Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 2.1 Early career 2.2 Hollywood 2.3 The actress 2.4 Irving Thalberg 2.5 Early talkies 2.6 Pre-Code 2.7 The First Lady of MGM 3 Retirement 4 Death 5 Legacy 6 Awards and nominations 7 Filmography 8 Radio appearances 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early life[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Shearer was of Scottish and Irish descent. Her childhood was spent in Montreal, where she was educated at Montreal High School for Girls and Westmount High School.[9] Her life was one of privilege, due to the success of her father's construction business. However, the marriage between her parents was unhappy. Andrew Shearer was prone to manic depression and "moved like a shadow or a ghost around the house",[10] while her mother Edith Fisher Shearer was attractive, flamboyant, and stylish. Young Norma was interested in music, as well, but after seeing a vaudeville show for her ninth birthday, announced her intention to become an actress. Edith offered support, but as Shearer entered adolescence, became secretly fearful that her daughter's physical flaws would jeopardize her chances. Shearer herself "had no illusions about the image I saw in the mirror". She acknowledged her "dumpy figure, with shoulders too broad, legs too sturdy, hands too blunt", and was also acutely aware of her small eyes that appeared crossed due to a cast in her right eye. By her own admission, though, she was "ferociously ambitious, even as a young girl" and planned to overcome her deficiencies through careful camouflage, sheer determination, and charm.[citation needed] The childhood and adolescence that Shearer once described as "a pleasant dream" ended in 1918, when her father's company collapsed and older sister, Athole, suffered her first serious mental breakdown. Forced to move into a small, dreary house in a "modest" Montreal suburb, the sudden plunge into poverty only strengthened Shearer's determined attitude: "At an early age, I formed a philosophy about failure. Perhaps an endeavor, like my father's business, could fail, but that didn't mean Father had failed."[11] Edith Shearer thought otherwise. Within weeks, she had left her husband and moved into a cheap boarding house with her two daughters. A few months later, encouraged by her brother, who believed his niece should try her luck in "the picture business", then operating largely on the East Coast, Edith sold her daughter's piano and bought three train tickets for New York City. Also in her pocket was a letter of introduction for Norma, acquired from a local theatre owner, to Florenz Ziegfeld, who was currently preparing a new season of his famous Ziegfeld Follies.[citation needed]

Career[edit] Early career[edit] Portrait photograph of Norma Shearer, 1920 In January 1920, the three Shearer women arrived in New York, each of them dressed up for the occasion. "I had my hair in little curls," Shearer remembered, "and I felt very ambitious and proud."[12] Her heart sank, however, when she saw their rented apartment: "There was one double bed, a cot with no mattress and a stove with one gas jet. The communal bathroom was at the end of a long, dimly lit hallway. Athole and I took turns sleeping with mother in the bed, but sleep was impossible anyway—the elevated trains rattled right past our window every few minutes." The introduction to Ziegfeld proved equally disastrous. He turned Shearer down flat, reportedly calling her a "dog", and criticized her crossed eyes and stubby legs. She continued doing the rounds with her determination undimmed: "I learned that Universal Pictures was looking for eight pretty girls to serve as extras. Athole and I showed up and found 50 girls ahead of us. An assistant casting director walked up and down looking us over. He passed up the first three and picked the fourth. The fifth and sixth were unattractive, but the seventh would do, and so on, down the line until seven had been selected—and he was still some ten feet ahead of us. I did some quick thinking. I coughed loudly, and when the man looked in the direction of the cough, I stood on my tiptoes and smiled right at him. Recognizing the awkward ruse to which I'd resorted, he laughed openly and walked over to me and said, 'You win, Sis. You're Number Eight.'"[13] Other extra parts followed, including one in Way Down East, directed by D. W. Griffith. Taking advantage of a break in filming and standing shrewdly near a powerful arc light, Shearer introduced herself to Griffith and began to confide her hopes for stardom. "The Master looked down at me, studied my upturned face in the glare of the arc, and shook his eagle head. Eyes no good, he said. A cast in one and far too blue; blue eyes always looked blank in close-up. You'll never make it, he declared, and turned solemnly away." Still undeterred, Shearer risked some of her savings on a consultation with Dr. William Bates, a pioneer in the treatment of incorrectly aligned eyes and defective vision. He wrote out a series of muscle-strengthening exercises that, after many years of daily practice, would successfully conceal Shearer's cast for long periods of time on the screen. She spent hours in front of the mirror, exercising her eyes and striking poses that concealed or improved the physical flaws noted by Ziegfeld or Griffith. At night, she sat in the galleries of Broadway theatres, studying the entrances of Ina Claire, Lynn Fontanne, and Katharine Cornell. In desperate need of money, Shearer resorted to some modeling work, which proved successful. On her modeling career, she commented: "I could smile at a cake of laundry soap as if it were dinner at the Ritz. I posed with a strand of imitation pearls. I posed in dust-cap and house dress with a famous mop, for dental paste and for soft drink, holding my mouth in a whistling pose until it all but froze that way." She became the new model for Kelly-Springfield Tires, was bestowed with the title "Miss Lotta Miles" and depicted seated inside the rim of a tire, smiling down at traffic from a large floodlit billboard.