-source beer created by students at the IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex, an artist collective, to illustrate how open-source concepts might be applied outside the digital world.[39][40][41] In 2002, the beer company Brewtopia in Australia started an open-source brewery and invited the general population to be involved in the development and ownership of the brewery, and to vote on the development of every aspect of its beer, Blowfly, and its road to market. In return for their feedback and input, individuals received shares in the company, which is now publicly traded on a stock exchange in Australia. The company has always adhered to its open-source roots and is the only beer company in the world that allows the public to design, customise and develop its own beers online.[42] Digital content[edit] Open Knowledge Foundation logo Open-content projects organized by the Wikimedia Foundation – Sites such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have embraced the open-content Creative Commons content licenses. These licenses were designed to adhere to principles similar to various open-source software development licenses. Many of these licenses ensure that content remains free for re-use, that source documents are made readily available to interested parties, and that changes to content are accepted easily back into the system. Important sites embracing open-source-like ideals are Project Gutenberg[43] and Wikisource, both of which post many books on which the copyright has expired and are thus in the public domain, ensuring that anyone has free, unlimited access to that content. SketchUp's open-source 3D Warehouse library Open ICEcat is an open catalog for the IT, CE and Lighting sectors with product data-sheets based on Open Content License agreement. The digital content are distributed in XML and URL formats. Google Sketchup's 3D Warehouse is an open-source design community centered around the use of proprietary software that's free. The University of Waterloo Stratford Campus invites students every year to use its three-storey Christie MicroTiles wall as a digital canvas for their creative work.[44] Medicine[edit] Pharmaceuticals – There have been several proposals for open-source pharmaceutical development,[45][46] which led to the establishment of the Tropical Disease Initiative[47] and the Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium.[48] Genomics – The term "open-source genomics" refers to the combination of rapid release of sequence data (especially raw reads) and crowdsourced analyses from bioinformaticians around the world that characterised the analysis of the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak.[49] OpenEMR – OpenEMR is an ONC-ATB Ambulatory EHR 2011-2012 certified electronic health records and medical practice management application. It features fully integrated electronic health, records, practice management, scheduling, electronic billing, and is the base for many EHR programs. Science and engineering[edit] Open access Research – The Science Commons was created as an alternative to the expensive legal costs of sharing and reusing scientific works in journals etc.[50] Research – The Open Source Science Project was created to increase the ability for students to participate in the research process by providing them access to microfunding – which, in turn, offers non-researchers the opportunity to directly invest, and follow, cutting-edge scientific research. All data and methodology is subsequently published in an openly accessible manner under a Creative Commons fair use license. Research – The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF)[51] is a grid-connected photovoltaic test system, which continuously monitors the output of a number of photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings. The OSOTF is organized under open-source principles – All data and analysis is to be made freely available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public.[51][52] Engineering – Hyperloop, a form of high-speed transport proposed by entrepreneur Elon Musk, which he describes as "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a number of linear electric motors".[53] Construction – WikiHouse is an open-source project for designing and building houses.[54][55] Energy research - The Open Energy Modelling Initiative promotes open-source models and open data in energy research and policy advice. Robotics[edit] Main article: Open-source robotics An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, or source code are released under an open-source model. Transport[edit] Open Trip Planner - this code base is growing rapidly, with adoption in Portland, New York, The Netherlands and Helsinki. TravelSpirit – a greater level of 'super-architecture' ambition, to bring a range of open source projects together, in order to deliver 'Mobility as a Service' Fashion[edit] Eyewear – In June 2013, an open-source eyewear brand, Botho, has started trading under the UK based Open Optics Ltd company.[56] Other[edit] VIA OpenBook is an open-source hardware laptop reference design. Open-source principles can be applied to technical areas such as digital communication protocols and data storage formats. Open design – which involves applying open-source methodologies to the design of artifacts and systems in the physical world. It is very nascent but has huge potential.[57] Open-source-appropriate technology (OSAT) refers to technologies that are designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software.[58] These technologies must be "appropriate technology" (AT) – meaning technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic aspects of the community it is intended for. An example of this application is the use of open-source 3D printers like the RepRap to manufacture appropriate technology.[59] Teaching – which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction using a shared web space as a platform to improve upon learning, organizational, and management challenges. An example of an Open-source courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative (JEDI).[60] Other examples include Khan Academy and wikiversity. At the university level, the use of open-source-appropriate technology classroom projects has been shown to be successful in forging the connection between science/engineering and social benefit:[61] This approach has the potential to use university students' access to resources and testing equipment in furthering the development of appropriate technology. Similarly OSAT has been used as a tool for improving service learning.[62][63] There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance, practices) using the open-source model, although this is another case where the potential is enormous. ITIL is close to open source. It uses the Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content must be bought for a fee that is small by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds). Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms. An open-source group emerged in 2012 that is attempting to design a firearm that may be downloaded from the internet and "printed" on a 3D Printer.[64] Calling itself Defense Distributed, the group wants to facilitate "a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer".[65] Agrecol, a German NGO has developed an open-source licence for seeds operating with copyleft and created OpenSourceSeeds as a respective service provider. Breeders that apply the license to their new invented material prevent it from the threat of privatisation and help to establish a commons-based breeding sector as an alternative to the commercial sector.[66]

