Contents 1 History 2 Editorial process 3 Software development 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links


History[edit] In October 1999,[7] Jimmy Wales began thinking about an online encyclopedia built by volunteers and, in January 2000, hired Larry Sanger to oversee its development.[2] The project officially went online on March 9, 2000.[8] By November 2000, however, only two full-length articles had been published.[9] From its beginning, Nupedia was a free content encyclopedia,[8] with Bomis intending to generate revenue from online ads on Nupedia.com.[9] Initially the project used a homegrown license, the Nupedia Open Content License. In January 2001, it switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.[10] Also in January 2001, Nupedia started Wikipedia as a side-project to allow collaboration on articles before entering the peer review process.[11] This attracted interest from both sides, as it provided the less bureaucratic structure favored by advocates of the GNE encyclopedia. As a result, GNE never really developed, and the threat of competition between the projects was averted. As Wikipedia grew and attracted contributors, it quickly developed a life of its own and began to function largely independently of Nupedia, although Sanger initially led activity on Wikipedia by virtue of his position as Nupedia's editor-in-chief. Besides leading to discontinuation of the GNE project, Wikipedia also led to the gradual demise of Nupedia. Due to the collapse of the internet economy at that time, Jimmy Wales decided to discontinue funding for a salaried editor-in-chief in December 2001,[2] and Sanger resigned from both projects soon thereafter.[12] After Sanger's departure, Nupedia increasingly became an afterthought to Wikipedia; of the Nupedia articles that completed the review process, only two did so after 2001. As Nupedia dwindled into inactivity, the idea of converting it into a stable version of approved Wikipedia articles was occasionally broached, but never implemented. The Nupedia website at nupedia.com was shut down on September 26, 2003.[12] Nupedia's encyclopedic content, which was often described as limited, has since been assimilated into Wikipedia.


Editorial process[edit] Example of a Nupedia article on the classical era of music. Nupedia had a seven-step editorial process, consisting of: Assignment Finding a lead reviewer Lead review Open review Lead copyediting Open copyediting Final approval and markup Authors were expected to have expert knowledge (although the definition of expert allowed for a degree of flexibility, and it was acknowledged that some articles could be written by a good writer, rather than an expert per se)[13] and the editors approving articles for publication were expected "to be true experts in their fields and (with few exceptions) [to] possess PhDs".[14] Ruth Ifcher was someone Sanger depended upon and worked closely with on Nupedia's early policies and procedures. Ifner, holding several higher degrees, was a computer programmer and former copy editor and agreed to be volunteer chief copy editor.[15]


Software development[edit] Nupedia was powered by NupeCode collaborative software. NupeCode is free/open source software (released under the GNU General Public License) designed for large peer review projects. The code was available via Nupedia's CVS repository. One of the problems experienced by Nupedia during much of its existence was that the software lacked functionality. Much of the missing functionality had been mocked-up using underlined blocks of text which appeared to be hyperlinks, but actually were not.[citation needed] As part of the project, a new version of the original software (called "NuNupedia") was under development. NuNupedia was implemented for testing at SourceForge, but never reached a sufficient stage of development to replace the original software.[16]


See also[edit] Internet portal List of online encyclopedias List of wikis Scholarpedia Wikipedia Wikipedia:Nupedia and Wikipedia: Articles copied to Wikipedia


References[edit] ^ "Nupedia.com WHOIS, DNS, & DomainTools". WHOIS. 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-06.  ^ a b c Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 1, 2007.  ^ a b Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". Slashdot. Retrieved May 26, 2012.  ^ Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. London: Aurum. p. 38. ISBN 9781845134730. OCLC 280430641. His academic roots compelled Sanger to insist on one rigid requirement for his editors: a pedigree. "We wish editors to be true experts in their fields and (with a few exceptions) possess Ph.Ds." read the Nupedia policy.  ^ Shun-Ling, Chen (May 5, 2010). "Self-governing online communities in Web 2.0: privacy, anonymity and accountability in Wikipedia" (PDF). Albany Law Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2013.  ^ Lanxon, Nate (June 5, 2008). "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters". CNET UK. p. 5.  ^ "NuPedia.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-07-06.  ^ a b Gouthro, Liane (10 March 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PC World. Retrieved 19 January 2008.  ^ a b Frauenfelder, Mark (November 21, 2000). "The next generation of online encyclopedias". The Industry Standard/CNN.  ^ jwales (January 17, 2001). "Re:GNUPedia = Nupedia?". GNUPedia Project Starting. Slashdot.  ^ Larry Sanger (January 10, 2001). "Let's make a wiki". Nupedia-l mailing list. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 14, 2003.  ^ a b Wikipedia. PediaPress.  ^ "Nupedia.com Editorial Policy Guidelines (Version 3.31)". Nupedia. November 16, 2000. Archived from the original on March 31, 2001. Retrieved June 3, 2010. The rule of thumb an editor should bear in mind is: would an article on this topic be of significantly greater quality if it were written by an expert on the subject? If yes, we will require that the writer be an expert on the subject. If no, nonspecialists (who are good writers) are more than welcome.  ^ "How to be an editor or peer reviewer for Nupedia". Nupedia. Archived from the original on April 10, 2001. Retrieved June 3, 2010.  ^ Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution. New York: Hyperion. p. 37. ISBN 9781401303716.  ^ "NuNupedia". SourceForge. Retrieved 2017-02-16. 


Further reading[edit] Larry Sanger, The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir Part 1 and Part 2. Slashdot, April 2005. Larry Sanger, "Nupedia.com Statement of Editorial Policy, Version 2.1," Printable Version dated May 10, 2000. Larry Sanger, "Nupedia.com Statement of Editorial Policy, Version 3.2," Printable Version dated June 23, 2000.


External links[edit] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Nupedia Open Content License Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nupedia. Earlier versions of Nupedia (from the Internet Archive) Nupedia - revived Nupedia on Wikia v t e Wikipedia Overview Censorship Conflict-of-interest editing Criticism Deletionism and inclusionism Gender bias Racial bias MediaWiki Notability Reliability Vandalism Predictions of the project's end Community Administrators Arbitration Committee of the English Wikipedia Edit-a-thon List of Wikipedias The Signpost Wikipedian in residence Wikimania WikiProject Women in Red People Florence Devouard Sue Gardner James Heilman Katherine Maher Magnus Manske Erik Möller Larry Sanger Lila Tretikov Jimmy Wales Wikipedians Wikipedian of the Year History Bomis Logo Controversies U.S. Congressional staff edits Essjay controversy Seigenthaler biography incident Henryk Batuta hoax Internet Watch Foundation Scientology Italian Wikipedia blackout English Wikipedia blackout Hillsborough Wikipedia posts MyWikiBiz Lsjbot VisualEditor Art+Feminism #1Lib1Ref Honors 2008 Quadriga award Wikipedia Monument 2015 Erasmus Prize 2015 Princess of Asturias Award References and analysis Cultural Bibliography Films Academic studies WikiScanner Wikipedia Review Wikipediocracy Wiki-Watch Mobile access Apps QRpedia Wapedia WikiNodes Wikipedia Zero Wikiwand Content use Books LLC DBpedia Deletionpedia Kiwix WikiReader Science information Health information Similar projects Interpedia Nupedia Citizendium Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español Everipedia Veropedia List of online encyclopedias List of wikis Related Wikimedia Foundation Wikimedia movement The Iraq War: A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs Print Wikipedia Magna Carta (An Embroidery) 274301 Wikipedia Category Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nupedia&oldid=811980243" Categories: Free online encyclopediasHistory of WikipediaInternet properties established in 20002003 disestablishmentsDefunct websitesHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from June 2015All articles needing additional referencesPages using deprecated image syntaxWebarchive template wayback linksAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2015Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011


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