[14] Finally, a year after her arrival in New York, she received a break in film: fourth billing in a B-movie titled The Stealers (1921). In January 1923, Shearer received an offer from Louis B. Mayer Pictures, a studio in Northeast Los Angeles that was run by a small-time producer, Louis B. Mayer. Irving Thalberg had moved to Louis B. Mayer Pictures as vice president on February 15, 1923, but had already sent a telegram to Shearer's agent, inviting her to come to the studio. After three years of hardship, she found herself signing a contract. It called for $250 a week for six months, with options for renewal and a test for a leading role in a major film called The Wanters. Hollywood[edit] Shearer left New York around February 17.[15] Accompanied by her mother, she felt "dangerously sure of herself"[16] as her train neared Los Angeles. When she was not welcomed, even an hour after her arrival, she realized that there would be no star treatment from her new studio. Dispirited, she allowed Edith to hail a taxi. The next morning, Shearer went to the Mayer Company on Mission Road to meet with Thalberg. Shearer was momentarily thrown by their confused introduction, but soon found herself "impressed by his air of dispassionate strength, his calm self-possession and the almost black, impenetrable eyes set in a pale olive face".[17] The actress[edit] Shearer in an early MGM publicity photo Shearer was less impressed, however, with her first screen test: "The custom then was to use flat lighting, to throw a great deal of light from all directions, in order to kill all shadows that might be caused by wrinkles or blemishes. But the strong lights placed on either side of my face made my blue eyes look almost white, and by nearly eliminating my nose, made me seem cross-eyed. The result was hideous."[17] The day after the test had been screened for Mayer and Thalberg, cameraman Ernest Palmer found Shearer frantic and trembling in the hallway. Speaking with her, he was struck by her "fierce, almost raging disappointment", and after viewing the test himself, agreed that she had been "poorly handled". Under Palmer's own supervision, a second test was made and judged a success by the studio brass. The lead in The Wanters seemed hers, until the film's director objected, finding her "unphotogenic". Again, Shearer was to be disappointed, relegated to a minor role. Shearer in Slave to Fashion, 1925 She accepted her next role in Pleasure Mad, knowing "it was well understood that if I didn't deliver in this picture, I was through." After only a few days of shooting, things were not looking good. Shearer was struggling. Finally, the film's director complained to Mayer that he could get nothing out of the young actress, and when summoned to Mayer's office, she fully expected the axe to fall: "But to my surprise, Mr. Mayer's manner was paternal. 'There seems to be a problem,' he said, 'tell me about it.' I told him that the director had shouted at me and frightened me. Nobody had warned me that Mayer was a better actor than any of us, and I was unprepared for what happened next. He staged an alarming outburst, screaming at me, calling me a fool and a coward, accusing me of throwing away my career because I couldn't get on with a director. It worked. I became tearful, but obstinate. 'I'll show you!' I said to him. 'You'll see!' Delighted, Mayer resumed the paternal act. ‘That's what I wanted to hear,’ he said, smiling."[18] Returning to the set, Shearer plunged into an emotional scene. "I took that scene lock, stock, and barrel, fur, fins and feathers," she remembered, earning her the respect of her director and her studio. As a reward, Thalberg cast her in six films in eight months. The apprenticeship served Shearer well. On April 26, 1924, Louis B. Mayer Pictures was merged with Metro Pictures and the Samuel Goldwyn Company to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Shearer was cast with Lon Chaney and John Gilbert in the studio's first official production, He Who Gets Slapped. The film was a conspicuous success and contributed to the meteoric rise of the new company, and to Shearer's visibility. By late 1925, she was carrying her own films, and was one of MGM's biggest attractions, a bona fide star. She signed a new contract; it paid $1,000 a week and would rise to $5,000 over the next five years. She bought a house for herself and Edith at 2004 Vine Street, which was located under the Hollywoodland sign. Irving Thalberg[edit] Shearer alongside Irving Thalberg, outside the White House in 1929 Having become a star, Shearer's new challenge was to remain one. Many other talented actresses were at the studio, and she realized she would have to fight hard to stay ahead of the pack. Seeing that sensational newcomer Greta Garbo was one of a kind, she went to Thalberg and "demanded recognition as one of another kind". It was just one of the many visits she paid to his office, always to plead for better material, better parts. Thalberg would listen patiently, then invariably advise Norma to keep toeing the line, that MGM knew best, and that the movies she complained about had made her a popular actress. Occasionally, Shearer would burst into tears, but this seemed to make "no more impression than rain on a raincoat".