Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Dynastic Egypt 2.1.1 Lower Egypt nomes 2.1.2 Upper Egypt nomes 2.2 Ptolemaic Egypt 2.2.1 Roman Egypt 3 Nomarch 4 List of nomes (ancient Egyptian: Sepat-Isti) 4.1 Lower Egypt 4.2 Upper Egypt 5 References 5.1 Citations 5.2 BIbliography 6 External links


Etymology[edit] The Ancient Greek term νομή, nomé was derived from νομός, nomós, meaning "district"; the Ancient Egyptian term was sepat or spAt.[2] Today's use of the Greek rather than the Ancient Egyptian term came about during the Ptolemaic period, when the use of Greek was widespread in Egypt. The availability of Greek records on Egypt influenced the adoption of Greek terms by later historians.


History[edit] Dynastic Egypt[edit] See also: Ancient Egypt The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics The division of ancient Egypt into nomes can be traced back to the Predynastic Period (before 3100 BC). These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states[citation needed], but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification.[4] Not only did the division into nomes remain in place for more than three millennia, the areas of the individual nomes and their ordering remained remarkably stable. Some, like Xois in the Delta or Khent in Upper Egypt, were first mentioned on the Palermo stone, which was inscribed in the Fifth Dynasty. The names of a few, like the nome of Bubastis, appeared no earlier than the New Kingdom. Under the system that prevailed for most of pharaonic Egypt's history, the country was divided into 42 nomes. Lower Egypt nomes[edit] Lower Egypt nomes Lower Egypt (Egyptian "Ā-meḥty"), from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile delta, first covering the territory on the west before continuing with the higher numbers to the east. Thus, Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth. Nome 1 of Lower Egypt (White Walls Nome) Nome 2 of Lower Egypt (Travellers land) Nome 3 of Lower Egypt (Cattle land) Nome 4 of Lower Egypt (Southern shield land) Nome 5 of Lower Egypt (Northern shield land) Nome 6 of Lower Egypt (Mountain bull land) Nome 7 of Lower Egypt (West harpoon land) Nome 8 of Lower Egypt (East harpoon land) Nome 9 of Lower Egypt (Andjety god land) Nome 10 of Lower Egypt (Black bull land) Nome 11 of Lower Egypt (Heseb bull land) Nome 12 of Lower Egypt (Calf and Cow land) Nome 13 of Lower Egypt (Prospering Sceptre land) Nome 14 of Lower Egypt (Eastmost land) Nome 15 of Lower Egypt (Ibis-Tehut land) Nome 16 of Lower Egypt (Fish land) Nome 17 of Lower Egypt (The throne land) Nome 18 of Lower Egypt (Prince of the South land) Nome 19 of Lower Egypt (Prince of the North land) Nome 20 of Lower Egypt (Sopdu-Plumed Falcon land) Upper Egypt nomes[edit] Upper Egypt nomes Middle Egypt nomes Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered on Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-first. Nome 1 of Upper Egypt (Bows land) Nome 2 of Upper Egypt (Throne of Horus land) Nome 3 of Upper Egypt (Shrine land) Nome 4 of Upper Egypt (Sceptre land) Nome 5 of Upper Egypt (The two falcons land) Nome 6 of Upper Egypt (The crocodile land) Nome 7 of Upper Egypt (Sistrum land) Nome 8 of Upper Egypt (The Great land) Nome 9 of Upper Egypt (Min-God land) Nome 10 of Upper Egypt (Cobra land) Nome 11 of Upper Egypt (Sha-Set animal land) Nome 12 of Upper Egypt (Viper mountain land) Nome 13 of Upper Egypt (Upper Sycamore and Viper land) Nome 14 of Upper Egypt (Lower Sycamore and Viper land) Nome 15 of Upper Egypt (Hares land) Nome 16 of Upper Egypt (Oryx Nome) Nome 17 of Upper Egypt (Anubis land) Nome 18 of Upper Egypt (Set land) Nome 19 of Upper Egypt (Two Sceptres land) Nome 20 of Upper Egypt (Southern Sycamore land) Nome 21 of Upper Egypt (Northern Sycamore land) Nome 22 of Upper Egypt (Knife land) Ptolemaic Egypt[edit] See also: Ptolemaic Egypt Some nomes were added or renamed during the Graeco-Roman occupation of Egypt.[5] For example, the Ptolemies renamed the Crocodilopolitan nome to Arsinoe. Hadrian created a new nome, Antinoopolites, for which Antinoopolis was the capital. Roman Egypt[edit] See also: Roman Egypt The nomes survived into Roman times. Under Roman rule, individual nomes minted their own coinage, the so-called "nome coins," which still reflect individual local associations and traditions. The nomes of Egypt retained their primary importance as administrative units until the fundamental rearrangement of the bureaucracy during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine. From AD 307/8, their place was taken by smaller units called pagi. Eventually powerful local officials arose who were called pagarchs, through whom all patronage flowed. The pagarch's essential role was as an organizer of tax-collection. Later the pagarch assumed some military functions as well. The pagarchs were often wealthy landowners who reigned over the pagi from which they originated.


