Contents 1 History 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Early history 1.3 Dutch rule 1.4 English rule 1.5 American Revolution 1.6 Nineteenth century 1.7 Modern history 2 Geography 2.1 Cityscape 2.2 Architecture 2.3 Boroughs 2.4 Climate 2.5 Parks 2.5.1 National parks 2.5.2 State parks 2.5.3 City parks 2.6 Military installations 3 Demographics 3.1 Population density 3.2 Race and ethnicity 3.3 Sexual orientation and gender identity 3.3.1 Transgender contribution 3.4 Religion 3.5 Income 4 Economy 4.1 City economic overview 4.2 Wall Street 4.3 Silicon Alley 4.4 Tourism 4.5 Media and entertainment 5 Human resources 5.1 Education and scholarly activity 5.1.1 Primary and secondary education 5.1.2 Higher education and research 5.1.3 Public library system 5.2 Public health 5.3 Public safety 5.3.1 Police and law enforcement 5.3.2 Firefighting 6 Culture and contemporary life 6.1 Arts 6.1.1 Performing arts 6.1.2 Visual arts 6.2 Cuisine 6.3 Parades 6.4 Accent and dialect 6.5 Sports 7 Transportation 7.1 Rapid transit 7.1.1 Rail 7.1.2 Buses 7.2 Air 7.3 Ferries 7.4 Taxis, transport startups, and trams 7.5 Streets and highways 7.5.1 River crossings 8 Environment 8.1 Environmental impact reduction 8.2 Water purity and availability 8.3 Environmental revitalization 9 Government and politics 9.1 Government 9.2 Politics 10 Notable people 11 Global outreach 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History Main articles: History of New York City and Timeline of New York City Etymology In 1664, the city was named after the Duke of York, who would become King James II. James's older brother, King Charles II of England, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherlands, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently seized from the Dutch. Early history During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet (300 m) in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of regolith, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet contributed to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.[81] In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the western portion of Long Island, including the area that would become Brooklyn and Queens; Manhattan; the Bronx; and the Lower Hudson Valley.[82] The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême).[83] Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony's River). The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show North America's east coast continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the Northeastern U.S. as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor.[84] In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered the New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish."[85] Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles north,[86] past the site of present-day Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue.[85] He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland). The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.[87][88] New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it "New York". Dutch rule A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 – making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States[89] – with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island.[90][91] The colony of New Amsterdam was centered at the site which would eventually become Lower Manhattan. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band,[92] for 60 guilders[93] (about $1,000 in 2006).[94] A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.[95][96] Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly.[97] To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen ("patroons", or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swathes of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.[98] Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies).[97][99] In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000.[100][101] Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship.[102] The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.[103] English rule In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed.[102][103] The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom.[104] The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England).[105] The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.[106] On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.[107][108] Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670.[109] By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200.[110] New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.[111][112] New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina.[113] Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years. The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America.[114] In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[115] American Revolution The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.[116] In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.[117] By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Nineteenth century Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.[118] Under New York State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties.[119][120] Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children.[121] It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.[122] In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration.[123] The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.[124] Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.[125] Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city. Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900. The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population.[126] There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.[127] Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on.[121] Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $5,963 in 2017) commutation fee to hire a substitute,[128] led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.[121] The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants.[127] According to historian James M. McPherson (2001), at least 120 people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance.[127][129] Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area.[127] It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.[130] Modern history A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is below and behind him. In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.[131] The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.[132] UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952 New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890.[133] New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline. New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.[134] The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.[135] Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[136] The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the 1969 Stonewall riots.[137][138] The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement[139][140][141] and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[142][143] In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[144] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[145] By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census. United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The city and surrounding area suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks when 10 of the 19 terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda piloted American Airlines Flight 11 into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, and later destroyed them, killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers who were in the towers and in the surrounding area. The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is.[146] The rebuilding of the area, has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) permanent station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016.[147] The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere[148] and the fourth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of American independence.[149][150][151][152] The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[153]

Geography Main articles: Geography of New York City and Geography of New York Harbor Satellite imagery illustrating the core of the New York City Metropolitan Area, with Manhattan Island at its center New York City is situated in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.[154] The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island. The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary.[155] The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.[156] The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.[157] Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.[158] The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water.[159][160] The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine.[161] The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.[162] Places adjacent to New York City Bergen County, NJ North Westchester County, NY Long Island Sound Hudson County, NJ New York City Nassau County, NY Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ South Atlantic Ocean Cityscape Ten-mile Manhattan panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken February 21, 2018, from Weehawken, New Jersey. Riverside Church Time Warner Center 220 Central Park South Central Park Tower One57 432 Park Avenue 53W53 Chrysler Building Bank of America Tower Conde Nast Building The New York Times Building Empire State Building Manhattan West a: 55 Hudson Yards, b: 35 Hudson Yards, c: 10 Hudson Yards, d: 15 Hudson Yards 56 Leonard Street 8 Spruce Street Woolworth Building 70 Pine Street 30 Park Place Trump Building Three World Trade Center Four World Trade Center One World Trade Center View of Midtown Manhattan at night, from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey. View of Lower Manhattan at sunset, from Jersey City, New Jersey. One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. Architecture Further information: Architecture of New York City and List of tallest buildings in New York City Modernist architecture juxtaposed with classical architecture is seen often in New York City. The Chrysler Building, above, built in 1930, is an example of the Art Deco style, with ornamental hub caps and a spire. The Empire State Building is a solitary icon of New York. It was the world's tallest building 1931–70 and is defined by its setbacks, Art Deco details and the spire. Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn. New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.[163] Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of 2011[update], New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, both second in the world after Hong Kong,[164][165] with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.[166] The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[167] The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style.[168] A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers[169] and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design. The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.[170] In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.[171][172][173] Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[174] A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes.[175] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights.[176] According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.[177] Boroughs Main articles: Borough (New York City) and Neighborhoods in New York City The five boroughs of New York City:   1. Manhattan   2. Brooklyn   3. Queens   4. Bronx   5. Staten Island New York City's five boroughs v t e Jurisdiction Population Land area Density Borough County Estimate (2016)[178] square miles square km persons / sq. mi persons / sq. km Manhattan New York 1,643,734 22.83 59.1 72,033 27,826 The Bronx Bronx 1,455,720 42 110 34,653 13,231 Brooklyn Kings 2,629,150 71 180 37,137 14,649 Queens Queens 2,333,054 109 280 21,460 8,354 Staten Island Richmond 476,015 58.5 152 8,112 3,132 City of New York 8,537,673 303.33 781.1 28,188 10,947 State of New York 19,745,289 47,214 122,284 416.4 159 Sources: see individual borough articles New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten island would be ranked 37th) ; these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States (New York [Manhattan], Kings [Brooklyn], Bronx, and Queens). Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers, and may be locally known simply as The City.[179] Manhattan's (New York County's) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km²) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city.[180] Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.[181][182] Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with The Bronx. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.[183] Marine Park[184] and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms,[185][186] and of postmodern art[187] and design.[186] Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States,[188] and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[189][190] Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.) Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km2), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city.[191] Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks. The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough with a majority of it a part of the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City.[192] It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo,[193] which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and houses over 6,000 animals.[194] The Bronx is also the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture.[195] Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).[196] Climate Avenue C in Manhattan after flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.[197] Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization.[198][199] The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa).[198][199] Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine.[200] The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.[201] Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C);[202] temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter,[203] and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July.[202] Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936.[202] The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August.[204] The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area.[205] Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs.[206] The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[207][208] Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1869–present[b] Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 72 (22) 78 (26) 86 (30) 96 (36) 99 (37) 101 (38) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 75 (24) 106 (41) Mean maximum °F (°C) 59.6 (15.3) 60.7 (15.9) 71.5 (21.9) 83.0 (28.3) 88.0 (31.1) 92.3 (33.5) 95.4 (35.2) 93.7 (34.3) 88.5 (31.4) 78.8 (26) 71.3 (21.8) 62.2 (16.8) 97.0 (36.1) Average high °F (°C) 38.3 (3.5) 41.6 (5.3) 49.7 (9.8) 61.2 (16.2) 70.8 (21.6) 79.3 (26.3) 84.1 (28.9) 82.6 (28.1) 75.2 (24) 63.8 (17.7) 53.8 (12.1) 43.0 (6.1) 62.0 (16.7) Daily mean °F (°C) 32.6 (0.3) 35.3 (1.8) 42.5 (5.8) 53.0 (11.7) 62.4 (16.9) 71.4 (21.9) 76.5 (24.7) 75.2 (24) 68.0 (20) 56.9 (13.8) 47.7 (8.7) 37.5 (3.1) 55.0 (12.8) Average low °F (°C) 26.9 (−2.8) 28.9 (−1.7) 35.2 (1.8) 44.8 (7.1) 54.0 (12.2) 63.6 (17.6) 68.8 (20.4) 67.8 (19.9) 60.8 (16) 50.0 (10) 41.6 (5.3) 32.0 (0) 47.9 (8.8) Mean minimum °F (°C) 9.2 (−12.7) 12.8 (−10.7) 18.5 (−7.5) 32.3 (0.2) 43.5 (6.4) 52.9 (11.6) 60.3 (15.7) 58.8 (14.9) 48.6 (9.2) 38.0 (3.3) 27.7 (−2.4) 15.6 (−9.1) 7.0 (−13.9) Record low °F (°C) −6 (−21) −15 (−26) 3 (−16) 12 (−11) 32 (0) 44 (7) 52 (11) 50 (10) 39 (4) 28 (−2) 7 (−14) −13 (−25) −15 (−26) Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.65 (92.7) 3.09 (78.5) 4.36 (110.7) 4.50 (114.3) 4.19 (106.4) 4.41 (112) 4.60 (116.8) 4.44 (112.8) 4.28 (108.7) 4.40 (111.8) 4.02 (102.1) 4.00 (101.6) 49.94 (1,268.5) Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.0 (17.8) 9.2 (23.4) 3.9 (9.9) 0.6 (1.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 4.8 (12.2) 25.8 (65.5) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.4 9.2 10.9 11.5 11.1 11.2 10.4 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.6 10.6 122.0 Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.0 2.8 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3 11.4 Average relative humidity (%) 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0 Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7 Percent possible sunshine 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57 Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[210][211][200] See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs. ► See or edit raw graph data. Parks Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in the 1964 New York World's Fair, with the Unisphere as its centerpiece. The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the second best park system among the 50 most populous US cities, behind the park system of Minneapolis.[212] ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents. National parks Main article: National Park Service The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[213] Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City,[214] including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina. The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.[139][140][141][142][143] State parks Main article: New York State Parks There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.[215] City parks Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo.[193] See also: Parks and recreation in New York City New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches.[216] The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).[196][217] Central Park, an 843-acre (3.41 km2)[196] park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013.[218] The park contains a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, and the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir.[219] Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund manager John A. Paulson announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City's park system.[220] Washington Square Park is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University and Greenwich Village. Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake, and extensive woodlands. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.[221] Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, with its 897 acres (363 ha) making it the city's fourth largest park,[222] was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and the 1964 World's Fair[223] and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center and the annual United States Open Tennis Championships tournament.[224] Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx Zoo, and the New York Botanical Gardens.[225] In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown.[226] The historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.[227] Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States. Military installations New York City is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military's only active duty installation within the city.[228] Established in 1825 in Brooklyn on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, it is one of America's longest serving military forts.[229] Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of New York City, New York City ethnic enclaves, and Demographic profile of New York City City compared to State & U.S.  2010 Census[230][231] NY City NY State U.S. Total population 8,175,133 19,378,102 308,745,538 Population change, 2000 to 2010 +2.1% +2.1% +9.7% Population density (people/sqmi) 27,012.5 411.2 87.4 Median household income (2015) $53,373 $59,269 $53,889 Bachelor's degree or higher 35.7% 34.2% 29.8% Foreign born 37.2% 22.5% 13.2% White (non-Hispanic) 44.0% 65.7% 72.4% Black 25.5% 15.9% 12.6% Hispanic (any race) 28.6% 17.6% 16.3% Asian 12.7% 7.3% 4.8% Racial composition 2010[230] 1990[232] 1970[232] 1940[232] White 44.0% 52.3% 76.6% 93.6% —Non-Hispanic 33.3% 43.2% 62.9%[233] 92.0% Black or African American 25.5% 28.7% 21.1% 6.1% Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.6% 24.4% 16.2%[233] 1.6% Asian 12.7% 7.0% 1.2% − New York City had an estimated population density of 28,201 people per square mile (10,890/km²) in 2016, with Manhattan alone at 71,999/sq mi (27,799/km²). Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1698 4,937 —     1712 5,840 +18.3% 1723 7,248 +24.1% 1737 10,664 +47.1% 1746 11,717 +9.9% 1756 13,046 +11.3% 1771 21,863 +67.6% 1790 49,401 +126.0% 1800 79,216 +60.4% 1810 119,734 +51.1% 1820 152,056 +27.0% 1830 242,278 +59.3% 1840 391,114 +61.4% 1850 696,115 +78.0% 1860 1,174,779 +68.8% 1870 1,478,103 +25.8% 1880 1,911,698 +29.3% 1890 2,507,414 +31.2% 1900 3,437,202 +37.1% 1910 4,766,883 +38.7% 1920 5,620,048 +17.9% 1930 6,930,446 +23.3% 1940 7,454,995 +7.6% 1950 7,891,957 +5.9% 1960 7,781,984 −1.4% 1970 7,894,862 +1.5% 1980 7,071,639 −10.4% 1990 7,322,564 +3.5% 2000 8,008,278 +9.4% 2010 8,175,133 +2.1% 2016 8,537,673 +4.4% Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics.[234] Sources: 1698–1771,[235][236] 1790–1890,[234][237] 1900–1990,[238] 2000 and 2010,[239][240][241] 2016 Census estimate.[7] Source: U.S. Decennial Census[242] New York City is the most populous city in the United States,[9] with an estimated record high of 8,537,673 residents as of 2016[update],[7] incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census.[243][244] More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles),[9] and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city.[9] New York City's population is about 43% of New York State's population[245] and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area.[246] Population density In 2015, the city had an estimated population density of 28,053 people per square mile (10,756/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities housing over 100,000 residents in the United States, with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 Census.[247] Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's 2015 population density of 69,468 inhabitants per square mile (26,822/km2)[248] makes it the highest of any county in the United States[249][250] and higher than the density of any individual American city.[251] Race and ethnicity Further information: Chinese in New York City, Fuzhounese in New York City, Indians in New York City, Koreans in New York City, Filipinos in New York City, Bangladeshis in New York City, Japanese in New York City, Russians in New York City, Ukrainians in New York City, Irish in New York City, Italians in New York City, Caribbeans in New York City, and Puerto Ricans in New York City The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% black (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American, and 12.7% Asian.[252] Hispanics of any race represented 28.6% of the population,[252] while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the Civil War, the number of blacks declined over a decade.[253] Clockwise, from upper left: the Manhattan Chinatown; Manhattan's Little Italy; Spanish Harlem; and Manhattan's Koreatown Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924.[254] The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians.[255] In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.[232] Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants.[256][257] In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates.[256] The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011[update] were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago,[258] while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.[39][259] Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles.[260] New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper.[261] The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[189][190] The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves – while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County[262] on Long Island,[263] as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas,[32][264][265][266][267][268] with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia,[39][269] including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015.[270] In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island.[271] A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens.[272] Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.[273] Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos,[274] and Malaysians[32] and other Southeast Asians;[275] while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants. Map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined.[276] The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940.[277] The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010.[278] The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010.[279] People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people.[280] Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City,[281] with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States,[282] most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.[283] The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with over 20 million people, about 50% greater than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States,[4] is also ethnically diverse,[284] with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami.[32] It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe.[272] The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns;[285][286] the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American,[264] Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American[264] and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million;[279] and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone.[287] Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America.[288] Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013[update]. Sexual orientation and gender identity Main article: LGBT culture in New York City The scene at the 2011 LGBT Pride March. New York City is home to the largest LGBTQ community in the United States and one of the world's largest.[289][290][291] The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest.[292][293] Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.[294] Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame."[295] The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[296] Transgender contribution Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. "None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement."[297] Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter.[297] New York City is home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016.[298] However, until the Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.[297] Religion Christianity (59%) — made up of Roman Catholicism (33%), Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%) — is the most prevalent religion in New York, as of 2014[update].[299] It is followed by Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents,[300][301] over half of whom live in Brooklyn.[302] The Jewish population makes up 18.4% of the city.[303] Islam ranks third in New York City, with official estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children.[304] These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation.[299] Religious affiliations in New York City The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick's Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.[302] The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan, the first mosque built in New York City. Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple in the U.S. Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Chinatown, Manhattan Atheism, promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square, is observed by a significant proportion of New Yorkers. Income New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0.5 for the city overall and 0.6 for Manhattan.[305] In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.[306] As of 2017, New York City had the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 82, with a combined net worth of US$398 billion,[307] including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg.[308] New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents.[309] New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (currently about 3%) on its residents.[310][311][312]

Economy Main article: Economy of New York City City economic overview Top publicly traded companies in New York City (ranked by 2015 revenues) with City and U.S. ranks NYC corporation US 1 Verizon Communications 13 2 JPMorgan Chase 23 3 Citigroup 29 4 MetLife 40 5 American International Group 49 6 Pfizer (pharmaceuticals) 55 7 New York Life 61 8 Goldman Sachs 74 9 Morgan Stanley 78 10 TIAA (Teachers Ins. & Annuity) 82 11 INTL FCStone 83 12 American Express 85 Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billion Financial services firms in green Full table at Economy of New York City Source: Fortune 500[313] New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in the first half of 2014.[314] In February 2017, New York City's unemployment rate fell to 4.3%, the lowest in the city's recorded history, with the city achieving the status of what many economists refer to as full employment.[315] Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City,[316] as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.[317] New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists.[318][319] This ability to attract foreign investment helped New York City top the FDi Magazine American Cities of the Future ranking for 2013.[320] Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year with 89% of the increase coming from market effects.[321] The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006.[321] New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.[322] According to Forbes, in 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price.[323] Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.[324] As of 2013[update], the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue".[325] The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.[326] Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn.[327] Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents. Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year.[328] Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014[update],[329] while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.[330] Wall Street Main article: Wall Street The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.[67][68] New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.[331] Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies. Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[67][68] Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,[332] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.[333] In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.[334] New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.[335]:31–32[336] In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.[337] New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.[335]:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.[338] Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2015,[339] making it the largest office market in the United States,[340] while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2015,[339] is the largest central business district in the world.[341] Silicon Alley Main article: Silicon Alley Further information: Tech companies in New York City and Biotech companies in New York City Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York's high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.[342] Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries[343] involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology ("FinTech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises,[48] most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[344] New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[345] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[346] As of 2014[update], New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.[347][348] The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[349][350] By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.[351] Tourism Main article: Tourism in New York City Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.[54] The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977 Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving a seventh consecutive annual record of approximately 61 million visitors in 2016.[53] Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014,[53] pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China. In 2016, New York City tourism attained a record high for the sixth year in a row.[53] I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City,[352] and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development,[353] appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York. Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage.[354] Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015,[355] overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.[356] Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013.[357] In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.[358] Media and entertainment Main article: Media in New York City Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios. New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there.[359] As of 2012[update], New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals; the filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015,[360] and by volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production[361] – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City.[362] The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York.[363] In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013,[364] with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.[365] New York City is additionally a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America.[366] Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.[367] Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere. More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city,[362] and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.[368] Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson[369] and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.[370] The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.[371] El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.[372] The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.[373] The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV,[374] that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971.[375] WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.[376]

Human resources Education and scholarly activity Main article: Education in New York City Primary and secondary education The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools.[377] The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.[378] Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.[379] The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood. The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools.[380] There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.[381] Higher education and research Over 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's over 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States, including over half million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone in 2014.[382] In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates, and one out of four had a postgraduate degree, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city.[383] New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Mercy College, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Pace University, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world.[79][80] The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York (SUNY) system serves New York City, as well as the rest of the state. The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Fashion Institute of Technology, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, The School of Visual Arts, The King's College, and Wagner College. Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005[update];[384] while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City.[385] Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, US$144,000 as of 2017.[386] Public library system The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street. The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.[387] Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.[387] Public health Main article: New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City[388] and one of the world's busiest. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents.[389] HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969).[390] HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.[391] HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages.[392] The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City.[393] The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois.[394] In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.[395] Public safety Police and law enforcement Main articles: New York City Police Department and Law enforcement in New York City Further information: Crime in New York City The New York City Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with over 35,000 sworn officers.[396] Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York's Finest. Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s.[397] In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program,[398][399][400] which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities,[401] having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s.[402] Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases.[403] By 2002, New York City's crime rate was similar to that of Provo, Utah, and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000.[403] In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966,[404] and in 2007, the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963.[405] In 2015, 50.5% of New York City misdemeanor assault suspects were black, 33.3% Hispanic, 11.1% white, 4.8% Asian/Pacific Islander and 0.3% Native American.[406] New York City experienced 352 homicides in 2015,[407] its second lowest number on record.[408] In 2016 the murder rate fell to 3.9 per 100,000 residents,[409], significantly below the US average of 5.3,[410] and was projected to drop significantly in 2017.[411][412] Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD,[413] including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory.[414] Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes,[415] including from immigration.[416] Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s.[417] Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wetter climate in the city.[418] Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades.[419] The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.[420][421] Firefighting Main article: New York City Fire Department The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States. The New York City Fire Department (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and over 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest. The New York City Fire Department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track. The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn,[422] and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island.[423] There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications. The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.

Culture and contemporary life Further information: Culture of New York City and List of people from New York City New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland[18] and Latvia[19] and by New York's Baruch College.[20] A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia.[21] In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."[424] Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.[425][426] The city was a center of jazz[427] in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s.[428] The city's punk[429] and hardcore[430] scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop,[195] punk, salsa, disco, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, and jazz in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world.[431][432][433] The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media.[434][435] New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.[436] Arts New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.[437] The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.[437] Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals. Performing arts Main articles: Broadway theatre and Music of New York City Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square,[438] also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way".[439][440][441] Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.[442] Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.[443] The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.[444] Visual arts Main article: List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,[445] in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill.[446] The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue.[447] The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959,[448] opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation.[449] Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.[450][451] Cuisine Main article: Cuisine of New York City Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.[452] New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central European and Italian immigrants brought bagels, cheesecake, and New York-style pizza into the city, while Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses have become ubiquitous. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs[453] examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin.[454] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's 24,000 restaurants based upon their inspection results.[455] Clockwise, from upper left: the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world's largest parade;[456] the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts Parades New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,[456] beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;[457] the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.[456] Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. Accent and dialect Main articles: New York City English and New York accent The New York area has historically been home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.[458] The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working-class people of European descent. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect,[459] and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as in the past.[459] The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk."[459] There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet).[459] The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family (played by Carroll O'Connor) was an example of having used this pattern of speech, which continues to fade in its overall presence. Sports The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.[460] The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009. Main article: Sports in New York City New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League,[461] Major League Baseball,[462] the National Basketball Association,[463] the National Hockey League,[464] and Major League Soccer.[465] The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in these five professional leagues. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area.[466] Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps. New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball".[467] There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens,[468] and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx.[469] These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships,[470] while the Mets have won the World Series twice.[471] The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once,[472] and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958.[473] There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones[474] and Staten Island Yankees.[475] The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey,[476] which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.[477] The city is represented in the National Hockey League by three teams: the New York Rangers[478], one of the Original Six teams of the league, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan, the New York Islanders[479], who play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and the New Jersey Devils, who play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey[480]. The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city's Women's National Basketball Association team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.[481] The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA. In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium.[482] The New York Red Bulls play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey.[483] Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York. The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.[484] The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon,[460] with 51,394 finishers in 2016[485] and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race.[460] The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year.[486] The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level.

Transportation New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal. Main article: Transportation in New York City New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive. Rapid transit Main article: Mass transit in New York City Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.[487][488] Rail The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations. The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong,[489][490] London, Paris, Seoul,[491][492] and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015,[493] while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms. Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit.[494] This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace.[495] According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities.[496] New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car.[497] Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.[498] New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America.[487] The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.[487] In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems.[499][500] For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.[501] The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L', the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro). Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.[502] Buses The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world's busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.[503] New York City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America,[504] and the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.[503] Air John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States. New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation.[505] JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011[update], JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America.[506] Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.[507] Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities.[508] Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport. Ferries The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island. The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route, carrying over 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day.[509] Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area. NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries.[510] Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.[511] Taxis, transport startups, and trams Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12,000 yellow taxicabs;[512] various competing startup transportation network companies; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York.[513][514] Streets and highways 8th Avenue, looking northward ("uptown"). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration. Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway,[515] Wall Street,[516] Madison Avenue,[325][517] and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively. New York City also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, which link the city's boroughs to each other and to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour.[518] River crossings The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world's longest suspension bridges,[519][520] connects Brooklyn and Staten Island across The Narrows. The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.[521][522] New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,[523] and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are (primarily) coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and The Bronx is located at the southern tip of New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of well-known bridges and tunnels. The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[524][525] connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world's longest.[519][520] The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.[526][527] Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.[528] The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927.[529][530] The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940.[531] President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it.[532] The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

Environment Main article: Environmental issues in New York City As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America. Environmental impact reduction New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint.[533] Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.[534] New York's high rate of public transit use, over 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014[update],[535] and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States.[536] Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.[537] In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States.[538][539][540] Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013.[541] Research conducted by Quinnipiac University showed that a majority of New Yorkers support the initiative.[542] New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city hit an all-time high in 2013.[543] The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others.[169] Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.[533] Water purity and availability Main articles: Food and water in New York City and New York City water supply system New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[544] As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[545] The city's municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day.[546] The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.[547] The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history,[548] with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020.[549] In 2018, New York City announced a US$1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.[546] Environmental revitalization Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities.[550] One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country,[551] containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m3) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City's sewer system,[551] and other accumulation.

Government and politics Main articles: Government of New York City and Politics of New York City Government New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions. New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government[552] since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services. The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries.[553] Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit,[554] which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.[555][556] The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices. Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System. Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different US district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and US Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan. Politics Bill de Blasio, the current and 109th Mayor of New York City The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993.[557] He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014. The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans.[558] New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city. New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry.[559] The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also spent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return.[560]

Notable people Main article: List of people from New York City

Global outreach In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York's historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network.[561] New York City Global Partners network Africa Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Cairo, Egypt (1982) Cape Town, South Africa Lagos, Nigeria Libreville, Gabon Johannesburg, South Africa (2003) Nairobi, Kenya Asia (East) Bangkok, Thailand Beijing, People's Republic of China (1980) Biên Hòa, Vietnam Changwon, South Korea Chongqing, People's Republic of China[562] Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Hong Kong, People's Republic of China Jakarta, Indonesia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[563] Manila, Philippines Seoul, South Korea Shanghai, People's Republic of China Shenyang, People's Republic of China Singapore, Singapore Taipei, Taiwan Tokyo, Japan (1960) (South) Bangalore, India Delhi, India Dhaka, Bangladesh Karachi, Pakistan Mumbai, India (West) Dubai, United Arab Emirates Istanbul, Turkey (transcontinental) Jerusalem, Israel (1993) Tel Aviv, Israel[564] Australia Melbourne, Australia Sydney, Australia Europe (Central) Berlin, Germany Bucharest, Romania Budapest, Hungary (1992) Düsseldorf, Germany Geneva, Switzerland Hamburg, Germany Heidelberg, Germany Munich, Germany Prague, Czech Republic Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland (East) Istanbul, Turkey (transcontinental) Kiev, Ukraine Moscow, Russia St. Petersburg, Russia (North) Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Oslo, Norway Stockholm, Sweden (South) Barcelona, Spain Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain (1982) Milan, Italy Pristina, Kosovo Rome, Italy (1992) (West) Amsterdam, Netherlands Antwerp, Belgium Belfast, United Kingdom Brussels, Belgium Dublin, Ireland Edinburgh, United Kingdom Glasgow, United Kingdom London, United Kingdom (2001) Luxembourg City, Luxembourg Lyon, France Paris, France Rotterdam, Netherlands The Hague, Netherlands North America (Canada) Calgary, Alberta, Canada Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Montreal, Quebec, Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Quebec City, Quebec, Canada Toronto, Ontario, Canada Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean) Cuernavaca, Morales, Mexico Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Panama City, Panama Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (1983) (United States) Baltimore, Maryland, United States Boston, Massachusetts, United States Chicago, Illinois, United States Los Angeles, California, United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States South America Bogotá, Colombia Brasilia, Brazil (2004) Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Córdoba, Argentina Curitiba, Brazil Lima, Peru Medellín, Colombia Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Santiago, Chile São Paulo, Brazil

Notes ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.[209]

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Further reading Belden, E. Porter (1849). New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase. New York: G.P. Putnam.  From Google Books. Burgess, Anthony (1976). New York. New York: Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 90-6182-266-1.  Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8  Federal Writers' Project (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City (1995 reissue ed.). New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-321-5.  Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (1995), The Encyclopedia of New York City, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300055366  Jackson, Kenneth T.; Dunbar, David S., eds. (2005). Empire City: New York Through the Centuries. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10909-1.  Lankevich, George L. (1998). American Metropolis: A History of New York City. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-5186-5.  White, E. B. (1949). Here is New York (2000 reissue ed.). Little Bookroom.  White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000), AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.), New York: Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5  Whitehead, Colson (2003). The Colossus of New York: A City in 13 Parts. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50794-1. 

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This Article Is Semi-protected.New York City (disambiguation)NYC (disambiguation)New York, New York (disambiguation)MegacityClockwise, From Top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, The Unisphere In Queens, The Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan With One World Trade Center, Central Park, The Headquarters Of The United Nations, And The Statue Of LibertyMidtown ManhattanTimes SquareUnisphereQueensBrooklyn BridgeLower ManhattanOne World Trade CenterCentral ParkHeadquarters Of The United NationsStatue Of LibertyFlag Of New York CityFlag Of New York CityOfficial Seal Of New York CitySeal Of New York CityOfficial Logo Of New York CityWordmarkNicknames Of New York CityLocation Within The U.S. State Of New YorkU.S. StateNew York (state)New York City Is Located In The USUnited StatesNew York (state)New York City Is Located In New YorkGeographic Coordinate SystemList Of Sovereign StatesU.S. StateNew York (state)County (United States)Boroughs Of New York CityThe BronxBrooklynManhattanQueensStaten IslandColonyNew NetherlandProvince Of New YorkCity Of Greater New YorkNamesakeJames II Of EnglandMayor–council GovernmentNew York City CouncilMayor Of New York CityBill De BlasioDemocratic Party (United States)2010 United States CensusList Of United States Cities By PopulationMetropolitan Statistical AreaList Of Metropolitan Statistical AreasNew York Metropolitan AreaList Of Combined Statistical AreasDemonymTime ZoneEastern Time ZoneUTC−5Daylight Saving TimeEastern Time ZoneUTC−4ZIP CodeTelephone Numbering PlanArea Codes 212, 646, And 332Area Codes 718, 347, And 929Area Code 917Federal Information Processing StandardsGeographic Names Information SystemBoroughs Of New York CityQueensBrooklynCategory:Regions Of New York (state)List Of Regions Of The United StatesDownstate New YorkLong IslandHudson ValleyUpstate New YorkHudson ValleyCapital District, New YorkNorth Country (New York)Southern TierMohawk ValleyCentral New YorkFinger LakesWestern New YorkAdministrative Divisions Of New YorkList Of Counties In New YorkList Of Cities In New YorkList Of Towns In New YorkList Of American Indian Reservations In New YorkList Of Villages In New YorkList Of Census-designated Places In New YorkList Of Places In New YorkTimeline Of Town Creation In Downstate New YorkTimeline Of Town Creation In The Hudson ValleyTimeline Of Town Creation In New York's Capital DistrictTimeline Of Town Creation In New York's North CountryTimeline Of Town Creation In Central New YorkTemplate:Regions Of New YorkTemplate Talk:Regions Of New YorkList Of United States Cities By PopulationUnited StatesList Of United States Cities By Population DensityU.S. StateNew York (state)New York Metropolitan AreaUrban AgglomerationList Of Metropolitan Statistical AreasList Of Combined Statistical AreasGlobal CityMedia (communication)Show BusinessResearchHeadquarters Of The United NationsInternational DiplomacyNew York HarborBoroughs Of New York CityList Of Counties In New YorkBrooklynQueensManhattanThe 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ColonyNew NetherlandsNew AmsterdamWisconsinan GlaciationIce SheetRegolithBedrockFoundation (engineering)Long IslandStaten IslandPre-Columbian EraAlgonquian PeoplesNative Americans In The United StatesLenapeLenapehokingLower Hudson ValleyNew York HarborGiovanni Da VerrazzanoFlorenceKingdom Of FranceNew AngoulêmeEnlargePeter MinuitSpanish EmpireEstêvão GomesPortuguese PeopleCharles V, Holy Roman EmperorNew York HarborPadrón RealNortheastern U.S.English PeopleHenry HudsonNorthwest PassageOrientDutch East India CompanyNorth River (Hudson River)Hudson RiverMaurice, Prince Of OrangeFirst MateAlbany, New YorkTributaryCape CodDelaware BayNetherlandsNew NetherlandJuan (Jan) RodriguezCaptaincy General Of Santo DomingoSanto DomingoPortuguese PeopleEthnic Groups Of AfricaBroadway (Manhattan)Upper ManhattanEnlargeNew AmsterdamLower ManhattanEnglandList Of North American Cities By Year Of FoundationContinental United StatesFur TradeGovernors IslandCitadelFort Amsterdam (New Amsterdam)Peter 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(Manhattan)Trinity Church (New York City)Congress Of The ConfederationArticles Of ConfederationUnited States ConstitutionGeorge WashingtonUnited States CongressSupreme Court Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsFederal HallPhiladelphiaEnlargeBroadway (Manhattan)WickquasgeckAbolition Of Slavery In The USAIndentured ServitudeFounding Fathers Of The United StatesAlexander HamiltonJohn JayNew York Manumission SocietyAfrican Free SchoolImmigrationCommissioners' Plan Of 1811Grid PlanErie CanalCentral New YorkHudson RiverGreat LakesTammany HallPolitical MachineIrish DiasporaGerman DiasporaWriterWilliam Cullen BryantWashington IrvingHerman MelvilleRufus Wilmot GriswoldJohn KeeseNathaniel Parker WillisEdgar Allan PoeCentral ParkEnlargeLittle Italy, ManhattanLower East SideGreat Famine (Ireland)Democratic Party (United States)Fernando WoodAldermanMilitary ConscriptionAmerican Civil WarNew York Draft RiotsNew York City Police DepartmentJames M. McPhersonWilliamsburg, BrooklynEnlargeConstruction WorkerEmpire State BuildingChrysler BuildingCity Of Greater New YorkNew York City SubwaySteamshipPS General SlocumEast RiverTriangle Shirtwaist Factory FireInternational Ladies' Garment Workers' UnionEnlargeUN Secretary GeneralDag HammarskjöldUnited Nations HeadquartersGreat Migration (African American)African DiasporaHarlem RenaissanceProhibition In The United StatesSkyscraperSkylineMegacityGreat DepressionFiorello La GuardiaTammany HallWorld War IIHousing TractUnited Nations HeadquartersGeopoliticalAbstract ExpressionismParisEnlargeStonewall InnGreenwich VillageNational Historic LandmarkStonewall National MonumentStonewall RiotsStonewall RiotsLGBT CommunityPolice RaidStonewall InnGreenwich VillageGay LiberationLGBT Rights In The United StatesDeindustrializationGentrificationSilicon AlleyUnited States Census, 2000EnlargeWorld Trade Center (1973–2001)September 11 AttacksTerrorismAl-QaedaAmerican Airlines Flight 11World Trade Center (1973–2001)United Airlines Flight 175Collapse Of The World Trade CenterCivilianFirefighterLaw Enforcement OfficerWorld Trade Center SiteOne World Trade CenterNational September 11 Memorial & MuseumWorld Trade Center (PATH Station)Santiago CalatravaWorld Trade Center Transportation HubSkyscraperList Of Tallest Buildings In The WorldPinnacleSpireUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceOccupy Wall StreetZuccotti ParkFinancial District (Manhattan)Occupy MovementSocial MovementSocial InequalityEconomic InequalityGeography Of New York CityGeography Of New York HarborEnlargeSatellite ImageryNew York City Metropolitan AreaManhattan IslandNortheastern United States (U.S. Census Bureau)Washington, D.C.BostonHudson RiverAtlantic OceanPortLong IslandHudson RiverHudson ValleyNew York BayTroy, New YorkEstuaryNew JerseyEast RiverLong Island SoundHarlem RiverBronx RiverWestchester CountyFresh WaterLand ReclamationLower ManhattanBattery Park CityTodt HillAbove Mean Sea LevelMaineStaten Island GreenbeltBergen County, New JerseyNew JerseyWestchester County, New YorkNew York (state)Long Island SoundHudson County, New JerseyNew JerseyNassau County, New YorkNew York (state)Middlesex County, New JerseyNew JerseyMonmouth County, New JerseyNew JerseyAtlantic OceanTen-mile Manhattan Panorama From 120th Street To The Battery, Taken February 21, 2018, From Weehawken, New Jersey. # Riverside Church # Time Warner Center # 220 Central Park South # Central Park Tower # One57 # 432 Park Avenue # 53W53 # Chrysler Building # Bank Of America Tower # Conde Nast Building # The New York Times Building # Empire State Building # Manhattan West # A: 55 Hudson Yards, B: 35 Hudson Yards, C: 10 Hudson Yards, D: 15 Hudson Yards # 56 Leonard Street # 8 Spruce Street # Woolworth Building # 70 Pine Street # 30 Park Place # Trump Building # Three World Trade Center # Four World Trade Center # One World Trade Center File:10 Mile Panorama Of NYC, Feb., 2018.jpg120th Street (Manhattan)The Battery (Manhattan)Weehawken, New JerseyRiverside ChurchTime Warner Center220 Central Park SouthCentral Park TowerOne57432 Park Avenue53W53Chrysler BuildingBank Of America Tower (Manhattan)Conde Nast BuildingThe New York Times BuildingEmpire State BuildingManhattan West55 Hudson Yards35 Hudson Yards10 Hudson Yards15 Hudson Yards56 Leonard Street8 Spruce StreetWoolworth Building70 Pine Street30 Park PlaceTrump BuildingThree World Trade CenterFour World Trade CenterOne World Trade CenterView Of Midtown Manhattan At Night, From Across The Hudson River In Weehawken, New Jersey.File:Manhattan From Weehawken, NJ.jpgMidtown ManhattanHudson RiverWeehawken, New JerseyView Of Lower Manhattan At Sunset, From Jersey City, New Jersey. One World Trade Center Is The Tallest Skyscraper In The Western Hemisphere.File:Lower Manhattan From Jersey City November 2014 Panorama 3.jpgLower ManhattanJersey CityOne World Trade CenterArchitecture Of New York CityList Of Tallest Buildings In New York CityEnlargeClassical ArchitectureChrysler BuildingArt DecoSpireEmpire State BuildingList Of Tallest Buildings And StructuresSetback (architecture)EnlargeRowhouseBrownstoneGreenpoint, BrooklynSaltboxWyckoff HouseOne World Trade CenterWorld Trade Center SiteList Of Most Expensive Buildings In The WorldSkylineSkyscraperHigh-riseHong KongList Of Tallest Buildings In New York CityWoolworth BuildingGothic Revival Architecture1916 Zoning ResolutionSetback (architecture)Land LotArt DecoChrysler BuildingEmpire State BuildingSpireArt DecoInternational Style (architecture)Seagram BuildingI-beamCondé Nast BuildingSustainable DesignAmerican Institute Of ArchitectsBrownstoneTerraced HouseTownhouseTenementRiverdale, BronxDitmas Park, BrooklynDouglaston, QueensTudor Revival ArchitectureVictorian ArchitectureGreat Fire Of New YorkWater TowerGarden City MovementJackson Heights, QueensUnited States Geological SurveySeismic HazardBorough (New York City)Neighborhoods In New York CityEnlargeBorough (New York City)Borough (New York City)Template:NYC BoroughsTemplate Talk:NYC BoroughsManhattanThe BronxBrooklynQueensStaten IslandNew York (state)Category:Neighborhoods In New York CityManhattanCentral ParkSkyscraperCounty Statistics Of The United StatesList Of United States Cities By Population DensityFinancial CenterHeadquartersMultinational CorporationUnited Nations HeadquartersWall StreetUniversityManhattan IslandHudson RiverRandall's IslandWards IslandRoosevelt IslandEast RiverGovernors IslandLiberty IslandNew York HarborLower ManhattanMidtown ManhattanUpper ManhattanUpper East SideUpper West SideHarlemContiguous United StatesMarble Hill, ManhattanBrooklynLong IslandList Of Brooklyn NeighborhoodsDowntown BrooklynConey IslandMarine ParkProspect Park (Brooklyn)EntrepreneurshipHigh TechStartup CompanyPostmodern ArtDesignQueensEthnic DiversityDowntown FlushingCiti FieldBaseball StadiumNew York MetsUS Open (tennis)Flushing Meadows-Corona ParkJohn F. Kennedy International AirportLaGuardia AirportNewark Liberty International AirportNewark, New JerseyNew JerseyStaten IslandSuburbVerrazano-Narrows BridgeStaten Island FerryCommuterStatue Of LibertyEllis IslandStaten Island GreenbeltThe BronxYankee StadiumNew York YankeesHousing CooperativeCo-op City, BronxBronx ZooRappingHip Hop CulturePelham Bay ParkEnlargeAvenue C (Manhattan)Hurricane SandyKöppen Climate ClassificationHumid Subtropical ClimateHumid Continental ClimateUSDAHardiness ZoneAppalachian MountainsPittsburghCincinnatiIndianapolisUrban Heat IslandPrecipitationHurricaneTropical StormHurricane SandyStorm SurgeSeawallBelvedere CastleCentral ParkPrecipitationRelative HumiditySunshine DurationSunshine DurationGeography Of New York CityEnlargeFlushing Meadows–Corona Park1964 New York World's FairUnisphereNational Park ServiceNew York State Office Of Parks, Recreation And Historic PreservationNew York City Department Of Parks And RecreationTrust For Public LandMinneapolisNational Park ServiceEnlargeStatue Of LibertyLiberty IslandNew York HarborDemocracyGateway National Recreation AreaHectareJamaica Bay Wildlife RefugeSalt MarshWetlandsJamaica BayRockaway PeninsulaJacob Riis ParkFort TildenFort WadsworthBattery WeedFort Tompkins QuadrangleGreat Kills ParkMarinaStatue Of Liberty National MonumentNew JerseyGovernors Island National MonumentCastle Clinton National MonumentFederal Hall National MemorialTheodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic SiteGeneral Grant National MemorialAfrican Burial Ground National MonumentHamilton Grange National MemorialNational Register Of Historic PlacesNational Historic LandmarkStonewall InnStonewall National MonumentGreenwich VillageGay Rights MovementNew York State ParksClay Pit Ponds State Park PreserveRiverbank State ParkEnlargeReindeerBronx ZooParks And Recreation In New York CityUrban ParkPelham Bay ParkCentral ParkIce RinkCentral Park ZooCentral Park Conservatory GardenBelvedere CastleHedge FundJohn PaulsonCentral Park ConservancyWashington Square ParkGreenwich VillageWashington Square ArchNew York UniversityProspect Park (Brooklyn)MeadowWoodlandFlushing Meadows–Corona Park1939 New York World's Fair1964 New York World's FairUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis CenterUS Open (tennis)Van Cortlandt ParkBronx ZooNew York Botanical GardensConference House ParkConference HouseBenjamin FranklinRichard Howe, 1st Earl HoweBritish CrownBurial RidgeCentral Park, As Seen From Rockefeller Center, Is The Most Visited City Park In The United States.File:26 - New York - Octobre 2008.jpgCentral ParkRockefeller CenterCity ParkFort HamiltonUnited States Armed ForcesAmerican RevolutionNorth Atlantic DivisionUnited States Army Corps Of EngineersUnited States National GuardFort WadsworthFort Totten (New York)Demographics Of New York CityNew York City Ethnic EnclavesDemographic Profile Of New York City2010 United States CensusWhite AmericanNon-Hispanic WhitesAfrican AmericanHispanic And Latino AmericansAsian AmericanEnlargePopulation DensityManhattan1790 United States Census1800 United States Census1810 United States Census1820 United States Census1830 United States Census1840 United States Census1850 United States Census1860 United States Census1870 United States Census1880 United States Census1890 United States Census1900 United States Census1910 United States Census1920 United States Census1930 United States Census1940 United States Census1950 United States Census1960 United States Census1970 United States Census1980 United States Census1990 United States Census2000 United States Census2010 United States CensusManhattan2010 United States CensusLos AngelesNew York Metropolitan AreaPopulation DensityHudson County, New JerseyList Of United States Cities By Population DensityCounty Statistics Of The United StatesList Of United States Cities By Population DensityChinese In New York CityFuzhounese In New York CityIndians In New York CityKoreans In New York CityFilipinos In New York CityBangladeshis In New York CityJapanese In New York CityRussians In New York CityUkrainians In New York CityIrish In New York CityItalians In New York CityCaribbeans In New York CityPuerto Ricans In New York CityWhite AmericanBlack AmericanNative Americans In The United StateAsian Americans In New York CityHispanic And Latino AmericansNon-Hispanic WhitesChinatown, ManhattanLittle Italy, ManhattanSpanish HarlemKoreatown, ManhattanPort Of EntryEuropean AmericanEllis IslandMelting PotLower East Side, ManhattanGerman AmericanIrish AmericanAshkenazi JewsItalian AmericanForeign BornDominican RepublicChinese Americans In New York CityMexicoGuyanese AmericanJamaicaEcuadorHaitiIndians In The New York City Metropolitan RegionRussian Americans In New York CityCaribbeans In New York CityBangladeshi AmericanAsian Americans In New York CitySan FranciscoAndesColombian AmericanEcuadorian AmericanPeruvian AmericanBolivian AmericanNatural SatelliteChinatown, ManhattanChinatown, BrooklynChinatown, FlushingNassau County, New YorkLong IslandChinese EmigrationChinese AmericanKoreans In ChinaFlushing, QueensTibetan PeopleNepalKorean Americans In New York CityJapanese In New York CityFilipinos In The New York City Metropolitan RegionSoutheast AsianVietnamese AmericanIndian AmericanSouth AsianPakistani AmericanMalaysian AmericanWest Indian AmericanEnlargeEuropean AmericanNon-Hispanic WhitesEuropean DiasporaItalian AmericanIrish AmericanGerman AmericanRussian Americans In New York CityPolish AmericanEnglish AmericanGreek AmericanFrench AmericanHungarian AmericanUkrainian AmericanScottish AmericanSpainNorwegian AmericanSwedish AmericanCzech AmericanLithuanian AmericanPortuguese AmericanScotch-Irish AmericanWelsh AmericanArab AmericanDemographics Of Central AsiaUzbek AmericanAlbanian AmericanLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaEthnic DiversityForeign BornMiami Metropolitan AreaJews In New York CityIsraeli AmericanIsraelMiddle EastEastern EuropeIndians In The New York City Metropolitan RegionLittle India (location)Korean Americans In New York CityKoreatown, ManhattanAsian IndianItalian AmericanAfrican AmericanDominican AmericanPuerto Rican Migration To New York CitySouth AmericaHispanic And Latino AmericanChinatownColombiaPeruBrazilJamaicaCaribbeans In New York CityEgyptGhanaNigeriaAfricaEl SalvadorHondurasGuatemalaCentral AmericaPuerto Rican Migration To New York CityLGBT Culture In New York CityEnlargeLGBT Pride March (New York City)LGBT Demographics Of The United StatesGays In New York CityBisexualityLGBT Demographics Of The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In New YorkWorld War IINew York City Pride MarchNew York City LGBT Pride MarchPride MarchFifth AvenueGreenwich Village, ManhattanSao Paulo Gay Pride ParadeWayne R. DynesEncyclopedia Of HomosexualityDrag QueenStonewall RiotsTransgenderLGBT EqualityChristianity In The United StatesRoman Catholicism In The United StatesProtestantism In The United StatesAmerican JewsJews In New York CityBrooklynIslamHinduismBuddhismAtheismNew York City LandmarksGothic Revival ArchitectureSt. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)Haredi JewsJews In New York CityIslamic Cultural Center Of New YorkUpper ManhattanHindu Temple Society Of North AmericaFlushing, QueensHindu TempleNew York Mahayana TempleChinatown, ManhattanAmerican AtheistsDigital BillboardTimes SquareIncome DisparityGini CoefficientBillionaireNet WorthMayor Of New York CityMichael BloombergMillionaireIncome TaxEconomy Of New York CityVerizon CommunicationsJPMorgan ChaseCitigroupMetLifeAmerican International GroupPfizerNew York Life Insurance CompanyGoldman SachsMorgan StanleyTeachers Insurance And Annuity AssociationINTL FCStoneAmerican ExpressEconomy Of New York CityGlobal CityNew MediaTraditional 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