Society and culture[edit] This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Open-source model. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve require access to content that is often copyrighted, and restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright (particularly in the United States) and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies.[67] Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners. Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a "chilling effect" among cultural practitioners.[68] The idea of an "open-source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different. Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement, and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of open-source culture (OSC) maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers. Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in "the Good life") and ends. Sites such as ccMixter offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a Creative Commons license. The resulting cultural product is then available to download free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection.[69] Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution. Further information: Open-source software movement Government[edit] Open politics (sometimes known as Open-source politics) is a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters. There is also an alternative conception of the term Open-source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the open-source software movement. Open-source governance is similar to open-source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information. The South Korean government wants to increase its use of free and open-source software, in order to decrease its dependence on proprietary software solutions. It plans to make open standards a requirement, to allow the government to choose between multiple operating systems and web browsers. Korea's Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning is also preparing ten pilots on using open-source software distributions.[70] Ethics[edit] Open-source ethics is split into two strands: Open-source ethics as an ethical school – Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open-source approach. Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open-source ethics.[71] Open-source ethics as a professional body of rules – This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.[72] Religion[edit] Irish philosopher Richard Kearney has used the term "open-source Hinduism" to refer to the way historical figures such as Mohandas Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda worked upon this ancient tradition.[73] Media[edit] Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting open-source intelligence a similar term used in military intelligence circles. Now, open-source journalism commonly refers to forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the 25 December 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open-source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux. Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open-source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open-source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes. Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere. Messageboards are another platform for open-source culture. Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to. Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning users who are spammers. Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading. Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open-source package. Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly. Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life—for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas. OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations. Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked into a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable. Open-source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the end result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open-source products are used in the production. The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie",[74] created entirely using open-source technology. An open-source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form, similar to crowdsourcing. By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development. The first open-source documentary film is the non-profit "The American Revolution", which went into development in 2006, and will examine the role media played in the cultural, social and political changes from 1968 to 1974 through the story of radio station WBCN-FM in Boston.[75][76][77][78] The film is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit Filmmakers Collaborative. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada.[79] Open-source film-making refers to a form of film-making that takes a method of idea formation from open-source software, but in this case the 'source' for a filmmaker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code. It can also refer to a method of film-making where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece. Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show. Education[edit] Open Educational Resources logo Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the Creative Commons). Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "open-source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", Salman Khan's Khan Academy and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software. Open-source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified. Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work. There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open-source license. In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open-source software. JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open-source software. On 30 March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which included $2 billion over four years to fund the TAACCCT program, which is described as "the largest OER (open education resources) initiative in the world and uniquely focused on creating curricula in partnership with industry for credentials in vocational industry sectors like manufacturing, health, energy, transportation, and IT".[80] Innovation communities[edit] The principle of sharing pre-dates the open-source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open-source principles have always been part of the scientific community. The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community—universal ism (an international perspective), communal ism (sharing information), disinterestedness (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that accurately describe the scientific community today. These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access—the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public. There are currently many open access journals where the information is available free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access). The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available free on the Internet. The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information". This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered—the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access. Farmavita.Net is a community of pharmaceuticals executives that has recently proposed a new business model of open-source pharmaceuticals.[81] The project is targeted to development and sharing of know-how for manufacture of essential and life-saving medicines. It is mainly dedicated to the countries with less developed economies where local pharmaceutical research and development resources are insufficient for national needs. It will be limited to generic (off-patent) medicines with established use. By the definition, medicinal product have a "well-established use" if is used for at least 15 years, with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety. In that event, the expensive clinical test and trial results could be replaced by appropriate scientific literature. Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals, and the lightning rod to the public domain. New NGO communities are starting to use the open-source technology as a tool. One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members.[82] Open innovation is also a new emerging concept which advocate putting R&D in a common pool. The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network.[83] Arts and recreation[edit] Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices.[84] In 2012, Russian music composer, scientist and Russian Pirate Party member Victor Argonov presented detailed raw files of his electronic opera "2032"[85] under free license CC-BY-NC 3.0. This opera was originally composed and published in 2007 by Russian label MC Entertainment as a commercial product, but then the author changed its status to free. In his blog [2] he said that he decided to open raw files (including wav, midi and other used formats) to the public in order to support worldwide pirate actions against SOPA and PIPA. Several Internet resources,[86][87][88] called "2032" the first open-source musical opera in history. Other related movements[edit] This article or section may need to be cleaned up or summarized because it has been split from/to Open-source software movement. The following are events and applications that have been developed via the open source community, and echo the ideologies of the open source movement.[89] Open Education Consortium — an organization composed of various colleges that support open source and share some of their material online. This organization, headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was established to aid in the exchange of open source educational materials. Wikipedia — user-generated online encyclopedia with sister projects in academic areas, such as Wikiversity — a community dedicated to the creation and exchange of learning materials[90][not in citation given] Project Gutenberg — prior to the existence of Google Scholar Beta, this was the first supplier of electronic books and the very first free library project[90][not in citation given] Synthetic Biology- Synthetic Biology is considered the feasibility of the open source movement. This new technology is important and exciting because it promises to enable cheap, lifesaving new drugs as well as helping to yield biofuels that may help to solve our energy problem. Although synthetic biology has not yet come out of its "lab" stage, it has great potential to become industrialized in the near future. In order to industrialize open source science, there are some scientists who are trying to build their own brand of it.[91] Ideologically-related movements[edit] The open-access movement is a movement that is similar in ideology to the open source movement. Members of this movement maintain that academic material should be readily available to provide help with “future research, assist in teaching and aid in academic purposes.” The Open access movement aims to eliminate subscription fees and licensing restrictions of academic materials[92] The free-culture movement is a movement that seeks to achieve a culture that engages in collective freedom via freedom of expression, free public access to knowledge and information, full demonstration of creativity and innovation in various arenas and promotion of citizen liberties.[93][citation needed] Creative Commons is an organization that “develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, and innovation.” It encourages the use of protected properties online for research, education, and creative purposes in pursuit of a universal access. Creative Commons provides an infrastructure through a set of copyright licenses and tools that creates a better balance within the realm of “all rights reserved” properties.[94] The Creative Commons license offers a slightly more lenient alternative to “all rights reserved” copyrights for those who do not wish to exclude the use of their material.[95] The Zeitgeist Movement is an international social movement that advocates a transition into a sustainable "resource-based economy" based on collaboration in which monetary incentives are replaced by commons-based ones with everyone having access to everything (from code to products) as in "open source everything".[96][97] While its activism and events are typically focused on media and education, TZM is a major supporter of open source projects worldwide since they allow for uninhibited advancement of science and technology, independent of constraints posed by institutions of patenting and capitalist investment.[98] P2P Foundation is an “international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting peer to peer practices in a very broad sense”. Its objectives incorporate those of the open source movement, whose principles are integrated in a larger socio-economic model.[99]

See also[edit] This "see also" section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links, and that any links are not already in this article. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Free software portal Lists[edit] List of commercial open-source applications List of open-source healthcare software List of open-source software packages List of open-source video games List of trademarked open-source software List of open-source Android applications Terms based on open source[edit] Open-source-appropriate technology Open-source economics Open Source Ecology Open-source governance Open-source hardware Open Source Initiative Open-source license Open-source political campaign Open-source record label Open-source religion Open-source robotics Open-source software Open-source movement Other[edit] Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (book) Business models for open-source software Collaborative intelligence Commons-based peer production Commercial open-source applications Community source Digital freedom Diseconomy of scale Embrace, extend and extinguish Free Beer Free software Gift economy Glossary of legal terms in technology Halloween Documents Linux Mass collaboration Network effect Open access (publishing) Open content Open data Open design Open format Open implementation Open innovation OpenJDK Open research Open security OpenSolaris Open Source Ecology Open Source Lab (book) Comparison of open source and closed source Open system (computing) Open standard OpenDWG Openness Peer production Shared source Sharing economy Vendor lock-in Web literacy (Open Practices)

References[edit] ^ Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013). Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance. Organization Science, doi:10.1287/orsc.2013.0872 ^ Raymond, Eric S. (2001). The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. OReilly. ISBN 978-0-596-00108-7. [page needed] ^ "The Case for Open Source Appropriate Technology". Environment, Development and Sustainability. 14: 425–431. 2012. doi:10.1007/s10668-012-9337-9.  ^ "Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open-source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009 ^ "Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium ^ Lakhani, K.R.; von Hippel, E. (June 2003). "How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance". Research Policy. 32 (6): 923–943. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00095-1.  ^ Gerber, A.; Molefo, O.; Van der Merwe, A. (2010). "Documenting open-source migration processes for re-use". In Kotze, P.; Gerber, A.; van der Merwe, A.; et al. Proceedings of the SAICSIT 2010 Conference — Fountains of Computing Research. ACM Press. pp. 75–85. doi:10.1145/1899503.1899512. ISBN 978-1-60558-950-3.  ^ Weber 2004[page needed] ^ a b c d James J. Flink (1977). The Car Culture. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56015-1.  ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; James W. McKie; Richard B. Mancke (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. pp. 172–9. ISBN 0-03-063059-2.  IBM unbundled (began charging for) software 23 June 1969 ^ Dave Pitts' IBM 7090 support Archived 2015-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. – An example of distributed source: Page contains a link to IBM 7090/94 IBSYS source, including COBOL and FORTRAN compilers. ^ O'Mahony, Siobhan Clare (2002). "The emergence of a new commercial actor: Community managed software projects". Stanford, CA: Stanford University: 34–42.  ^ Eric S. Raymond. "Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source"". The problem with it is twofold. First, ... the term "free" is very ambiguous ... Second, the term makes a lot of corporate types nervous.  ^ Shea, Tom (1983-06-23). "Free software - Free software is a junkyard of software spare parts". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-02-10. "In contrast to commercial software is a large and growing body of free software that exists in the public domain. Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists (also known as "hackers") many of whom are professional programmers in their work life. [...] Since everybody has access to source code, many routines have not only been used but dramatically improved by other programmers."  ^ a b c Tiemann, Michael (19 September 2006). "History of the OSI". Open Source Initiative. Archived from the original on 1 October 2002. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ "Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software". 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2012-11-14.  ^ Muffatto, Moreno (2006). Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-665-8.  ^ "Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source"". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ a b van Rossum, Guido (1998-04-10). "Open Source Summit". Linux Gazette. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-07.  ^ Granstrand, Ove (1999). The economics and management of intellectual property : towards intellectual capitalism. Cheltenham, UK: E. Elgar. ISBN 1-85898-967-1.  ^ "About The Licenses". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ J.M. Pearce, Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs, Elsevier, 2014 ^ 3D Printed Open Hardware Syringe Yields $800M Value, Study Finds- 3D Printing Industry 2-2-2015 ^ Wittbrodt, B.T.; Glover, A.G.; Laureto, J.; Anzalone, G.C.; Oppliger, D.; Irwin, J.L.; Pearce, J.M. (2013). "Life-cycle economic analysis of distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printers". Mechatronics. 23: 713–726. doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2013.06.002.  ^ "'Open-Source Practices for Biotechnology' — Cambia — Enabling Innovation". Cambia. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ Pearce, Joshua M. (1 August 2012). "Open Source Research in Sustainability". Sustainability: the Journal of Record. 5 (4): 238–243. doi:10.1089/sus.2012.9944.  ^ "Android Marks Fourth Anniversary Since Launch with 75.0% Market Share in Third Quarter, According to IDC — prUS23771812". Retrieved 2012-11-03.  ^ "FAQ | LucidWorks". 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ Randolph Metcalfe (2012-01-31). "Examples of Open Source Software". OSS Watch. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "An Open Source Processor used in Sun SPARC Servers". OpenSPARC. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Arduino — HomePage". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "GizmoSphere Website". 2013.  ^ "Computers: Systems: Handhelds: Open Source: Simputer". Open Directory. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Download Specs & Designs". Open Compute Project website. Facebook Inc. 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-08.  ^ "Lasersaur — HomePage". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ ^ Martin Lersch. "TEXTURE - A hydrocolloid recipe collection" (PDF).  ^ "Open Cola Soft Drink Formula, Version 1.1.3 from Tyromaniac" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ The concept expands upon a statement found in the Free Software Definition: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech' not as in 'free beer.'" ^ Stallman, Richard M. "The Gnu Organisation: What is free software?". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ Cohn, David (18 July 2005). "Free Beer for Geeks". Wired News.  ^ "About Brewtopia". Brewtopia. Retrieved 2017-07-16.  ^ "Project Gutenberg — free ebooks". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Want to take 3 storeys to tell your story". Retrieved 2013-04-07.  ^ Munos B (September 2006). "Can open-source R&D reinvigorate drug research?". Nat Rev Drug Discov. 5 (9): 723–9. doi:10.1038/nrd2131. PMID 16915233.  ^ Maurer SM, Rai A, Sali A (December 2004). "Finding cures for tropical diseases: is open source an answer?". PLoS Med. 1 (3): e56. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010056. PMC 539047 . PMID 15630466.  ^ "the Tropical Disease Initiative". 2009-07-16. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "The Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium". 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2013-03-18.  ^ Rohde H; Qin, J; Cui, Y; Li, D; Loman, NJ; Hentschke, M; Chen, W; Pu, F; et al. (2011). "Open-Source Genomic Analysis of Shiga-Toxin–Producing E. coli O104:H4". N Engl J Med. 365 (8): 718–24. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1107643. PMID 21793736.  ^ "Science — Creative Commons". 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ a b Pearce, Joshua. M; Adegboyega Babasola; Rob Andrews (2012). "Open Solar Photovoltaic Systems Optimization" (PDF). Proceedings of the 16th Annual National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance Conference. NCIIA: 1–7.  ^ "Open Solar Outdoors Test Field — Appropedia: The sustainability wiki". Appropedia. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2012.06.006. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Hyperloop". Tesla Motors website. Retrieved 22 September 2013.  ^ LaBarre, Suzanne (25 August 2011). "WikiHouse, An Online Building Kit, Shows How To Make A House In 24 Hours". Co.Design. Fast Company, Inc. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  ^ Kingsley, Jeremy (22 February 2012). "The WikiHouse Revolution". Slate. The Slate Group, LLC. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  ^ "Botho — The Open Source Eyewear Brand". Retrieved 2012-06-24.  ^ "Open collaborative design". AdCiv. 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ A. J. Buitenhuis, I. Zelenika and J. M. Pearce, "Open Design-Based Strategies to Enhance Appropriate Technology Development", Proceedings of the 14th Annual National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance Conference : Open, 25–27 March 2010, pp. 1-12. ^ J.M. Pearce; C. Morris Blair; K.J. Laciak; R. Andrews; A. Nosrat; I. Zelenika-Zovko (2010). "3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development". Journal of Sustainable Development. 3 (4): 17–29. doi:10.5539/jsd.v3n4p17.  ^ "JEDI: The Open Source Curricullum — Project Kenai". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ J.M. Pearce (2007). "Teaching Physics Using Appropriate Technology Projects". The Physics Teacher. 45 (3): 164–7. doi:10.1119/1.2709675.  ^ Joshua M. Pearce (2009). "Appropedia as a Tool for Service Learning in Sustainable Development". Journal of Education for Sustainable Development. 3 (1): 45–53. doi:10.1177/097340820900300112.  Q-Space pre-print ^ S. Murphy and N. Saleh, "Information literacy in CEAB's accreditation criteria: the hidden attribute", In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Innovation and Practices in Engineering Design and Engineering Education, 2009. Hamilton, ON 27–29 July 2009. ^ Greenberg, Andy (2012-08-23). "'Wiki Weapon Project' Aims To Create A Gun Anyone Can 3D-Print At Home". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-08-27.  ^ Poeter, Damon (2012-08-24). "Could a 'Printable Gun' Change the World?". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-27.  ^ "New Open Source License Fights the Enclosure of Seeds | David Bollier". Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ "The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Chilling Effects Clearinghouse". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Open source software development – Just another case of collective invention?". Archived from the original on 2011-12-22.  ^ ^ Berry (2004) Internet Ethics: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation – An Open Source Approach. (PDF file) ^ El-Emam, K (2001). "Ethics and Open Source". Empirical Software Engineering. 6 (4).  ^ Kearney, Richard (2011). Anatheism: Returning to God After God. Columbia University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-231-14789-7.  ^ "Elephants Dream". Elephants Dream. 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Web Power to the People," The Boston Herald, 29 September 2005 ^ "The Glory Days of the Rock of Boston," Boston Globe, Op-Ed, 18 July 2009. ^ "'BCN Documentary Looks for Archival Contributors," Boston Herald, 11 August 2009 ^ "WBCN and The American Revolution," The Huffington Post, 11 August 2009 ^ "Watch Documentaries and Animated Films Online". 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ ^ "Pharmaceutical Licensing Network — Open Source Pharmaceuticals — New Business Model". Farmavita.Net. 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2012-10-28.  ^ [1] Archived 19 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Eclipse" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Open Source Yoga Unity — Home". Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Техно-опера "2032: Легенда о несбывшемся грядущем"". Retrieved 2013-06-07.  ^ "Первая в мире музыкальная опера с открытыми исходниками — 25 Января 2012 — Новости музыки и шоубизнеса". Retrieved 2013-06-07.  ^ "Музыкальная опера "2032" становится opensource — Talks — Форум". Retrieved 2013-06-07.  ^ "Первая в мире музыкальная опера с открытыми исходниками". Retrieved 2013-06-07.  ^ "The case for open source: Open source has made significant leaps in recent years. what does it have to offer education?". Technology & Learning. 27 (7): 16. 2007.  ^ a b Warger, T. (2002). The Open Source Movement. Retrieved 22 November 2009, from Education Resources Information Center ^ Wilson Center. (2009). Synthetic Biology: Feasibility of the Open Source Movement. Wislson On Demand Center. ^ Harnad, S. (14 November 2009). Zine & Articles: Open Access Movement and Its Implications for the Future of Academic Writing. Retrieved 22 November 2009. ^ Students For Free Culture. (2009). Main Page. Retrieved 22 November 2009, from free ^ "Creative Commons Organization". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2011-10-20.  ^ "How to find Creative Commons images on Flickr". New Media Rights. Retrieved 2011-10-20.  ^ Dostaler, Kim (19 July 2012). "The Zeitgeist Movement: Getting to the Root of the Problem". Retrieved 10 June 2015.  ^ Dobson, Stuart (27 January 2013). "Forget the Class War, How to Win the Fight Against the Elite". Retrieved 10 June 2015.  ^ "Open Source Ecology - Zeitgeist movement". Open Source Ecology.  ^ "P2P Foundation:About". P2P Foundation. Retrieved 2015-02-15. 

Further reading[edit] Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (PDF). Yale University Press.  Berry, David M. (2008). Copy, Rip, Burn: The Politics of Copyleft and Open Source. London:Pluto Press. ISBN 0745324142.  Karl Fogel. Producing Open Source Software (How to run a successful free-software project). Free PDF version available. Goldman, Ron; Gabriel, Richard P. (2005). Innovation Happens Elsewhere: Open Source as Business Strategy. Richard P. Gabriel. ISBN 1-55860-889-3.  Dunlap, Isaac Hunter (2006). Open Source Database Driven Web Development: A Guide for Information Professionals. Oxford: Chandos. ISBN 1-84334-161-1.  Kostakis, V.; Bauwens, M. (2014). Network Society and Future Scenarios for a Collaborative Economy. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-41506-6.  (wiki) Nettingsmeier, Jörn. "So What? I Don't Hack!" eContact! 11.3 – Logiciels audio " open source " / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009). Montréal: CEC. Stallman, Richard M. Free Software Free Society: Selected essays of Richard M. Stallman.  Various authors. eContact! 11.3 – Logiciels audio " open source " / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009). Montréal: CEC. Various authors. "Open Source Travel Guide [wiki]". eContact! 11.3 – Logiciels audio " open source " / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009). Montréal: CEC. Weber, Steve (2004). The Success of Open Source. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01292-9.  Ray, Partha Pratim; Rai, Rebika (2013). Open Source Hardware: An Introductory Approach. Lap Lambert Publishing House. ISBN 978-3-659-46591-8.  Literature on legal and economic aspects[edit] Benkler, Y. (December 2002). "Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm" (PDF). Yale Law Journal. 112 (3): 369–446. doi:10.2307/1562247. JSTOR 1562247.  Berry, D.M.; Moss, G. (2008). "Libre Culture: Meditations on Free Culture" (PDF). Canada: Pygmalion Books.  Bitzer, J.; Schröder, P.J.H. (2005). "The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity" (PDF). Industrial Organization 0512001. EconWPA.  v. Engelhardt, S. (2008). "The Economic Properties of Software" (PDF). Jena Economic Research Papers. 2: 2008–045.  v. Engelhardt, S. (2008): "Intellectual Property Rights and Ex-Post Transaction Costs: the Case of Open and Closed Source Software", Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-047. (PDF) v. Engelhardt, S.; Swaminathan, S. (2008). "Open Source Software, Closed Source Software or Both: Impacts on Industry Growth and the Role of Intellectual Property Rights" (PDF). Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 799.  European Commission. (2006). Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies sector in the EU. Brussels. Feller, J.; Fitzgerald, B.; Hissam, S.A., eds. (2005). Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-06246-6.  v. Hippel, E.; v. Krogh, G. (2003). "Open source software and the "private-collective" innovation model: Issues for organization science". Organization Science. 14 (2): 209–223. doi:10.1287/orsc.  Kostakis, V.; Bauwens, M. (2014). Network Society and Future Scenarios for a Collaborative Economy. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-41506-6.  (wiki) Lerner J., Pathak P. A., Tirole, J. (2006). "The Dynamics of Open Source Contributors". American Economic Review. 96 (2): 114–8. doi:10.1257/000282806777211874. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Lerner, J., Tirole, J. (2002). "Some simple economics on open source". Journal of Industrial Economics. 50 (2): 197–234. doi:10.1111/1467-6451.00174. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) earlier revision (PDF) Lerner, J.; Tirole, J. (2005). "The Scope of Open Source Licensing". The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. 21: 20–56. doi:10.1093/jleo/ewi002.  Lerner, J.; Tirole, J. (2005). "The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (2): 99–120. doi:10.1257/0895330054048678.  Lerner, J.; Tirole, J. (2005). "The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (2): 99–120. doi:10.1257/0895330054048678.  Maurer, S.M. (2008). "Open source biology: Finding a niche (or maybe several)" (PDF). UMKC Law Review. 76 (2). doi:10.2139/ssrn.1114371. SSRN 1114371 . Retrieved 23 March 2017.  Osterloh, M.; Rota, S. (2007). "Open source software development — Just another case of collective invention?" (PDF). Research Policy. 36 (2): 157–171. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2006.10.004.  Riehle, D. (April 2007). "The Economic Motivation of Open Source: Stakeholder Perspectives". IEEE Computer. 40 (4): 25–32. doi:10.1109/MC.2007.147.  Rossi, M.A. (2006). "Decoding the free/open source software puzzle: A survey of theoretical and empirical contributions" (PDF). In Bitzer, J.; Schröder, P. The Economics of Open Source Software Development. Elsevier. pp. 15–55. ISBN 0-444-52769-9.  Schiff, A. (2002). "The Economics of Open Source Software: A Survey of the Early Literature" (PDF). Review of Network Economics. 1 (1): 66–74. doi:10.2202/1446-9022.1004.  Schwarz, M.; Takhteyev, Y. (2010). "Half a Century of Public Software Institutions: Open Source as a Solution to the Hold-Up Problem". Journal of Public Economic Theory. 12 (4): 609–639. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9779.2010.01467.x.  earlier revision Spagnoletti, P.; Federici, T. (2011). "Exploring the Interplay Between FLOSS Adoption and Organizational Innovation". Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS). 29 (15): 279–298.  Abramson, Bruce (2005). Digital Phoenix; Why the Information Economy Collapsed and How it Will Rise Again. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-51196-4.  Sampathkumar, K.S. Understanding FOSS Version 4.0 revised. ISBN 978-8-184-65469-1. 

External links[edit] Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Open Source Look up open source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. What is open source? ( "An open-source shot in the arm?" The Economist, Jun 10th 2004 Google-O'Reilly Open Source Awards UNU/IIST Open Source Software Certification Open Source Open World – Open Standards Throughout the Globe The Changelog, a podcast and blog that covers what's fresh and new in Open Source (essentially covering "the changelog" of open source projects) Can We Open Source Everything? The Future of the Open Philosophy. University of Cambridge. v t e Free and open-source software General Alternative terms for free software Comparison of open-source and closed-source software Comparison of source code hosting facilities Free software Free software project directories Gratis versus libre Long-term support Open-source software Open-source software development Outline Software packages Audio Bioinformatics Codecs Collaboration Configuration management Device drivers Graphics Wireless Geophysics Health Mathematics Operating systems Programming languages Routing Statistics Television Video games Web applications Content management systems E-commerce Word processors Android apps iOS apps Commercial Trademarked Formerly proprietary Community Free software movement History Open-source software movement Organizations Events Licenses AFL Apache APSL Artistic Beerware Boost BSD CC0 CDDL EPL GNU GPL GNU LGPL ISC MIT MPL Ms-PL/RL Python Python Software Foundation Sleepycat Unlicense WTFPL zlib License types and standards Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Contributor License Agreement Copyfree Copyleft Debian Free Software Guidelines Definition of Free Cultural Works Free license The Free Software Definition The Open Source Definition Open-source license Permissive software licence Public domain Viral license Challenges Binary blob Digital rights management Hardware restrictions License proliferation Mozilla software rebranding Proprietary software SCO/Linux controversies Secure boot Software patents Software security Trusted Computing Related topics The Cathedral and the Bazaar Forking Microsoft Open Specification Promise Revolution OS Book Category Commons Portal v t e Intellectual property activism Issues Copyright infringement Digital rights management Gripe site Legal aspects of file sharing Mashup digital music videos Monopolies of knowledge Music piracy Orphan works Patents biological software software patent debate trolling Public domain Concepts All rights reversed Alternative compensation system Anti-copyright notice Business models for open-source software Copyleft Commercial use of copyleft works Commons-based peer production Free content Free software license Libertarian positions Open content Open design Open Music Model Open patent Open-source hardware Open-source software Prize system contests Share-alike Video on demand Movements Access to Knowledge movement Anti-copyright Cultural environmentalism Free culture movement Free software movement Organizations Copyright Alliance Creative Commons Electronic Frontier Foundation Free Software Foundation Open Rights Group Organization for Transformative Works The Pirate Bay Piratbyrån Pirate Party Sci-Hub Students for Free Culture People Alexandra Elbakyan Rick Falkvinge Lawrence Lessig Richard Stallman Peter Sunde Peter Suber Aaron Swartz Documentaries Steal This Film (2006, 2007) Good Copy Bad Copy (2007) RiP!: A Remix Manifesto (2008) TPB AFK: The Pirate Bay Away From Keyboard (2013) The Internet's Own Boy (2014) v t e Free culture and open movements Concepts Citizen journalism Citizen science Commons-based peer production Knowledge commons Open access Open collaboration Open content Open communication Open data Open definition Open design Open education Open gaming Open government Open innovation Open knowledge Open patent Open research Open science Open-source architecture Open-source software Open-source governance Open-source journalism Open source hardware Open standards Open university Open-door academic policy Open admissions Open Web P2P economic system Sharism Tools Free and open-source Open Data Indicies Open educational resources Open Music Model Open notebook science Organizations Creative Commons DIYbio Free Software Foundation Open Architecture Network Openmod initiative Open Knowledge International Open Rights Group Open Source Initiative P2P Foundation Pirate Party PLOS SPARC Activists Tim Berners-Lee Alexandra Elbakyan Lawrence Lessig Peter Murray-Rust Douglas Rushkoff Richard Stallman Peter Suber Peter Sunde Aaron Swartz John Wilbanks Projects Creative Commons license Definition of Free Cultural Works Free culture movement Free software movement Open Source Ecology OpenCores OpenWetWare Sci-Hub Authority control GND: 4548264-0 Retrieved from "" Categories: Computer lawIntellectual property lawFree softwareSocial information processingStandardsMarket structureCriticism of intellectual propertyOpen-source movementHidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2012Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2014Webarchive template wayback linksArticles that may contain original research from March 2016All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2016Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012Accuracy disputes from December 2016All accuracy disputesAll articles with failed verificationArticles with failed verification from March 2016Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011Articles with excessive see also sections from June 2015CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWikipedia articles with GND identifiersUse dmy dates from April 2017Articles containing video clips

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooks Languages AfrikaansالعربيةAsturianuAzərbaycancaবাংলাБългарскиCatalàDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançais한국어हिन्दीHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoעבריתಕನ್ನಡLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųBahasa MelayuNederlandsनेपाली日本語NorskNorsk nynorskPlattdüütschPortuguêsRomânăScotsShqipSicilianuSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்ไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوייִדיש中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 17 January 2018, at 10:55. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.860","walltime":"1.004","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6793,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":259616,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":6613,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":11,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 838.511 1 -total"," 47.30% 396.641 1 Template:Reflist"," 19.57% 164.124 54 Template:Cite_web"," 13.41% 112.466 30 Template:Cite_journal"," 11.47% 96.168 20 Template:Cite_book"," 11.36% 95.257 11 Template:Fix"," 8.20% 68.724 7 Template:Citation_needed"," 6.47% 54.247 11 Template:Delink"," 4.89% 41.019 4 Template:Ambox"," 4.29% 35.951 1 Template:Original_synthesis"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.476","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6986964,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1326","timestamp":"20180117105531","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":122,"wgHostname":"mw1327"});});

Open-source - Photos and All Basic Informations

Open-source More Links

Open-source Software DevelopmentOpen Source (disambiguation)Wikipedia:No Original ResearchWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:Content RemovalTalk:Open-source ModelHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalOpen CollaborationOpen-source Software DevelopmentPeer ProductionBlueprintOpen-source Appropriate TechnologyOpen-source LicenseFree LicenseInternetOpen-source Software MovementCopyrightLicenseDomain NameComputer ProgramSource CodeSoftware LicenseApache Software FoundationApache HadoopHypertext Transfer ProtocolApache HTTP ServerHistory Of Free And Open-source SoftwareInternetMonopoly2 CycleGeorge B. SeldenHenry FordMotor Vehicle Manufacturers AssociationWorld War IIIBMOperating SystemSHARE (computing)ARPANETRequest For CommentsUUCPUsenetInternet Relay ChatGopher (protocol)BSDLinuxFree Software MovementChristine PetersonTodd AndersonLarry AugustinJon Hall (programmer)Michael TiemannEric S. RaymondPalo Alto, CaliforniaNetscape Communications CorporationNetscape NavigatorLinus TorvaldsLinux JournalRichard StallmanNetscape Public LicenseMozilla Public LicenseOpen Source InitiativeBruce PerensTim O'ReillyLarry WallBrian BehlendorfEric AllmanGuido Van RossumMichael TiemannPaul VixieJamie ZawinskiFree And Open-source SoftwareOpen-source EconomicsInformation GoodMarginal CostCopyrightDerivative WorkRemixConsumers' CooperativeCreative CommonsPharmaceutical IndustryPatentOpen-source HardwareRepRapPeer ProductionBusiness Models For Open-source SoftwareWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeWikipediaSharewareStreet PerformerPublic BroadcastingWikipedia:Citation NeededOpen AccessPublic DomainWikipedia:Citation NeededFreemiumDual LicenseEnterprise SoftwareWikipedia:Citation NeededBrowser WarsAndroid Operating SystemWikipedia:Citation NeededFree Rider ProblemEnlargeEric RaymondOpen-source MovementOpen-source MovementTransparency (humanities)BiotechnologyCAMBIAOpen-source HardwareFree And Open Source SoftwareEnlargeBlender (software)EnlargeAndroid (operating System)Open-source SoftwareWikipedia:Citation NeededLinuxMediaWikiList Of Free And Open Source Software PackagesList Of Formerly Proprietary SoftwareEnlargeOpen Source HardwareOpen-source HardwareOpenmokoMobile PhoneOperating SystemOpenRISCGNU GPLLGPLSun MicrosystemsOpenSPARCArduinoSimputerHandheld ComputerIndiaLEONIP CoreSPARCGNU GPLTinkerforgeCERN Open Hardware LicenseOpen Compute ProjectLasersaurLaser CutterEnlargeVores ØlEnlargeBarack ObamaDakota MeyerWhite House Honey AleOpen-accessOpen DataFood ScienceGastronomyReproducibilityOpen-source ColaCoca-ColaPepsiFree BeerIT University Of CopenhagenCopenhagenSuperflexEnlargeOpen Knowledge FoundationCreative CommonsProject GutenbergWikisourcePublic DomainEnlargeOpen ICEcatOpen Content LicenseGoogle Sketchup3D WarehouseUniversity Of Waterloo Stratford CampusMicroTiles2011 E. Coli O104:H4 OutbreakOpenEMREnlargeOpen AccessScience CommonsThe Open Solar Outdoors Test FieldPhotovoltaicHyperloopElon MuskWikiHouseHouseOpen Energy Modelling InitiativeOpen-source RoboticsRobotEyewearEnlargeVIA OpenBookOpen DesignOpen-source Appropriate TechnologyFree And Open-source SoftwareAppropriate TechnologyRepRapKhan AcademyWikiversityOpen-source Appropriate TechnologyAppropriate TechnologyService LearningITIL3D PrintingDefense DistributedCopyleftWikipedia:Accuracy DisputeTalk:Open-source ModelWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalCopyrightUnited StatesDigital Millennium Copyright ActFair UseChilling Effect (term)Free Culture MovementFree Software MovementCcMixterCreative CommonsTelephoneTelevisionPeer-to-peerBlogsSocial NetworksBitTorrent (protocol)GnutellaTCP/IPOpen-source Software MovementOpen PoliticsOpen-source GovernanceSouth Korean GovernmentOpen-source JournalismOpen-source IntelligenceOnline JournalismUser Generated ContentOpenSolarisLinuxBlogFile TransferLiveJournalWordPressMessageboardsSpammingPhpBBOpenDocumentOpen FormatDocument File FormatSpreadsheetVendor Lock-inSoftware LicenseOpen-source FilmElephants DreamOpen-source TechnologyFootageThe American RevolutionOpen-source FilmIPTVEnlargeOpen Educational ResourcesCreative CommonsOpenStax CNXRice UniversityMIT OpenCourseWareMassachusetts Institute Of TechnologyEugene ThackerSalman Khan (educator)Khan AcademyWikipediaOpen-source CurriculumJiscOSS WatchTAACCCTRobert K. MertonOpen Access (publishing)Budapest Open Access InitiativeNational Institutes Of HealthBenjamin FranklinFranklin StoveBifocalsLightning RodOpen InnovationEclipse (software)Creative Commons LicenseMC EntertainmentSOPAPersonal Information Protection ActOpen-source Software MovementOpenCourseWareMassachusetts Institute Of TechnologyWikipediaInternet Encyclopedia ProjectWikiversityWikipedia:VerifiabilityProject GutenbergGoogle ScholarE-bookWikipedia:VerifiabilityOpen AccessFree-culture MovementWikipedia:Citation NeededCreative CommonsThe Zeitgeist MovementSustainabilityCollaborationSharing EconomyP2P FoundationSocial Peer-to-peer ProcessesWikipedia:Manual Of Style/LayoutWikipedia:Red LinkHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalPortal:Free SoftwareList Of Commercial Open-source ApplicationsList Of Open-source Healthcare SoftwareList Of Open-source Software PackagesList Of Open-source Video GamesList Of Trademarked Open-source SoftwareList Of Open-source Android ApplicationsOpen-source Appropriate TechnologyOpen-source EconomicsOpen Source EcologyOpen-source GovernanceOpen-source HardwareOpen Source InitiativeOpen-source LicenseOpen-source Political CampaignOpen-source Record LabelOpen-source ReligionOpen-source RoboticsOpen-source SoftwareOpen-source MovementOpen Sources: Voices From The Open Source RevolutionBusiness Models For Open-source SoftwareCollaborative IntelligenceCommons-based Peer ProductionCommercial Open-source ApplicationsCommunity SourceDigital FreedomDiseconomy Of ScaleEmbrace, Extend And ExtinguishFree BeerFree SoftwareGift EconomyHalloween DocumentsLinuxMass CollaborationNetwork EffectOpen Access (publishing)Open ContentOpen DataOpen DesignOpen FormatOpen ImplementationOpen InnovationOpenJDKOpen ResearchOpen SecurityOpenSolarisOpen Source EcologyOpen Source Lab (book)Comparison Of Open Source And Closed SourceOpen System (computing)Open StandardOpenDWGOpennessPeer ProductionShared SourceSharing EconomyVendor Lock-inWeb LiteracyDigital Object IdentifierEric S. RaymondInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-596-00108-7Wikipedia:Citing SourcesDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-60558-950-3Wikipedia:Citing SourcesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-262-56015-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-03-063059-2Wayback MachineIBM 7090/94 IBSYSCOBOLFORTRANEric S. RaymondInfoWorldMichael TiemannOpen Source InitiativeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-86094-665-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-85898-967-1Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierFree Software DefinitionRichard StallmanDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierFast Company (magazine)Slate (magazine)The Slate GroupDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-14789-7Wayback MachineOpen Source EcologyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0745324142International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55860-889-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-84334-161-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-137-41506-6Canadian Electroacoustic CommunityCanadian Electroacoustic CommunityCanadian Electroacoustic CommunityInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-674-01292-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-659-46591-8Digital Object IdentifierJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-262-06246-6Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-137-41506-6Digital Object IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListDigital Object IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierSocial Science Research NetworkDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-444-52769-9Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-262-51196-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-8-184-65469-1The EconomistTemplate:FOSSTemplate Talk:FOSSFree And Open-source SoftwareAlternative Terms For Free SoftwareComparison Of Open-source And Closed-source SoftwareComparison Of Source Code Hosting FacilitiesFree SoftwareList Of Free Software Project DirectoriesGratis Versus LibreLong-term SupportOpen-source SoftwareOpen-source Software DevelopmentOutline Of Free SoftwareList Of Free And Open-source Software PackagesComparison Of Free Software For AudioList Of Open-source Bioinformatics SoftwareList Of Open-source CodecsList Of Collaborative SoftwareComparison Of Open-source Configuration Management SoftwareDevice DriverFree And Open-source Graphics Device DriverComparison Of Open-source Wireless DriversComparison Of Free Geophysics SoftwareList Of Open-source Health SoftwareList Of Open-source Software For MathematicsComparison Of Open-source Operating SystemsComparison Of Open-source Programming Language LicensingList Of Open-source Routing PlatformsList Of Statistical PackagesList Of Free Television SoftwareList Of Open-source Video GamesList Of Free Software Web ApplicationsList Of Content Management SystemsComparison Of Shopping Cart SoftwareList Of Word ProcessorsList Of Free And Open-source Android ApplicationsList Of Free And Open-source IOS ApplicationsList Of Commercial Open-source Applications And ServicesList Of Trademarked Open-source SoftwareList Of Formerly Proprietary SoftwareFree Software MovementHistory Of Free And Open-source SoftwareOpen-source Software MovementList Of Free And Open-source Software OrganizationsList Of Free-software EventsFree Software LicenseAcademic Free LicenseApache LicenseApple Public Source LicenseArtistic LicenseBeerwareBoost Software LicenseBSD LicensesCreative Commons LicenseCommon Development And Distribution LicenseEclipse Public LicenseGNU General Public LicenseGNU Lesser General Public LicenseISC LicenseMIT LicenseMozilla Public LicenseShared SourcePython LicensePython Software Foundation LicenseSleepycat LicenseUnlicenseWTFPLZlib LicenseComparison Of Free And Open-source Software LicensesContributor License AgreementCopyfreeCopyleftDebian Free Software GuidelinesDefinition Of Free Cultural WorksFree LicenseThe Free Software DefinitionThe Open Source DefinitionOpen-source LicensePermissive Software LicencePublic DomainViral LicenseBinary BlobDigital Rights ManagementHardware RestrictionLicense ProliferationMozilla Software Rebranded By DebianProprietary SoftwareSCO/Linux ControversiesUEFI Secure BootSoftware Patents And Free SoftwareOpen-source Software SecurityTrusted ComputingThe Cathedral And The BazaarFork (software Development)Microsoft Open Specification PromiseRevolution OSBook:Free And Open Source SoftwareCategory:Free SoftwarePortal:Free SoftwareTemplate:Intellectual Property ActivismTemplate Talk:Intellectual Property ActivismIntellectual PropertyCopyright InfringementDigital Rights ManagementGripe SiteLegal Aspects Of File SharingMashup (culture)Mashup (web Application Hybrid)Mashup (music)Mashup (video)Monopolies Of KnowledgeMusic PiracyOrphan WorksSocietal Views On PatentsBiological PatentSoftware PatentSoftware Patent DebatePatent TrollPublic DomainAll Rights ReversedCopyright AlternativesAnti-copyright NoticeBusiness Models For Open-source SoftwareCopyleftCommercial Use Of Copyleft WorksCommons-based Peer ProductionFree ContentFree Software LicenseLibertarian Perspectives On Intellectual PropertyOpen ContentOpen DesignOpen Music ModelPatentleftOpen-source HardwareOpen-source SoftwarePrizes As An Alternative To PatentsInducement Prize ContestShare-alikeVideo On DemandAccess To Knowledge MovementOpposition To CopyrightCultural EnvironmentalismFree Culture MovementFree Software MovementCopyright AllianceCreative CommonsElectronic Frontier FoundationFree Software FoundationOpen Rights GroupOrganization For Transformative WorksThe Pirate BayPiratbyrånPirate PartySci-HubStudents For Free CultureAlexandra ElbakyanRick FalkvingeLawrence LessigRichard StallmanPeter SundePeter SuberAaron SwartzSteal This FilmGood Copy Bad CopyRiP!: A Remix ManifestoTPB AFKThe Internet's Own BoyTemplate:Open NavboxTemplate Talk:Open NavboxFree Culture MovementOpen SourceCitizen JournalismCitizen ScienceCommons-based Peer ProductionKnowledge CommonsOpen AccessOpen CollaborationOpen ContentOpen CommunicationOpen DataThe Open DefinitionOpen DesignOpen EducationOpen GamingOpen GovernmentOpen InnovationOpen KnowledgeOpen PatentOpen ResearchOpen ScienceOpen-source ArchitectureOpen-source SoftwareOpen-source GovernanceOpen-source JournalismOpen Source HardwareOpen StandardOpen UniversityOpen-door Academic PolicyOpen AdmissionsOpen WebP2P Economic SystemSharismFree And Open-sourceOpen Data IndiciesOpen Educational ResourcesOpen Music ModelOpen Notebook ScienceCreative CommonsDo-it-yourself BiologyFree Software FoundationOpen Architecture NetworkOpen Energy Modelling InitiativeOpen Knowledge InternationalOpen Rights GroupOpen Source InitiativeP2P FoundationPirate PartyPLOSScholarly Publishing And Academic Resources CoalitionTim Berners-LeeAlexandra ElbakyanLawrence LessigPeter Murray-RustDouglas RushkoffRichard StallmanPeter SuberPeter SundeAaron SwartzJohn WilbanksCreative Commons LicenseDefinition Of Free Cultural WorksFree Culture MovementFree Software MovementOpen Source EcologyOpenCoresOpenWetWareSci-HubHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileHelp:CategoryCategory:Computer LawCategory:Intellectual Property LawCategory:Free SoftwareCategory:Social Information ProcessingCategory:StandardsCategory:Market StructureCategory:Criticism Of Intellectual PropertyCategory:Open-source MovementCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Page Number Citations From November 2012Category:Wikipedia Articles Needing Page Number Citations From February 2014Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Articles That May Contain Original Research From March 2016Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From March 2012Category:Accuracy Disputes From December 2016Category:All Accuracy DisputesCategory:All Articles With Failed VerificationCategory:Articles With Failed Verification From March 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2011Category:Articles With Excessive See Also Sections From June 2015Category:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Use Dmy Dates From April 2017Category:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link