Nomarch[edit] For most of the history, each nome was headed by a nomarch. The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others they were appointed by the pharaoh. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were the king's appointed governors. When the central government was weaker, however—such as during foreign invasions or civil wars—individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession. Conflicts among these different hereditary nomarchies were common, most notably during the First Intermediate Period, a time that saw a breakdown in central authority lasting from the 7th–11th dynasties which ended when one of the local rulers became strong enough to again assert control over the entire country as pharaoh.


List of nomes (ancient Egyptian: Sepat-Isti)[edit] The nomes (Ancient Egyptian: sepat) are listed in separate tables for "Isti" - "the two Egypts" (Upper and Lower Egypt). Note: older or other variants of the name in square brackets '[ ]'; names vary from different time or era, or even titles, most epithets, honorific titles with a slash '/'; Greek-Egypto derived names from the original Egyptian in parentheses '( )' Lower Egypt[edit] Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern name of capital site Translation 1 𓈠 Ineb-Ḥedjet (Aneb-Hetch) Ineb-Ḥedjet [ 𓏠𓈖𓄤𓆑𓂋𓉴𓊖 Men-nefer/ Menfe] (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls 2 𓈡 (Khensu) 𓐍𓋉𓅓𓊖 Khem [Sekhem/ Iry] (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh 3 𓈢 Iment (Ament) I-am/ Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West 4 𓈣 (Sapi-Res) Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield 5 𓈤/𓈥 (Sap-Meh) 𓊃𓅭𓄿𓅱𓊖 Zau (Sais) Sa El Hagar Northern shield 6 𓈦 (Khaset) 𓆼𓋴𓅱𓅱𓏏𓊖 Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bull 7 𓈧 (A-ment) 𓂧𓏇𓇌𓊖𓏌𓅃𓏤 (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon 8 𓈨 Nefer-Iabti (A-bt) Thek/ Tjeku / Iset-Tem [= 𓉐𓏤𓏏𓍃𓅓𓏏𓊖 Per-Atum]/ Ān (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell al-Maskhuta East harpoon 9 𓈩 (Ati) 𓉐𓏤𓊨𓁹𓎟𓊽𓂧𓅱𓊖 Djed [Iti] (Busiris) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti 10 𓈪 Ka-Ka'm (Ka-khem) 𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇾𓁷𓄣𓊖 Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib) Black bull 11 𓈫 (Ka-heseb) Taremu/ Ikhenu (Leontopolis) Tell El Urydam Heseb bull 12 𓈬 (Theb-ka) 𓊹𓍿𓃀𓊖 Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) Samanud Calf and Cow 13 𓈭 (Heq-At) In (Iunu)/ In-meḥ/ Iset-Tem/ Igert, Igertet, Iqert, Iugertet (Heliopolis) Materiya (suburb of Cairo) Prospering Sceptre 14 𓈮 (Khent-abt) Tjaru (Sile, Tanis) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost 15 𓈯 (Tehut) Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Ibis 16 𓈰 (Kha) Djedet/ Ā'atjaba (Mendes) Tell El Rubˁ Fish 17 𓈱/𓈲 Sma-Beḥut (Sema-Beḥut) Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tel El Balamun The throne 18 𓈳 Im-Khent (Am-Khent) Per-Bastet (Bubastis) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig) Prince of the South 19 𓈴 Im-Peḥ (Am-Peḥu) Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or San El Hagar Prince of the North 20 𓈵 Sep-d (Sopdu) Per-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon Upper Egypt[edit] Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern Capital Translation 1 𓈶 (Ta-Seti) 𓍋𓃀𓃰𓅱𓎶𓈊 Abu / Yeb [Yb] (Elephantine) Sunnu/ Irp-Ḥesp (Aswan) Land of the bow 2 𓈷 (Wetjes-Hor) 𓌥𓃀𓊖 Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna) Ineb/ Iset-Unep/ Iset-en-Rā/ Iset-Neterui/ Iset-Ḥeq/ Iset-Khnem-Iten/ Iset-Sekhen-en-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Shu/ Isebt/ Ā'ay-t-en-Beḥud/ Ā'a-t-enty-Ā'ap (Edfu) Throne of Horus 3 𓈸 (Nekhen) Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) El Kab Shrine 4 𓈹 Uas (Uaset/ Waset) Niwt-rst / Waset [Ir-t Rā/ Iset-Sekhenu-en-Ākhemu/ Ānkh] (Thebes) Karnak Sceptre 5 𓈺 (Herui) 𓎤𓃀𓅂𓊖 Gebtu/ Iter-Shemā (Coptos) Qift The two falcons 6 𓈻 (Iqer) In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera) In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-en-Sek-Djet/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera) The crocodile 7 𓈼 (Seshesh) Seshesh/ Pa-Khen-Iment/ Uas-Meḥ (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum 8 𓈽 Abdju (older variants: Iabdu, Ibdu, Abed, Abedj) 𓍋𓃀𓈋𓊖 Abdju [older variants: Iabdu, Ibdu, Abed, Abedj] (Abydos) El Birba Great land 9 𓈾 (Min) Ip/ Ipi/ Ipu/ Apu/ [later: Khen-Min, perhaps another name for "Khemenu"]/ Ārty-Ḥeru (Panopolis) Akhmim Min 10 𓈿/𓉀 Uadj (Wadjet) Djew-qa / Tjebu (Antaeopolis) Qaw El Kebir Cobra 11 𓉁/𓉂 (Set) Shashotep (Hypselis) Shutb The creature associated with Set 12 𓉃 (Tu-ph) Pr nmty (Hieracon) al Atawla Viper mountain 13 𓉄 (Atef-Khent) Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper 14 𓉅 (Atef-Peḥu) Qesy (Cusae) El Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper 15 𓉆 (Wenet) Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna) El Ashmounein Hare[6] 16 𓉇 (Ma-hedj) Herwer? Hur? Oryx[6] 17 𓉈 Inpu (Anpu) Saka (Cynopolis) El Qais Anubis 18 𓉉/𓉊 (Sep) Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) El Hiba Set 19 𓉋 (Uab) Per-Medjed/ Per-Mādjet/ Uabu-t (Oxyrhynchus) El Bahnasa Two Sceptres 20 𓉌 (Atef-Khent) Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna) Ihnasiya Southern Sycamore 21 𓉍 (Atef-Peḥu) Shenakhen / Semenuhor/ Ium'ā (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe) Faiyum Northern Sycamore 22 𓉎/𓉏 (Maten) 𓁶𓏤𓃒𓏪𓊖 Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife


References[edit] Citations[edit] ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 841 ^ a b "Provinces of Egypt". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-21.  ^ Bunson, Margaret (2014-05-14). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 9781438109978.  ^ Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.4.1 and 2.99.1ff. ^ Bagnall, Roger S. (1996). Egypt in Late Antiquity (Fourth printing ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 333. ISBN 0691069867. Retrieved 2 February 2015.  ^ a b Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: history, archaeology and society. London, Duckworth Egyptology, 2006, pp. 109-111 BIbliography[edit] Bagnall, Roger S. (1996), Egypt in Late Antiquity, Princeton: Princeton University Press . Bowman, Alan K. (1990), Egypt after the Pharaohs, Oxford: Oxford University Press .