[19] Privately, Thalberg was very impressed by Shearer. In a story conference, when her name was suggested to him for the part of a girl threatened with rape, Thalberg shook his head, and with a wry smile, said, "She looks too well able to take care of herself."[20] Shearer, for her part, found herself increasingly attracted to her boss. "Something was understood between us, an indefinite feeling that neither of us could analyze." Thalberg's appeal was not primarily sexual. What attracted Shearer was his commanding presence and steely grace, the impression he gave that wherever he sat was always the head of the table. In spite of his youth—was only 26—Thalberg became a father figure to the 23-year-old actress. At the end of a working day in July 1925, Shearer received a phone call from Thalberg's secretary, asking if she would like to accompany Thalberg to the premiere of Chaplin's The Gold Rush. That night, they made their first appearance as a couple. A few weeks later, Shearer went to Montreal to visit her father. While there, she had a reunion with an old school friend, who remembered: "At the end of lunch, over coffee, Norma leant in across the table. 'I'm madly in love', she whispered. 'Who with?' I asked. 'With Irving Thalberg,' she replied, smiling. I asked how Thalberg felt. 'I hope to marry him,' Norma said, and then, with the flash of the assurance I remembered so well, 'I believe I will.'"[21] "It is impossible to get anything major accomplished without stepping on some toes. Enemies are inevitable when one is a doer." —Norma Shearer Over the next two years, both Shearer and Irving saw other people. Louise Brooks remembered: "I held a dinner party sometime in 1926. All the place cards at the dinner table were books. In front of Thalberg's place was Dreiser's Genius and in front of Norma's place I put The Difficulty of Getting Married. It was so funny because Irving walked right in and saw Genius and sat right down, but Norma kept walking around. She wouldn't sit down in front of The Difficulty of Getting Married – no way!"[22] By 1927, Shearer had made a total of 13 silent films for MGM. Each had been produced for under $200,000 and had, without fail, been a substantial box-office hit, often making a $200,000+ profit for the studio.[23] She was rewarded for this consistent success by being cast in Ernst Lubitsch's The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg, her first prestige production, with a budget over $1,000,000. While she was finishing The Student Prince, Shearer received a call summoning her to Thalberg's office. She entered to find Thalberg sitting at his desk before a tray of diamond engagement rings. He granted her the option to choose her own ring; she picked out the biggest. After weeks of rumors, provoked by wearing the ring, it was announced in August 1927 that they were to wed.[24] On September 29, 1927, they were married in the Hollywood wedding of the year. Shearer had two children with Thalberg, Irving Thalberg, Jr. (1930–1987) and Katherine (1935–2006). Before they were married, Shearer converted to Judaism so she could marry Thalberg.[25] Early talkies[edit] One week after the marriage, The Jazz Singer was released. The first feature-length motion picture with sound, it effectively changed the cinematic landscape overnight and signaled the end of the silent motion picture era. It also spelled the end of many silent careers, and Shearer was determined hers would not be one of them. Her brother, Douglas Shearer, was instrumental in the development of sound at MGM, and every care was taken to prepare her for the microphone. Her first talkie, The Trial of Mary Dugan (1929), turned out to be a tremendous success. Shearer's "medium-pitched, fluent, flexible Canadian accent, not quite American but not at all foreign"[26] was critically applauded, and thereafter widely imitated by other actresses, nervous about succeeding in talkies. Despite the popularity of her subsequent early talking films, The Last of Mrs. Cheyney and Their Own Desire (both 1929), Shearer feared the public would soon tire of her "good girl" image, and took the advice of friend and co-star Ramón Novarro to visit an unknown photographer named George Hurrell.[27] There, she took a series of sensual portraits which convinced her husband that she could play the lead in MGM's racy new film, The Divorcee (1930). Pre-Code[edit] Shearer won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in The Divorcee,[28] and a series of highly successful pre-Code films followed, including Let Us Be Gay (1930), Strangers May Kiss (1931), A Free Soul (1931), Private Lives (1931), and Strange Interlude (1932). All of these were box-office hits, placing Shearer in competition with Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo, and Jean Harlow as MGM's top actress through the remainder of the decade.[29] Shearer's marriage to Thalberg gave her a degree of power in Hollywood that was resented by rivals such as Crawford, who complained that Shearer would always be offered the best roles and best conditions: "How can I compete with Norma when she's sleeping with the boss?"[30] Shearer's pre-Code films included period dramas and theatrical adaptations. Smilin' Through (1932), which co-starred Fredric March, was one of the most successful films of the period.[31] An adaptation of Eugene O'Neill's four-hour experimental Strange Interlude (1932), which also starred Clark Gable, was a disappointing adaptation of O'Neill, but a showcase for Shearer, thus a major hit.[32] The First Lady of MGM[edit] Fredric March and Shearer in The Barretts of Wimpole Street, 1934 The enforcement of the Production Code in 1934 forced Shearer to drop her celebrated "free soul" image and move exclusively into period dramas and "prestige" pictures. Of these, The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934) proved her most successful at the box office, making a profit of $668,000, in part because the film contained elements that slipped by the newly instituted Production Code. In that film, she played a role made famous by Katharine Cornell. Shearer also took on another play popularized by Cornell in Romeo and Juliet (1936) (her first film of the '30s to lose money) and Marie Antoinette (1938) (a budget of almost $2,500,000 was too great for the studio to expect a profit), though their elaborate sets and costumes helped make the films immensely popular with audiences.[33] Shearer was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress on six occasions, winning only for The Divorcee in 1930. She was nominated the same year for Their Own Desire, for A Free Soul in 1931, The Barretts of Wimpole Street in 1934, Romeo and Juliet in 1936, and Marie Antoinette in 1938. Marion Davies later recalled that Shearer came to a party at San Simeon in her Marie Antoinette costume; Davies said she was not about to remove the door so Shearer could enter, so Norma made her grand entrance through wider doors leading from another room. Four chairs were arranged so she could sit at the table in her voluminous skirts. Shearer in Marie Antoinette, 1938 In 1939, she attempted an unusual role in the dark comedy Idiot's Delight, adapted from the 1936 Robert E. Sherwood play. It was the last of Shearer's three films with Clark Gable, after A Free Soul (1931) and Strange Interlude (1932). The Women (1939) followed, with an entirely female cast of more than 130 speaking roles. Shearer was also one of the many actresses considered for the role of Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With The Wind (1939). However, she expressed no interest, joking, "Scarlett is a thankless role. The one I'd really like to play is Rhett!".[34] Critics praised the suspenseful atmosphere in her next film, Escape (1940), where she played the lover of a Nazi general who helps an American free his mother from a concentration camp. With increasing interest in the war in Europe, the film performed well at the box office, but Shearer made errors in judgment, passing up roles in the highly successful films Now, Voyager and Mrs. Miniver, to star in We Were Dancing and Her Cardboard Lover (1942), which both failed at the box office. In 1942, Shearer unofficially retired from acting.

Retirement[edit] After Thalberg's unexpected death on September 14, 1936, Shearer retained a lawyer to ensure that Thalberg's percentages of films on which he had worked were still paid to his estate, which was contested by MGM. When she took the story to gossip columnist Louella Parsons, the studio was forced to give in and granted all the profits from MGM movies made and released from 1924 to 1938, meaning the estate eventually received over $1.5 million in percentage payments. Nevertheless, Shearer's contract was renewed for six films at $150,000 each.[35] During this time, she embarked on a brief romance with the younger actor James Stewart,[36] and then with the married actor George Raft[37] (Raft had separated from his wife years earlier, soon after they married). He stated publicly that he wanted to marry Shearer. However, his wife's refusal to allow a divorce and the disapproval of MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer caused Shearer to end the affair.[38][39] Following her retirement in 1942, she married Martin Arrougé (March 23, 1914 – August 8, 1999), a former ski instructor 11 years her junior.[40] Although often attending public events in her later life, Shearer gradually withdrew from the Hollywood social scene. In 1960, her secretary stated: "Miss Shearer does not want any publicity. She doesn't talk to anyone. But I can tell you that she has refused many requests to appear in motion pictures and TV shows."[41] Arrougé and Shearer remained married until her death.

Death[edit] Crypt of Norma Shearer in the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Glendale On June 12, 1983, Shearer died of bronchial pneumonia at the Motion Picture Country Home in Woodland Hills, California, where she had been living since 1980.[42] She is entombed in the Great Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California, in a crypt marked Norma Arrouge, along with her first husband, Irving Thalberg.

Legacy[edit] Shearer's fame declined after her retirement in 1942.[43] She was rediscovered in the late 1950s, when her films were sold to television, and in the 1970s, when her films enjoyed theatrical revivals. By the time of her death in 1983, she was best known for her "noble" roles in Marie Antoinette and The Women. A Shearer revival began in 1988, when Turner Network Television began broadcasting the entire Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film library. In 1994, Turner Classic Movies began showcasing her films, most of which had not been seen since the reconstitution of the Production Code in 1934. Shearer's work was seen anew, and the critical focus shifted from her "noble" roles to her pre-Code roles. Shearer's work gained more attention in the 1990s through the publication of a series of books. The first was a biography by Gavin Lambert.[44] Next came Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood by Mick LaSalle, film critic at the San Francisco Chronicle.[45] Mark A. Vieira published three books on subjects closely related to Shearer: a biography of her husband, producer Irving Thalberg;[46] and two biographies of photographer George Hurrell.[47][48] Shearer was noted not only for the control she exercised over her work, but also for her patronage of Hurrell[49] and Adrian,[50], and for discovering actress Janet Leigh[51] and actor-producer Robert Evans.[52] For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Shearer has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6636 Hollywood Boulevard.[53][54] On June 30, 2008, Canada Post issued a postage stamp in its "Canadians in Hollywood" series to honour Norma Shearer, along with others for Raymond Burr, Marie Dressler, and Chief Dan George.[55] Shearer and Thalberg are reportedly the models for Stella and Miles, the hosts of the Hollywood party in the short story "Crazy Sunday" (1932) by F. Scott Fitzgerald.[56] Most of Shearer's MGM films are broadcast on Turner Classic Movies, and many of them are also available on DVD from Warner Home Video. In 2008, she was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame. In 2015, a number of Shearer films became available in high-definition format, authored by Warner Home Video in most cases from the nitrate camera negatives: A Free Soul, Romeo and Juliet, Marie Antoinette, and The Women.[57]

Awards and nominations[edit] Shearer was the first person to receive five Academy Award nominations for acting.[7] She and brother Douglas Shearer are the first Oscar-winning siblings.[58] Year Award Film Result 1930 Academy Award for Best Actress Their Own Desire Nominated Academy Award for Best Actress The Divorcee Won 1931 Academy Award for Best Actress A Free Soul Nominated 1934 Academy Award for Best Actress The Barretts of Wimpole Street Nominated 1936 Academy Award for Best Actress Romeo and Juliet Nominated 1936 New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (3rd) Romeo and Juliet Nominated 1938 Academy Award for Best Actress Marie Antoinette Nominated 1938 Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup for Best Actress Marie Antoinette Won

Filmography[edit] Main article: Norma Shearer filmography

Radio appearances[edit] Year Program Episode/source 1941 Gulf Screen Guild Theatre No Time for Comedy[59]

See also[edit] List of actors with Academy Award nominations

References[edit] Notes ^ Donnelley, Paul (2005). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries (3 ed.). Omnibus Press. p. 848. ISBN 1-844-49430-6.  ^ "Norma Shearer: 1902 Birth certificate (Montreal, Quebec, Canada)". Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017 – via Edith Norma Shearer, daughter of Andrew Shearer and Edith May Fisher his wife was born on the eleventh day of August nineteen hundred two and was baptized on the thirty-first day of May, nineteen hundred three  ^ Some sources give August 10. It is August 11 per the birth certificate as well as "Norma Shearer". The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica Canada). Retrieved August 5, 2016.  It is "c. August 11" per "Norma Shearer Biography: Film Actress (c. 1902–1983)". (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved August 5, 2016.  ^ Shipman, David. The Great Movie Stars: The Golden Years. Crown Publishers, 1970. p. 487-492 ^ Shen, Ann (2016). Bad Girls Throughout History: 100 Remarkable Women Who Changed the World. Chronicle Books. p. 117. ISBN 9781452157023.  ^ Morris, Gary (1 April 1996). "Queen Norma - Shearer, That Is". Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ a b Soares, Andre. "Norma Shearer: 'Queen of MGM' & 'Liberated Woman'". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ a b LaSalle 2000. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 15. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 14. ^ Wayne, Jane Ellen (2003). The Golden Girls of Mgm: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Lana Turner, Judy Garland, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly and Others. Da Capo Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-786-71303-8.  ^ Lambert 1990, p. 19. ^ LaSalle 2000, p. 14. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 28. ^ Vieira, Irving Thalberg. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 34. ^ a b Lambert 1990, p. 42. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 44. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 59. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 60. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 66. ^ Lambert 1990, p. 86. ^ "Shearer at Hollywood Legends website". Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2010.  ^ "Norma Shearer To Wed Metro Film Executive". Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh. United Press. August 18, 1927. p. 12.  ^ Lambert, Gavin Norma Shearer: A Biography, pp. 321–324 ^ Lambert 1990, p. 121. ^ Postrel, Virginia: "Starlight and Shadow", The Atlantic, July/August 2007, p149. ^ "FILM AWARDS ARE MADE.; Norma Shearer and George Arliss Get High Honors". The New York Times. November 7, 1930. Retrieved November 9, 2011.  ^ Gary Morris (2010-03-31). "Shearer at Bright Lights website". Retrieved 2010-07-21.  ^ Quirk & Schoell 2002, p. 102. ^ Vieira, Irving Thalberg, p. 247. ^ Samuel Marx, Mayer and Thalberg: The Make-Believe Saints (New York: Random House, 1975) ^ 'Marie Antoinette' was Shearer's first film after her husband Irving Thalberg's death. An album of Film Stars (third series) John Player and sons card no 44 ^ Clark Gable: A Biography, Harris, Warren G., p.408 ^ The Lion of Hollywood by Scott Eyman, pp. 250–1 ^ Quirk, Lawrence J. (2000). James Stewart: Behind the Scenes of a Wonderful Life. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 95. ISBN 1-557-83416-4.  ^ "Norma Shearer Biography". Retrieved 2010-07-21.  ^ Beaver, Jim (1978). "George Raft". Films in Review.  ^ Wallace, Stone. George Raft: The Man Who Would Be Bogart. ISBN 1-59393-204-9. ^ "Milestones". Time magazine. 1942-08-31. Retrieved 2007-11-14.  ^ Scott, Vernon (September 23, 1960). "Norma Shearer Quit Films, Now Pampers 'Passion for Privacy'". The Milwaukee Journal. Milwaukee. p. 1.  ^ Pace, Eric (1983-06-14). "Norma Shearer, Film Star Two Decades, is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ "MGM may be gone with the wind". The National. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ Lambert, Gavin (1990). Norma Shearer: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf; ASIN 978-0-394-55158-6. ^ LaSalle, Mick. Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000; ASIN 978-0-312-25207-6 ^ Vieira, Mark A. Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009. ASIN 0520260481. ^ Vieira, Mark A. Hurrell's Hollywood Portraits New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997, ASIN 0810934345, p. 22. ^ Vieira, Mark A. George Hurrell's Hollywood Philadelphia: Running Press, 2013, ASIN 0762450398, p. 18. ^ Vieira, Irving Thalberg, p. 185. ^ Gutner 2001. ^ Oliver, Myrna (5 October 2004). "From the Archives: Janet Leigh, 77; Memorable Shower Scene in 'Psycho' Established Her as a Major Star". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ Weinraub, Bernard (20 May 1993). "The Rise and Fall and, Now, Rise of Robert Evans". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ "Walk of Fame Stars-Norma Shearer". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.  ^ Folkart, Burt A.; Priest, Dana. "Hollywood Star Walk: Norma Shearer". Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ Canada Post's 2008 Stamp Program Archived June 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rosenfield, Paul (6 May 1990). "The Queen of the MGM Lot: NORMA SHEARER by Gavin Lambert". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018.  ^ Marie Antoinette film profile,; accessed July 17, 2016. ^ Uytdewilligen, Ryan. "Canadians at the Oscars: A History". Camera in the Sun. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "Abel, Walter". radioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  Bibliography LaSalle, Mick (2000). Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-25207-6.  Gutner, Howard (2001). Gowns By Adrian: The MGM Years 1928–1941. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8109-0898-7.  Lambert, Gavin (1990). Norma Shearer: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-55158-6.  Jack Jacobs and Myron Braum (1976). The Films of Norma Shearer. South Brunswick and New York: A. S. Barnes and Company. ISBN 0-498-01552-1 Quirk, Lawrence J.; Schoell, William (September 30, 2002). Joan Crawford: The Essential Biography. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2254-0.  Vieira, Mark A. (2009). Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0520260481.  Vieira, Mark A. (1997). Hurrell's Hollywood Portraits: The Chapman Collection. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0810934345.  Vieira, Mark A. (2013). George Hurrell's Hollywood: Glamour Portraits, 1925 to 1992. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. ISBN 0762450398. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Norma Shearer. Norma Shearer on IMDb Norma Shearer at the TCM Movie Database Norma Shearer at AllMovie Photographs of Norma Shearer v t e Academy Award for Best Actress 1928–1950 Janet Gaynor (1928) Mary Pickford (1929) Norma Shearer (1930) Marie Dressler (1931) Helen Hayes (1932) Katharine Hepburn (1933) Claudette Colbert (1934) Bette Davis (1935) Luise Rainer (1936) Luise Rainer (1937) Bette Davis (1938) Vivien Leigh (1939) Ginger Rogers (1940) Joan Fontaine (1941) Greer Garson (1942) Jennifer Jones (1943) Ingrid Bergman (1944) Joan Crawford (1945) Olivia de Havilland (1946) Loretta Young (1947) Jane Wyman (1948) Olivia de Havilland (1949) Judy Holliday (1950) 1951–1975 Vivien Leigh (1951) Shirley Booth (1952) Audrey Hepburn (1953) Grace Kelly (1954) Anna Magnani (1955) Ingrid Bergman (1956) Joanne Woodward (1957) Susan Hayward (1958) Simone Signoret (1959) Elizabeth Taylor (1960) Sophia Loren (1961) Anne Bancroft (1962) Patricia Neal (1963) Julie Andrews (1964) Julie Christie (1965) Elizabeth Taylor (1966) Katharine Hepburn (1967) Katharine Hepburn / Barbra Streisand (1968) Maggie Smith (1969) Glenda Jackson (1970) Jane Fonda (1971) Liza Minnelli (1972) Glenda Jackson (1973) Ellen Burstyn (1974) Louise Fletcher (1975) 1976–2000 Faye Dunaway (1976) Diane Keaton (1977) Jane Fonda (1978) Sally Field (1979) Sissy Spacek (1980) Katharine Hepburn (1981) Meryl Streep (1982) Shirley MacLaine (1983) Sally Field (1984) Geraldine Page (1985) Marlee Matlin (1986) Cher (1987) Jodie Foster (1988) Jessica Tandy (1989) Kathy Bates (1990) Jodie Foster (1991) Emma Thompson (1992) Holly Hunter (1993) Jessica Lange (1994) Susan Sarandon (1995) Frances McDormand (1996) Helen Hunt (1997) Gwyneth Paltrow (1998) Hilary Swank (1999) Julia Roberts (2000) 2001–present Halle Berry (2001) Nicole Kidman (2002) Charlize Theron (2003) Hilary Swank (2004) Reese Witherspoon (2005) Helen Mirren (2006) Marion Cotillard (2007) Kate Winslet (2008) Sandra Bullock (2009) Natalie Portman (2010) Meryl Streep (2011) Jennifer Lawrence (2012) Cate Blanchett (2013) Julianne Moore (2014) Brie Larson (2015) Emma Stone (2016) v t e Volpi Cup for Best Actress 1934–1968 Katharine Hepburn (1934) Paula Wessely (1935) Annabella (1936) Bette Davis (1937) Norma Shearer (1938) Luise Ullrich (1941) Kristina Söderbaum (1942) Anna Magnani (1947) Jean Simmons (1948) Olivia de Havilland (1949) Eleanor Parker (1950) Vivien Leigh (1951) Ingrid Bergman (1952) Lilli Palmer (1953) Maria Schell (1956) Dzidra Ritenberga (1957) Sophia Loren (1958) Madeleine Robinson (1959) Shirley MacLaine (1960) Suzanne Flon (1961) Emmanuelle Riva (1962) Delphine Seyrig (1963) Harriet Andersson (1964) Annie Girardot (1965) Natalya Arinbasarova (1966) Shirley Knight (1967) Laura Betti (1968) 1983–2000 Darling Légitimus (1983) Pascale Ogier (1984) Valeria Golino (1986) Kang Soo-yeon (1987) Isabelle Huppert/Shirley MacLaine (1988) Peggy Ashcroft/Geraldine James (1989) Gloria Münchmeyer (1990) Tilda Swinton (1991) Gong Li (1992) Juliette Binoche/Anna Bonaiuto (1993) Maria de Medeiros/Vanessa Redgrave (1994) Sandrine Bonnaire/Isabelle Huppert/Isabella Ferrari (1995) Victoire Thivisol (1996) Robin Tunney (1997) Catherine Deneuve (1998) Nathalie Baye (1999) Rose Byrne (2000) 2001–present Sandra Ceccarelli (2001) Julianne Moore (2002) Katja Riemann (2003) Imelda Staunton (2004) Giovanna Mezzogiorno (2005) Helen Mirren (2006) Cate Blanchett (2007) Dominique Blanc (2008) Kseniya Rappoport (2009) Ariane Labed (2010) Deanie Ip (2011) Hadas Yaron (2012) Elena Cotta (2013) Alba Rohrwacher (2014) Valeria Golino (2015) Emma Stone (2016) Charlotte Rampling (2017) v t e Irving Thalberg Producer The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) Merry-Go-Round (1923) His Hour (1924) He Who Gets Slapped (1924) The Unholy Three (1925) The Merry Widow (1925) The Tower of Lies (1925) The Big Parade (1925) Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1925) Torrent (1926) La Bohème (1926) Brown of Harvard (1926) The Road to Mandalay (1926) The Temptress (1926) Valencia (1926) Flesh and the Devil (1926) Twelve Miles Out (1927) The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg (1927) London After Midnight (1927) The Crowd (1928) Laugh, Clown, Laugh (1928) White Shadows in the South Seas (1928) Show People (1928) West of Zanzibar (1928) The Broadway Melody (1929) The Trial of Mary Dugan (1929) Voice of the City (1929) Where East Is East (1929) The Last of Mrs. Cheyney (1929) The Hollywood Revue of 1929 (1929) Hallelujah (1929) His Glorious Night (1929) The Kiss (1929) Anna Christie (1930) Redemption (1930) The Divorcee (1930) The Rogue Song (1930) The Big House (1930) The Unholy Three (1930) Let Us Be Gay (1930) Billy the Kid (1930) Way for a Sailor (1930) A Lady's Morals (1930) Inspiration (1931) Trader Horn (1931) The Secret Six (1931) A Free Soul (1931) Just a Gigolo (1931) The Sin of Madelon Claudet (1931) The Guardsman (1931) The Champ (1931) Possessed (1931) Private Lives (1931) Mata Hari (1931) Freaks (1932) Tarzan the Ape Man (1932) Grand Hotel (1932) Letty Lynton (1932) As You Desire Me (1932) Red-Headed Woman (1932) Smilin' Through (1932) Red Dust (1932) Rasputin and the Empress (1932) Strange Interlude (1932) Tugboat Annie (1933) Bombshell (1933) Eskimo (1933) Riptide (1934) The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934) The Merry Widow (1934) What Every Woman Knows (1934) No More Ladies (1935) China Seas (1935) Mutiny on the Bounty (1935) A Night at the Opera (1935) Riffraff (1936) Romeo and Juliet (1936) Camille (1936) Maytime (1937) A Day at the Races (1937) Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937) The Good Earth (1937) Marie Antoinette (1938) Writer The Trap (1922) People Norma Shearer (wife) Irving Thalberg, Jr. (son) Related The Love of the Last Tycoon Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54348273 LCCN: n85151863 ISNI: 0000 0001 1645 4347 GND: 119459183 SUDOC: 059708182 BNF: cb140436974 (data) IATH: w69p3j5h Retrieved from "" Categories: 1902 births1983 deaths20th-century American actresses20th-century Canadian actressesCanadian people of 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MontrealQuebecWoodland Hills, Los AngelesCaliforniaBronchusPneumoniaForest Lawn Memorial Park, GlendaleIrving ThalbergIrving Thalberg, Jr.Athole ShearerDouglas ShearerNoël CowardEugene O'NeillWilliam ShakespeareAcademy AwardAcademy Award For Best ActressThe DivorceeMick LaSalleWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalScottish PeopleIrish PeopleMontrealHigh School Of MontrealWestmount High SchoolManic DepressionVaudevilleStrabismusWikipedia:Citation NeededAthole ShearerEast Coast Of The United StatesFlorenz ZiegfeldZiegfeld FolliesWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeUniversal PicturesWay Down EastD. W. GriffithWilliam Bates (physician)Broadway TheatreIna ClaireLynn FontanneKatharine CornellB-movieLouis B. Mayer PicturesLouis B. 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ThalbergThe Hunchback Of Notre Dame (1923 Film)Merry-Go-Round (1923 Film)His HourHe Who Gets SlappedThe Unholy Three (1925 Film)The Merry Widow (1925 Film)The Tower Of LiesThe Big ParadeBen-Hur: A Tale Of The Christ (1925 Film)Torrent (1926 Film)La Bohème (1926 Film)Brown Of Harvard (1926 Film)The Road To Mandalay (1926 Film)The TemptressValencia (1926 Film)Flesh And The DevilTwelve Miles OutThe Student Prince In Old HeidelbergLondon After Midnight (film)The Crowd (1928 Film)Laugh, Clown, LaughWhite Shadows In The South SeasShow PeopleWest Of Zanzibar (1928 Film)The Broadway MelodyThe Trial Of Mary Dugan (1929 Film)Voice Of The CityWhere East Is EastThe Last Of Mrs. Cheyney (1929 Film)The Hollywood Revue Of 1929Hallelujah (film)His Glorious NightThe Kiss (1929 Film)Anna Christie (1930 English-language Film)Redemption (1930 Film)The DivorceeThe Rogue SongThe Big House (1930 Film)The Unholy Three (1930 Film)Let Us Be GayBilly The Kid (1930 Film)Way For A SailorA Lady's MoralsInspiration (1931 Film)Trader Horn (1931 Film)The Secret SixA Free SoulJust A Gigolo (1931 Film)The Sin Of Madelon ClaudetThe GuardsmanThe Champ (1931 Film)Possessed (1931 Film)Private Lives (film)Mata Hari (1931 Film)FreaksTarzan The Ape Man (1932 Film)Grand Hotel (1932 Film)Letty LyntonAs You Desire Me (film)Red-Headed WomanSmilin' Through (1932 Film)Red Dust (1932 Film)Rasputin And The EmpressStrange Interlude (film)Tugboat AnnieBombshell (film)Eskimo (film)Riptide (film)The Barretts Of Wimpole Street (1934 Film)The Merry Widow (1934 Film)What Every Woman Knows (1934 Film)No More LadiesChina Seas (film)Mutiny On The Bounty (1935 Film)A Night At The Opera (film)Riffraff (1936 Film)Romeo And Juliet (1936 Film)Camille (1936 Film)Maytime (1937 Film)A Day At The Races (film)Broadway Melody Of 1938The Good Earth (film)Marie Antoinette (1938 Film)The Trap (1922 Film)Irving Thalberg, Jr.The Love Of The Last TycoonHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control 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