External links[edit] Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Nome (Egypt). Details of the nomes Archaeological survey of the nomes v t e Ancient Egypt topics Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing Egyptology Egyptologists Museums Book Category Ancient Egypt portal WikiProject Commons Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nome_(Egypt)&oldid=811099131" Categories: Geography of ancient EgyptNomes of ancient EgyptGovernment of the Ptolemaic KingdomRoman EgyptHidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2009


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Help:IPA/EnglishGreek LanguageAncient EgyptAncient GreekEgyptian LanguageNomarchAncient Egyptian LanguageHistory Of Ancient EgyptAncient GreekEgyptian LanguageEgyptian LanguagePtolemaic KingdomAncient EgyptEnlargePredynastic Period32nd Century BCWikipedia:Citation NeededMenesXoisNile DeltaPalermo StoneFifth Dynasty Of EgyptBubastisNew KingdomEnlargeUpper And Lower EgyptMemphis, EgyptMediterranean SeaSaqqaraGizaCairoNileRiver DeltaAlexandria, EgyptEnlargeEnlargeUpper And Lower EgyptElephantineNubiaAswanThebes, EgyptLuxorAmarnaMeidumPtolemaic EgyptPtolemiesCrocodilopolisHadrianAntinoopolisRoman EgyptRoman EmpireDiocletianConstantine I Of The Roman EmpirePagusNomarchPharaohFirst Intermediate Period Of EgyptUpper EgyptLower EgyptEgyptAneb-HetchMemphis, EgyptLetopolisYamuTantaSais, EgyptKhaset (nome)XoisDamanhurPithomBusiris (Lower Egypt)AndjetiAthribisBanhaLeontopolisSebennytosHeq-AtHeliopolis (ancient Egypt)Heliopolis (Ancient Egypt)Cairo, EgyptZarwTanisHermopolis (Lower Egypt)IbisMendesTel El BalamunBubastisZagazigTell NebeshaTanisSaft El-HinnaTa-SetiElephantineAswanWetjes-HorApollonopolis MagnaEdfuHorusNekhen (nome)NekhenThebes, EgyptKarnakHeruiQiftIqerTentyraDenderaTentyraDenderaHu, EgyptSistrumAbydos, EgyptAkhmimMin (god)Aphroditopolis NomeTjebuQaw El-KebirShashotepSet-animal (hieroglyph)Set (god)HieraconAsyutLycopolisAsyutCusaeEl QusiyaHare NomeHermopolisHare (hieroglyph)Oryx NomeHerwerOryxCynopolisAnubisEl HibaSet (mythology)Per-MedjedOxyrhynchusEl BahnasaHerakleopolis MagnaCrocodilopolisFaiyumAtfihInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781438109978International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0691069867Wolfram GrajetzkiRoger S. BagnallWikisourceNew International EncyclopediaTemplate:Ancient Egypt TopicsTemplate Talk:Ancient Egypt TopicsAncient EgyptOutline Of Ancient EgyptIndex Of Ancient Egypt-related ArticlesPortal:Ancient Egypt/Main TopicsGlossary Of Ancient Egypt ArtifactsAncient Egyptian AgricultureAncient Egyptian ArchitectureEgyptian Revival ArchitectureArt Of Ancient EgyptEgyptian AstronomyEgyptian ChronologyUrban Planning In Ancient EgyptList Of Ancient Egyptian Towns And CitiesClothing In Ancient EgyptAncient Egyptian CuisineList Of Ancient Egyptian DynastiesAncient Egyptian Funerary PracticesCategory:Geography Of Ancient EgyptGreat Royal WifeHistory Of Ancient EgyptEgyptian LanguageAncient Egyptian LiteratureAncient Egyptian MathematicsAncient Egyptian MedicineMilitary Of Ancient EgyptMusic Of EgyptEgyptian MythologyList Of Ancient EgyptiansPharaohList Of PharaohsAncient Egyptian PhilosophyAncient Egyptian ReligionList Of Ancient Egyptian SitesAncient Egyptian TechnologyAncient Egyptian TradeWriting In Ancient EgyptGiza NecropolisEgyptologyList Of EgyptologistsList Of Museums Of Egyptian AntiquitiesBook:Ancient Egypt TopicsCategory:Ancient EgyptPortal:Ancient EgyptWikipedia:WikiProject Ancient EgyptHelp:CategoryCategory:Geography Of Ancient EgyptCategory:Nomes Of Ancient EgyptCategory:Government Of The Ptolemaic KingdomCategory:Roman EgyptCategory:Articles Containing Ancient Greek-language TextCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2009Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer