Contents 1 Terminology 2 History 2.1 New York Intellectuals 2.2 Rejecting the American New Left and McGovern's New Politics 2.3 Leo Strauss and his students 2.4 Jeane Kirkpatrick 2.4.1 Skepticism towards democracy promotion 2.5 1990s 2.6 2000s 2.6.1 Administration of George W. Bush Bush Doctrine 2.6.2 2008 presidential election and aftermath 2.7 2010s 3 Evolution of opinions 3.1 Usage and general views 3.2 Opinions concerning foreign policy 3.3 Views on economics 3.4 Friction with other conservatives 3.5 Friction with paleoconservatism 3.5.1 Trotskyism allegation 4 Criticisms 4.1 Imperialism and secrecy 4.2 Antisemitism and dual loyalty 5 Notable people associated with neoconservatism 5.1 Politicians 5.2 Government officials 5.3 Academics 5.4 Public figures 6 Related publications and institutions 6.1 Institutions 6.2 Publications 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 10.1 Identity 10.2 Critiques 11 External links

Terminology[edit] The term "neoconservative" was popularized in the United States during 1973 by the socialist leader Michael Harrington, who used the term to define Daniel Bell, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Irving Kristol, whose ideologies differed from Harrington's.[10] The "neoconservative" label was used by Irving Kristol in his 1979 article "Confessions of a True, Self-Confessed 'Neoconservative'".[11] His ideas have been influential since the 1950s, when he co-founded and edited the magazine Encounter.[12] Another source was Norman Podhoretz, editor of the magazine Commentary from 1960 to 1995. By 1982, Podhoretz was terming himself a neoconservative in a New York Times Magazine article titled "The Neoconservative Anguish over Reagan's Foreign Policy".[13][14] During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the neoconservatives considered that liberalism had failed and "no longer knew what it was talking about", according to E. J. Dionne.[15] Seymour Lipset asserts that the term "neoconservative" was used originally by socialists to criticize the politics of Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA).[16] Jonah Goldberg argues that the term is ideological criticism against proponents of modern American liberalism who had become slightly more conservative[11][17] (both Lipset and Goldberg are frequently described as neoconservatives). In a book-length study for Harvard University Press, historian Justin Vaisse writes that Lipset and Goldberg are in error as "neoconservative" was used by socialist Michael Harrington to describe three men – noted above – who were not in SDUSA and neoconservatism is a definable political movement.[18] The term "neoconservative" was the subject of increased media coverage during the presidency of George W. Bush,[19][20] with particular emphasis on a perceived neoconservative influence on American foreign policy, as part of the Bush Doctrine.[21]

History[edit] Senator Henry M. Jackson, inspiration for neoconservative foreign policy during the 1970s Irving Kristol was called "godfather" of neoconservatism Through the 1950s and early 1960s, the future neoconservatives had endorsed the American civil rights movement, racial integration and Martin Luther King Jr.[22] From the 1950s to the 1960s, there was general endorsement among liberals for military action to prevent a communist victory in Vietnam.[23] Neoconservatism was initiated by the repudiation of the Cold War by the American New Left; Black Power, which accused white liberals and Northern Jews of hypocrisy on integration and of supporting settler colonialism in the Israeli-Palestine conflict; "anti-anticommunism", which during the late 1960s included substantial endorsement of Marxist–Leninist politics; and the "new politics" of the New left, which Norman Podheretz said was too close to the counterculture and too alienated from the majority of the population. Many were particularly alarmed by what they claimed were antisemitic sentiments from Black Power advocates.[24] Irving Kristol edited the journal The Public Interest (1965–2005), featuring economists and political scientists, which emphasized ways that government planning in the liberal state had produced unintended harmful consequences.[25] Many early Neoconservative political figures were disillusioned Democratic politicians and intellectuals, such as Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who served in the Nixon Administration, and Jeane Kirkpatrick, who served as President Ronald Reagan's United Nations (UN) Ambassador. A substantial number of neoconservatives were originally moderate socialists associated with the right-wing of the Socialist Party of America (SP) and its successor, Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA). Max Shachtman, a former Trotskyist theorist who developed a strong antipathy towards the New Left, had numerous devotees among SDUSA with strong links to George Meany's AFL-CIO. Following Shachtman and Meany, this faction led the SP to oppose immediate withdrawal from the Vietnam War, and oppose George McGovern in the Democratic primary race (and to some extent, the general election). They also chose to cease their own party-building and concentrated on working within the Democratic Party, eventually influencing it through the Democratic Leadership Council.[26] Thus the Socialist Party ceased to be in 1972 and SDUSA emerged (Most of the left-wing of the party, led by Michael Harrington, immediately abandoned SDUSA).[27][28] SDUSA leaders associated with neoconservatism include Carl Gershman, Penn Kemble, Joshua Muravchik and Bayard Rustin.[29][30][31][32] Norman Podhoretz's magazine Commentary of the American Jewish Committee, originally a journal of liberalism, became a major publication for neoconservatives during the 1970s. Commentary published an article by Jeane Kirkpatrick, an early and prototypical neoconservative, albeit not a New Yorker. New York Intellectuals[edit] Many neoconservatives had been Jewish intellectuals in New York City during the 1930s. They were on the political left, but strongly opposed Stalinism and some were Trotskyists. During the Cold War they continued to oppose Stalinism and to endorse democracy. The great majority became liberal Democrats.[33][34] Rejecting the American New Left and McGovern's New Politics[edit] As the policies of the New Left made the Democrats increasingly leftist, these intellectuals became disillusioned with President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society domestic programs. The influential 1970 bestseller The Real Majority by Ben Wattenberg expressed that the "real majority" of the electorate endorsed economic liberalism, but also social conservatism; and warned Democrats it could be disastrous to adopt liberal positions on certain social and crime issues.[35] The neoconservatives rejected the counterculture New Left and what they considered anti-Americanism in the non-interventionism of the activism against the Vietnam War. After the anti-war faction took control of the party during 1972 and nominated George McGovern, the Democrats among them endorsed Washington Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson instead for his unsuccessful 1972 and 1976 campaigns for president. Among those who worked for Jackson were incipient neoconservatives Paul Wolfowitz, Doug Feith, and Richard Perle.[36] During the late 1970s, neoconservatives tended to endorse Ronald Reagan, the Republican who promised to confront Soviet expansionism. Neoconservatives organized in the American Enterprise Institute and The Heritage Foundation to counter the liberal establishment.[37] In another (2004) article, Michael Lind also wrote:[38] Neoconservatism ... originated in the 1970s as a movement of anti-Soviet liberals and social democrats in the tradition of Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Humphrey and Henry ('Scoop') Jackson, many of whom preferred to call themselves 'paleoliberals.' [After the end of the Cold War] ... many 'paleoliberals' drifted back to the Democratic center ... Today's neocons are a shrunken remnant of the original broad neocon coalition. Nevertheless, the origins of their ideology on the left are still apparent. The fact that most of the younger neocons were never on the left is irrelevant; they are the intellectual (and, in the case of William Kristol and John Podhoretz, the literal) heirs of older ex-leftists. Leo Strauss and his students[edit] Neoconservatism draws on several intellectual traditions. The students of political science Professor Leo Strauss (1899–1973) comprised one major group. Eugene Sheppard notes: "Much scholarship tends to understand Strauss as an inspirational founder of American neoconservatism".[39] Strauss was a refugee from Nazi Germany who taught at the New School for Social Research in New York (1939–1949) and the University of Chicago (1949–1958).[40] Strauss asserted that "the crisis of the West consists in the West's having become uncertain of its purpose". His solution was a restoration of the vital ideas and faith that in the past had sustained the moral purpose of the West. The Greek classics (classical republican and modern republican), political philosophy and the Judeo-Christian heritage are the essentials of the Great Tradition in Strauss's work.[41][42] Strauss emphasized the spirit of the Greek classics and Thomas G. West (1991) argues that for Strauss the American Founding Fathers were correct in their understanding of the classics in their principles of justice. For Strauss, political community is defined by convictions about justice and happiness rather than by sovereignty and force. He repudiated the philosophy of John Locke as a bridge to 20th-century historicism and nihilism and defended liberal democracy as closer to the spirit of the classics than other modern regimes.[43] For Strauss, the American awareness of ineradicable evil in human nature and hence the need for morality, was a beneficial outgrowth of the premodern Western tradition.[44] O'Neill (2009) notes that Strauss wrote little about American topics, but his students wrote a great deal and that Strauss's influence caused his students to reject historicism and positivism as morally relativist positions.[45] They instead promoted a so-called Aristotelian perspective on America that produced a qualified defense of its liberal constitutionalism.[46] Strauss's emphasis on moral clarity led the Straussians to develop an approach to international relations that Catherine and Michael Zuckert (2008) call Straussian Wilsonianism (or Straussian idealism), the defense of liberal democracy in the face of its vulnerability.[45][47] Strauss influenced Weekly Standard editor William Kristol, editor John Podhoretz and military strategist Paul Wolfowitz.[48][49] Jeane Kirkpatrick[edit] Main article: Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Kirkpatrick A theory of neoconservative foreign policy during the final years of the Cold War was articulated by Jeane Kirkpatrick in "Dictatorships and Double Standards",[50] published in Commentary Magazine during November 1979. Kirkpatrick criticized the foreign policy of Jimmy Carter, which endorsed detente with the Soviet Union. She later served the Reagan Administration as Ambassador to the United Nations.[51] Skepticism towards democracy promotion[edit] In "Dictatorships and Double Standards", Kirkpatrick distinguished between authoritarian regimes and the totalitarian regimes such as the Soviet Union. She suggested that in some countries democracy was not tenable and the United States had a choice between endorsing authoritarian governments, which might evolve into democracies, or Marxist–Leninist regimes, which she argued had never been ended once they achieved totalitarian control. In such tragic circumstances, she argued that allying with authoritarian governments might be prudent. Kirkpatrick argued that by demanding rapid liberalization in traditionally autocratic countries, the Carter administration had delivered those countries to Marxist–Leninists that were even more repressive. She further accused the Carter administration of a "double standard" and of never having applied its rhetoric on the necessity of liberalization to communist governments. The essay compares traditional autocracies and Communist regimes: [Traditional autocrats] do not disturb the habitual rhythms of work and leisure, habitual places of residence, habitual patterns of family and personal relations. Because the miseries of traditional life are familiar, they are bearable to ordinary people who, growing up in the society, learn to cope. [Revolutionary Communist regimes] claim jurisdiction over the whole life of the society and make demands for change that so violate internalized values and habits that inhabitants flee by the tens of thousands. Kirkpatrick concluded that while the United States should encourage liberalization and democracy in autocratic countries, it should not do so when the government risks violent overthrow and should expect gradual change rather than immediate transformation.[52] She wrote: "No idea holds greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratize governments, anytime and anywhere, under any circumstances... Decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits. In Britain, the road [to democratic government] took seven centuries to traverse. [...] The speed with which armies collapse, bureaucracies abdicate, and social structures dissolve once the autocrat is removed frequently surprises American policymakers".[53] 1990s[edit] During the 1990s, neoconservatives were once again opposed to the foreign policy establishment, both during the Republican Administration of President George H. W. Bush and that of his Democratic successor, President Bill Clinton. Many critics charged that the neoconservatives lost their influence as a result of the end of the Soviet Union.[54] After the decision of George H. W. Bush to leave Saddam Hussein in power after the first Iraq War during 1991, many neoconservatives considered this policy and the decision not to endorse indigenous dissident groups such as the Kurds and Shiites in their 1991–1992 resistance to Hussein as a betrayal of democratic principles.[55][56][57][58][59] Some of those same targets of criticism would later become fierce advocates of neoconservative policies. During 1992, referring to the first Iraq War, then United States Secretary of Defense and future Vice President Richard Cheney said: I would guess if we had gone in there, I would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home. And the question in my mind is how many additional American casualties is Saddam [Hussein] worth? And the answer is not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the president made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.[60] Within a few years of the Gulf War in Iraq, many neoconservatives were endorsing the ouster of Saddam Hussein. On 19 February 1998, an open letter to President Clinton was published, signed by dozens of pundits, many identified with neoconservatism and later related groups such as the Project for the New American Century, urging decisive action to remove Saddam from power.[61] Neoconservatives were also members of the so-called "blue team", which argued for a confrontational policy toward the People's Republic of China and strong military and diplomatic endorsement for the Republic of China (also known as Formosa or Taiwan). During the late 1990s, Irving Kristol and other writers in neoconservative magazines began touting anti-Darwinist views as an endorsement of intelligent design. Since these neoconservatives were largely of secular origin, a few commentators have speculated that this – along with endorsement of religion generally – may have been a case of a "noble lie", intended to protect public morality, or even tactical politics, to attract religious endorsers.[62] 2000s[edit] Administration of George W. Bush[edit] Wikinews has related news: Vanity Fair editor Craig Unger on the Bush family feud, neoconservatives and the Christian right The Bush campaign and the early Bush administration did not exhibit strong endorsement of neoconservative principles. As a presidential candidate, Bush had argued for a restrained foreign policy, stating his opposition to the idea of nation-building[63] and an early foreign policy confrontation with China was managed without the vociferousness suggested by some neoconservatives.[64] Also early in the administration, some neoconservatives criticized Bush's administration as insufficiently supportive of Israel and suggested Bush's foreign policies were not substantially different from those of President Clinton.[65] During November 2010, former U.S. President George W. Bush (here with the former President of Egypt Hosni Mubarak at Camp David in 2002) wrote in his memoir Decision Points that Mubarak endorsed the administration's position that Iraq had WMDs before the war with the country, but kept it private for fear of "inciting the Arab street"[66] Bush's policies changed dramatically immediately after the 11 September 2001 attacks. During Bush's State of the Union speech of January 2002, he named Iraq, Iran and North Korea as states that "constitute an axis of evil" and "pose a grave and growing danger". Bush suggested the possibility of preemptive war: "I will not wait on events, while dangers gather. I will not stand by, as peril draws closer and closer. The United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons".[67][68] Some major defense and national-security persons have been quite critical of what they believed was a neoconservative influence in getting the United States to go to war against Iraq.[69] Former Nebraska Republican U.S. senator and Secretary of Defense, Chuck Hagel, who has been critical of the Bush administration's adoption of neoconservative ideology, in his book America: Our Next Chapter wrote: So why did we invade Iraq? I believe it was the triumph of the so-called neo-conservative ideology, as well as Bush administration arrogance and incompetence that took America into this war of choice. [...] They obviously made a convincing case to a president with very limited national security and foreign policy experience, who keenly felt the burden of leading the nation in the wake of the deadliest terrorist attack ever on American soil. Bush Doctrine[edit] President Bush meets with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and his staff at the Pentagon, 14 August 2006 The Bush Doctrine of preemptive war was stated explicitly in the National Security Council (NSC) text "National Security Strategy of the United States". published 20 September 2002: "We must deter and defend against the threat before it is unleashed [...] even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack. [...] The United States will, if necessary, act preemptively".[70] The choice not to use the word "preventive" in the 2002 National Security Strategy and instead use the word "preemptive" was largely in anticipation of the widely perceived illegality of preventive attacks in international law via both Charter Law and Customary Law.[71] Policy analysts noted that the Bush Doctrine as stated in the 2002 NSC document had a strong resemblance to recommendations presented originally in a controversial Defense Planning Guidance draft written during 1992 by Paul Wolfowitz, during the first Bush administration.[72] The Bush Doctrine was greeted with accolades by many neoconservatives. When asked whether he agreed with the Bush Doctrine, Max Boot said he did and that "I think [Bush is] exactly right to say we can't sit back and wait for the next terrorist strike on Manhattan. We have to go out and stop the terrorists overseas. We have to play the role of the global policeman. [...] But I also argue that we ought to go further".[73] Discussing the significance of the Bush Doctrine, neoconservative writer William Kristol claimed: "The world is a mess. And, I think, it's very much to Bush's credit that he's gotten serious about dealing with it. [...] The danger is not that we're going to do too much. The danger is that we're going to do too little".[74] 2008 presidential election and aftermath[edit] President Bush and Senator McCain at the White House, 5 March 2008 John McCain, who was the Republican candidate for the 2008 United States presidential election, endorsed continuing the second Iraq War, "the issue that is most clearly identified with the neoconservatives". The New York Times reported further that his foreign policy views combined elements of neoconservatism and the main competing conservative opinion, pragmatism, also known as realism:[75] Among [McCain's advisers] are several prominent neoconservatives, including Robert Kagan [...] Max Boot [...] [and] John Bolton. 'It may be too strong a term to say a fight is going on over John McCain’s soul,' said Lawrence Eagleburger [...] who is a member of the pragmatist camp, [...] [but he] said, "there is no question that a lot of my far right friends have now decided that since you can't beat him, let's persuade him to slide over as best we can on these critical issues. Barack Obama campaigned for the Democratic nomination during 2008 by attacking his opponents, especially Hillary Clinton, for originally endorsing Bush's Iraq-war policies. Obama maintained a selection of prominent military officials from the Bush Administration including Robert Gates (Bush's Defense Secretary) and David Petraeus (Bush's ranking general in Iraq). 2010s[edit] By 2010, U.S. forces had switched from combat to a training role in Iraq and they left in 2011.[76] The neocons had little influence in the Obama White House, but neoconservatism remains a staple in the Republican Party arsenal.[77][78]

Evolution of opinions[edit] Usage and general views[edit] During the early 1970s, Socialist Michael Harrington was one of the first to use "neoconservative" in its modern meaning. He characterized neoconservatives as former leftists – whom he derided as "socialists for Nixon" – who had become more conservative.[10] These people tended to remain endorsers of social democracy, but distinguished themselves by allying with the Nixon administration with respect to foreign policy, especially by their endorsement of the Vietnam War and opposition to the Soviet Union. They still endorsed the welfare state, but not necessarily in its contemporary form. External video Booknotes interview with Irving Kristol on Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea, 1995, C-SPAN Irving Kristol remarked that a neoconservative is a "liberal mugged by reality", one who became more conservative after seeing the results of liberal policies. Kristol also distinguished three specific aspects of neoconservatism from previous types of conservatism: neo-conservatives had a forward-looking attitude from their liberal heritage, rather than the reactionary and dour attitude of previous conservatives; they had a meliorative attitude, proposing alternate reforms rather than simply attacking social liberal reforms; and they took philosophical ideas and ideologies very seriously.[79] During January 2009 at the end of President George W. Bush's second term in office, Jonathan Clarke, a senior fellow at the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, proposed the following as the "main characteristics of neoconservatism": "a tendency to see the world in binary good/evil terms", a "low tolerance for diplomacy", a "readiness to use military force", an "emphasis on US unilateral action", a "disdain for multilateral organizations" and a "focus on the Middle East".[80] Opinions concerning foreign policy[edit] See also: Gunboat diplomacy International relations theory Realism Classical realism Liberal realism (English School) Neoclassical realism Neorealism (structural realism) Offensive realism Defensive realism Relative gains Absolute gains Strategic realism Liberalism Idealism Democratic peace theory Republican liberalism Institutionalism Neoliberalism Interdependence liberalism Sociological liberalism Institutional liberalism Constructivism Modern constructivism Post-modern constructivism Feminist constructivism Marxism Neo-Gramscianism Critical security studies Critical theory World-systems theory Other theories Anarchy International political economy Feminism Green theory Hegemonic stability theory The Copenhagen School Functionalism (Neofunctionalism) Post modernism Postcolonialism Classifications Dependency theory Postpositivism Rationalism Reflectivism "Great Debates" Inter-paradigm debate Other approaches International ethics Historical sociology Regime theory State cartel theory Geopolitics International relations portal v t e In foreign policy, the neoconservatives' main concern is to prevent the development of a new rival. Defense Planning Guidance, a document prepared during 1992 by Under Secretary for Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz, is regarded by Distinguished Professor of the Humanities John McGowan at the University of North Carolina as the "quintessential statement of neoconservative thought". The report says:[81] Our first objective is to prevent the re-emergence of a new rival, either on the territory of the former Soviet Union or elsewhere, that poses a threat on the order of that posed formerly by the Soviet Union. This is a dominant consideration underlying the new regional defense strategy and requires that we endeavor to prevent any hostile power from dominating a region whose resources would, under consolidated control, be sufficient to generate global power. According to Lead Editor of e-International Relations Stephen McGlinchey: "Neo-conservatism is something of a chimera in modern politics. For its opponents it is a distinct political ideology that emphasizes the blending of military power with Wilsonian idealism, yet for its supporters it is more of a 'persuasion' that individuals of many types drift into and out of. Regardless of which is more correct, it is now widely accepted that the neo-conservative impulse has been visible in modern American foreign policy and that it has left a distinct impact".[82] Neoconservatives claim the "conviction that communism was a monstrous evil and a potent danger".[83] They endorse social welfare programs that were rejected by libertarians and paleoconservatives.[citation needed] Neoconservatism first developed during the late 1960s as an effort to oppose the radical cultural changes occurring within the United States. Irving Kristol wrote: "If there is any one thing that neoconservatives are unanimous about, it is their dislike of the counterculture".[84] Norman Podhoretz agreed: "Revulsion against the counterculture accounted for more converts to neoconservatism than any other single factor".[85] Neoconservatives began to emphasize foreign issues during the mid-1970s.[86] Donald Rumsfeld and Victoria Nuland at the NATO–Ukraine consultations in Vilnius, Lithuania, October 24, 2005 In 1979, an early study by liberal Peter Steinfels concentrated on the ideas of Irving Kristol, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Daniel Bell. He noted that the stress on foreign affairs "emerged after the New Left and the counterculture had dissolved as convincing foils for neoconservatism [...] The essential source of their anxiety is not military or geopolitical or to be found overseas at all; it is domestic and cultural and ideological".[87] Neoconservative foreign policy is a descendant of so-called Wilsonian idealism. Neoconservatives endorse democracy promotion by the U.S. and other democracies, based on the claim that they think that human rights belong to everyone. They criticized the United Nations and detente with the Soviet Union. On domestic policy, they endorse a welfare state, like European and Canadian conservatives and unlike American conservatives. According to Norman Podhoretz, "'the neo-conservatives dissociated themselves from the wholesale opposition to the welfare state which had marked American conservatism since the days of the New Deal' and [...] while neoconservatives supported 'setting certain limits' to the welfare state, those limits did not involve 'issues of principle, such as the legitimate size and role of the central government in the American constitutional order' but were to be 'determined by practical considerations'".[88] In April 2006, Robert Kagan wrote in The Washington Post that Russia and China may be the greatest "challenge liberalism faces today": The main protagonists on the side of autocracy will not be the petty dictatorships of the Middle East theoretically targeted by the Bush doctrine. They will be the two great autocratic powers, China and Russia, which pose an old challenge not envisioned within the new 'war on terror' paradigm. ... Their reactions to the 'color revolutions' in Ukraine, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan were hostile and suspicious, and understandably so. ... Might not the successful liberalization of Ukraine, urged and supported by the Western democracies, be but the prelude to the incorporation of that nation into NATO and the European Union – in short, the expansion of Western liberal hegemony?[89][90] In July 2008, Joe Klein wrote in Time that today's neoconservatives are more interested in confronting enemies than in cultivating friends. He questioned the sincerity of neoconservative interest in exporting democracy and freedom, saying: "Neoconservatism in foreign policy is best described as unilateral bellicosity cloaked in the utopian rhetoric of freedom and democracy".[91] In February 2009, Andrew Sullivan wrote he no longer took neoconservatism seriously because its basic tenet was defense of Israel:[92] The closer you examine it, the clearer it is that neoconservatism, in large part, is simply about enabling the most irredentist elements in Israel and sustaining a permanent war against anyone or any country who disagrees with the Israeli right. That's the conclusion I've been forced to these last few years. And to insist that America adopt exactly the same constant-war-as-survival that Israelis have been slowly forced into... But America is not Israel. And once that distinction is made, much of the neoconservative ideology collapses. Neoconservatives respond to charges of merely rationalizing aid for Israel by noting that their "position on the Middle East conflict was exactly congruous with the neoconservative position on conflicts everywhere else in the world, including places where neither Jews nor Israeli interests could be found – not to mention the fact that non-Jewish neoconservatives took the same stands on all of the issues as did their Jewish confrères".[93] Views on economics[edit] While neoconservatism is concerned primarily with foreign policy, there is also some discussion of internal economic policies. Neoconservatism generally endorses free markets and capitalism, favoring supply-side economics, but it has several disagreements with classical liberalism and fiscal conservatism: Irving Kristol states that neocons are more relaxed about budget deficits and tend to reject the Hayekian notion that the growth of government influence on society and public welfare is "the road to serfdom".[94] Indeed, to safeguard democracy, government intervention and budget deficits may sometimes be necessary, Kristol argues. Further, neoconservative ideology stresses that while free markets do provide material goods in an efficient way, they lack the moral guidance human beings need to fulfill their needs. Morality can be found only in tradition, they say and contrary to libertarianism markets do pose questions that cannot be solved solely by economics. "So, as the economy only makes up part of our lives, it must not be allowed to take over and entirely dictate to our society".[95] Critics consider neoconservatism a bellicose and "heroic" ideology opposed to "mercantile" and "bourgeois" virtues and therefore "a variant of anti-economic thought".[96] Political scientist Zeev Sternhell states: "Neoconservatism has succeeded in convincing the great majority of Americans that the main questions that concern a society are not economic, and that social questions are really moral questions".[97] Friction with other conservatives[edit] Many moderate conservatives oppose neoconservative policies and have sharply negative views on it. For example, Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke (a libertarian based at Cato), in their 2004 book on neoconservatism, America Alone: The Neo-Conservatives and the Global Order,[98] characterized the neoconservatives at that time as uniting around three common themes: A belief deriving from religious conviction that the human condition is defined as a choice between good and evil and that the true measure of political character is to be found in the willingness by the former (themselves) to confront the latter. An assertion that the fundamental determinant of the relationship between states rests on military power and the willingness to use it. A primary focus on the Middle East and global Islam as the principal theater for American overseas interests. In putting these themes into practice, neo-conservatives: Analyze international issues in black-and-white, absolute moral categories. They are fortified by a conviction that they alone hold the moral high ground and argue that disagreement is tantamount to defeatism. Focus on the "unipolar" power of the United States, seeing the use of military force as the first, not the last, option of foreign policy. They repudiate the "lessons of Vietnam," which they interpret as undermining American will toward the use of force, and embrace the "lessons of Munich," interpreted as establishing the virtues of preemptive military action. Disdain conventional diplomatic agencies such as the State Department and conventional country-specific, realist, and pragmatic, analysis. They are hostile toward nonmilitary multilateral institutions and instinctively antagonistic toward international treaties and agreements. "Global unilateralism" is their watchword. They are fortified by international criticism, believing that it confirms American virtue. Look to the Reagan administration as the exemplar of all these virtues and seek to establish their version of Reagan's legacy as the Republican and national orthodoxy.[98]:10–11 Friction with paleoconservatism[edit] Main article: Neoconservatism and paleoconservatism Starting during the 1980s, disputes concerning Israel and public policy contributed to a conflict with paleoconservatives. Pat Buchanan terms neoconservatism "a globalist, interventionist, open borders ideology".[99] Paul Gottfried has written that the neocons' call for "permanent revolution" exists independently of their beliefs about Israel,[100] characterizing the neos as "ranters out of a Dostoyevskian novel, who are out to practice permanent revolution courtesy of the U.S. government" and questioning how anyone could mistake them for conservatives.[101] What make neocons most dangerous are not their isolated ghetto hang-ups, like hating Germans and Southern whites and calling everyone and his cousin an anti-Semite, but the leftist revolutionary fury they express.[101] He has also argued that domestic equality and the exportability of democracy are points of contention between them.[102] Responding to a question about neoconservatives in 2004, William F. Buckley said: "I think those I know, which is most of them, are bright, informed and idealistic, but that they simply overrate the reach of U.S. power and influence".[103] Trotskyism allegation[edit] Critics have argued that since the founders of neo-conservatism included ex Trotskyites, Trotskyist traits continue to characterize neo-conservative ideologies and practices.[104] During the Reagan administration, the charge was made that the foreign policy of the Reagan administration was being managed by ex Trotskyists.[citation needed] This claim was called a "myth" by Lipset (1988, p. 34).[105] This "Trotskyist" charge was repeated and widened by journalist Michael Lind during 2003 to assert a takeover of the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration by former Trotskyists;[106] Lind's "amalgamation of the defense intellectuals with the traditions and theories of 'the largely Jewish-American Trotskyist movement' [in Lind's words]" was criticized during 2003 by University of Michigan professor Alan M. Wald,[107] who had discussed Trotskyism in his history of "the New York intellectuals".[108][109][110] The charge that neoconservativism is related to Leninism has also been made. Francis Fukuyama identified neoconservatism with Leninism during 2006.[20] He wrote that neoconservatives "believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will [substantially analogous to "will to power" of Nietzschean memory]. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support".[20]}}

Criticisms[edit] The term "neoconservative" may be used pejoratively by self-described paleoconservatives, Democrats, liberals, progressives, realists, or libertarians. Critics take issue with neoconservatives' support for interventionistic foreign policy. Critics from the left take issue with what they characterize as unilateralism and lack of concern with international consensus through organizations such as the United Nations.[111][112][113] Critics from both the left and right have assailed neoconservatives for the role Israel plays in their policies on the Middle East.[114][115] Neoconservatives respond by describing their shared opinion as a belief that national security is best attained by actively promoting freedom and democracy abroad as in the democratic peace theory through the endorsement of democracy, foreign aid and in certain cases military intervention. This is different from the traditional conservative tendency to endorse friendly regimes in matters of trade and anti-communism even at the expense of undermining existing democratic systems. Republican Congressman Ron Paul has been a longtime critic of neoconservativism as an attack on freedom and the Constitution, including an extensive speech on the House floor addressing neoconservative beginnings and how neoconservatism is neither new nor conservative. In a column named "Years of Shame" commemorating the tenth anniversary of 9/11 attacks, Paul Krugman criticized the neoconservatives for causing a war unrelated to 9/11 attacks and fought for wrong reasons.[116][117] Imperialism and secrecy[edit] John McGowan, professor of humanities at the University of North Carolina, states after an extensive review of neoconservative literature and theory that neoconservatives are attempting to build an American Empire, seen as successor to the British Empire, its goal being to perpetuate a "Pax Americana". As imperialism is largely considered unacceptable by the American media, neoconservatives do not articulate their ideas and goals in a frank manner in public discourse. McGowan states:[81] Frank neoconservatives like Robert Kaplan and Niall Ferguson recognize that they are proposing imperialism as the alternative to liberal internationalism. Yet both Kaplan and Ferguson also understand that imperialism runs so counter to American's liberal tradition that it must... remain a foreign policy that dare not speak its name... While Ferguson, the Brit, laments that Americans cannot just openly shoulder the white man's burden, Kaplan the American, tells us that "only through stealth and anxious foresight" can the United States continue to pursue the "imperial reality [that] already dominates our foreign policy", but must be disavowed in light of "our anti-imperial traditions, and... the fact that imperialism is delegitimized in public discourse"... The Bush administration, justifying all of its actions by an appeal to "national security", has kept as many of those actions as it can secret and has scorned all limitations to executive power by other branches of government or international law. Antisemitism and dual loyalty[edit] In the run up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, charges of "dual loyalty" were leveled against Jewish neoconservatives from across the political spectrum. A heated debate ensued and the controversy continues into the present due to concerns over neoconservatives stance toward Iran. An ABC News article providing an overview of the debate in the run up to the Iraq war stated: Critics of U.S. Iraq policy, on the right and the left, have drawn accusations of anti-Semitism for asserting that certain members of Bush's administration (namely Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz; Richard Perle, chairman of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board; and Douglas Feith, undersecretary of defense for policy) have dual loyalty – interests in both the United States and Israel.[118] Patrick Buchanan issued a statement in a cover article for The American Conservative: "Neocons say we attack them because they are Jewish. We do not. We attack them because their warmongering threatens our country, even as it finds a reliable echo in Ariel Sharon".[119] Jeffery Goldberg of the Atlantic interviewed Joe Klein in 2008: My friend and former colleague Joe Klein has made himself quite the figure of controversy over the past few weeks. First, he suggested that Jewish neoconservatives have "divided loyalties;" then… he argued that McCain has surrounded himself with "Jewish neoconservatives" who want war with Iran.[120] Joe Klein issued a refutation of the charges, stating that he was "anti-neoconservative": Listen, people can vote whichever way they want, for whatever reason they want. I just don't want to see policy makers who make decisions on the basis of whether American policy will benefit Israel or not. In some cases, you want to provide protection for Israel certainly, but you don't want to go to war with Iran. When Jennifer Rubin or Abe Foxman calls me antisemitic, they're wrong. I am anti-neoconservative. I think these people are following very perversely extremist policies and I really did believe that it was time for mainstream Jews to stand up and say, "They don't represent us, they don't represent Israel."[120] Mickey Kaus of Slate noted that "Max Boot, Pete Wehner, Jennifer Rubin, Paul Mirengoff and Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League all wrote confidently outraged responses to Klein's raising of the "divided loyalties" and went on to opine that "[i]t should be possible to publicly debate whether some "Jewish neoconservatives," among others, too easily convinced themselves that America's and Israel's interests happily coincided in the prosecution of the war".[121] Glen Greenwald also issued a response in support of Klein: As I've documented previously, the very same right-wing advocates who scream "anti-semitism" at anyone, such as Klein, who raises the issue of devotion to Israel themselves constantly argue that American Jews do – and should – cast their votes in American elections based upon what is best for Israel. They nakedly trot out the "dual loyalty" argument in order to manipulate American Jews to vote Republican in U.S. elections (e.g.: "the GOP supports Israel and Obama doesn't; therefore, American Jews shouldn’t vote for Obama"), while screaming "anti-semitism" the minute the premise is used by their political opponents.[122] David Brooks derided the "fantasies" of "full-mooners fixated on a... sort of Yiddish Trilateral Commission", beliefs which had "hardened into common knowledge". He rebutted those beliefs, saying that "people labeled neocons (con is short for 'conservative' and neo is short for 'Jewish') travel in widely different circles".[123] Barry Rubin argued that the neoconservative label is used as an antisemitic pejorative:[124] First, 'neo-conservative' is a codeword for Jewish. As antisemites did with big business moguls in the nineteenth century and Communist leaders in the twentieth, the trick here is to take all those involved in some aspect of public life and single out those who are Jewish. The implication made is that this is a Jewish-led movement conducted not in the interests of all the, in this case, American people, but to the benefit of Jews, and in this case Israel.

Notable people associated with neoconservatism[edit] The list includes public people identified as personally neoconservative at an important time or a high official with numerous neoconservative advisers, such as George W. Bush and Richard Cheney. Politicians[edit] George W. Bush announces his $74.7 billion wartime supplemental budget request as Donald Rumsfeld and Paul Wolfowitz look on George W. Bush (R) – 46th Governor of Texas (1995–2000) and 43rd President of the United States (2001–2009)[125] Jeb Bush (R) – 43rd Governor of Florida (1999–2007) and 2016 presidential candidate[126] Dick Cheney (R) – White House Chief of Staff (1975–1977), Representative from Wyoming (1979–1989), 17th Secretary of Defense (1989–1993), 46th Vice President of the United States (2001–2009) [125] Liz Cheney (R) – State Department official (2002–2008) and Representative from Wyoming (2017–present)[127] Joe Lieberman (I) – 21st Attorney General of Connecticut (1983–1989), Senator from Connecticut (1989–2013), 2000 Democratic vice presidential nominee and 2004 presidential candidate[128] John McCain (R) – Representative from Arizona (1983–1987), Senator (1987–present), 2000 presidential candidate and 2008 Republican presidential nominee[129] Tim Pawlenty (R) – 39th Governor of Minnesota (2003–2011) and 2012 presidential candidate[130] Marco Rubio (R) – Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives (2006–2008), Senator from Florida (2011–present) and 2016 presidential candidate[131] Lindsey Graham (R) – Senator from South Carolina and 2016 presidential candidate[132] Government officials[edit] Elliot Abrams (R) – Foreign policy adviser[133] William Bennett (R) – Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities (1981–1985), Director of the National Drug Control Policy (1989–1990) and U.S. Secretary of Education (1985–1988)[133][134] Eliot A. Cohen – State Department Counselor (2007–2009), now Robert E. Osgood Professor of Strategic Studies at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at the Johns Hopkins University[135] Jeane Kirkpatrick (R) – Ambassador to the United Nations (1981–1985)[136] Scooter Libby (R) – Chief–of–Staff to Dick Cheney (2001–2005)[137] Richard Perle (R) – Assistant Secretary of Defense and lobbyist[133] Paul Wolfowitz (R) – State and Defense Department official[133][138] R. James Woolsey Jr. (D) – 16th Director of Central Intelligence (1993–1995), Under Secretary of the Navy (1977–1979) and green energy lobbyist[139] Academics[edit] Victor Davis Hanson – Martin and Illie Anderson Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, columnist and author Michael Ledeen – Freedom Scholar chair at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, former U.S. government consultant, author and columnist Nathan Glazer – Professor of sociology, columnist and author Donald Kagan – Sterling Professor of Classics and History at Yale University Andrew Roberts – Professor of History at Kings College in London Douglas Murray – Director of the Henry Jackson Society and author Public figures[edit] Robert Kagan – Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, Historian, founder of the Yale Political Monthly, adviser to Republican political campaigns and one of 25 members of an advisory board to Hillary Clinton at the State Department (Kagan calls himself a "liberal interventionist" rather than "neoconservative")[140][141] Arthur Brooks – President of the American Enterprise Institute Danielle Pletka – Senior Vice President of the American Enterprise Institute for Foreign and Defense Studies and former member of Senate Foreign Relations Committee Gary Schmitt – Resident Scholar, Co-Director of the Marilyn Ware Center for Security Studies and Director of the Program on American Citizenship at the American Enterprise Institute, former Executive Director, Project for the New American Century, Executive Director for President Reagan's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and White House The Weekly Standard Fred Barnes – Executive editor of the news publication The Weekly Standard David Frum – Journalist, Republican speech writer and columnist[142] Jonah Goldberg – Columnist for National Review Frederick Kagan – Resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute[143][144][145] Charles Krauthammer – Pulitzer Prize winner, columnist and physician[citation needed] Irving Kristol (Deceased) – Publisher, journalist and columnist[146] William Kristol – Founder and editor of The Weekly Standard, professor of political philosophy and American politics and political adviser[citation needed] Joshua Muravchik – Resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute Douglas Murray – British writer, journalist and political commentator Daniel Pipes (former neoconservative) – Historian, writer and political commentator Norman Podhoretz – Editor-in-Chief of Commentary John Podhoretz – Editor-at-Large of Commentary, presidential speech writer and author Jennifer Rubin – Columnist and blogger for The Washington Post[147] Michael Rubin – Resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute[148] Irwin Stelzer – International economics and business columnist, editor at The Weekly Standard and Oxford fellow Jonathan S. Tobin – Senior online editor of Commentary

Related publications and institutions[edit] Institutions[edit] Foundation for Defense of Democracies[149] Henry Jackson Society[150] Hudson Institute[151] Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs[151] Project for the New American Century[152] American Enterprise Institute[153] Publications[edit] Commentary The Public Interest (out of circulation) The Weekly Standard The Washington Free Beacon

See also[edit] Conservatism portal British neoconservatism Democratic peace theory Factions in the Republican Party (United States) Globalization Interventionism Neoconservatism and paleoconservatism Neoconservatism in Japan New Right Liberal Hawk Liberal internationalism Paleoconservatism Project for a New American Century Trotskyism

Notes[edit] ^ Jeffrey Record (2010). Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq. Potomac Books, Inc. pp. 47–50. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Justin Vaïsse, Neoconservatism: The biography of a movement (Harvard UP, 2010), pp. 6–11. ^ Dagger, Richard. "Neoconservatism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 May 2016.  ^ [1] Retrieved 11 November 2012. ^ Murray Friedman, The neoconservative revolution: Jewish intellectuals and the shaping of public policy (Cambridge University Press, 2005) ^ Benjamin Balint, Running Commentary: The Contentious Magazine that Transformed the Jewish Left into the Neoconservative Right (PublicAffairs, 2010) ^ Gal Beckerman, in "The Neoconservatism Persuasion", The Forward, 6 January 2006. ^ Friedman, Murray (2005). The Neoconservative Revolution Jewish Intellectuals and the Shaping of Public Policy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  ^ "Neoconservatism Unmasked". Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ a b Harrington, Michael (Fall 1973). "The Welfare State and Its Neoconservative Critics". Dissent. 20.  Cited in: Isserman, Maurice (2000). The Other American: the life of Michael Harrington. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-30-4. ...reprinted as chapter 11 in Harrington's 1976 book The Twilight of Capitalism, pp. 165–272. Earlier during 1973 he had described some of the same ideas in a brief contribution to a symposium on welfare sponsored by Commentary, ""Nixon, the Great Society, and the Future of Social Policy", Commentary 55 (May 1973), p. 39 [dead link]" ^ a b Goldberg, Jonah (20 May 2003). "The Neoconservative Invention". National Review. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2014.  ^ Kristol, Irving (1999). Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-228-5.  ^ Gerson, Mark (Fall 1995). "Norman's Conquest,". Policy Review. Archived from the original on 20 March 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2008.  ^ Podhoretz, Norman (2 May 1982). "The Neoconservative Anguish over Reagan's Foreign Policy". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 30 March 2008.  ^ Dionne, E.J. (1991). Why Americans Hate Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 55–61. ISBN 0-671-68255-5.  ^ Lipset (1988, p. 39) ^ Kinsley, Michael (17 April 2005). "The Neocons' Unabashed Reversal". The Washington Post. p. B07. Retrieved 30 March 2008.  ^ "Leave No War Behind". The New York Times. 13 June 2010.  ^ Marshall, J.M. "Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives" Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. From Foreign Affairs, November/December 2003. Retrieved 1 December 2008. ^ a b c Fukuyama, F. (19 February 2006). After Neoconservatism. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 1 December 2008. ^ see "Administration of George W. Bush". ^ Nuechterlein, James (May 1996). "The End of Neoconservatism". First Things. 63: 14–15. Retrieved 31 March 2008. Neoconservatives differed with traditional conservatives on a number of issues, of which the three most important, in my view, were the New Deal, civil rights, and the nature of the Communist threat... On civil rights, all neocons were enthusiastic supporters of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1965."  ^ Robert R. Tomes, Apocalypse Then: American Intellectuals and the Vietnam War, 1954–1975 (2000), p. 112. ^ "Benjamin Balint, ''Running Commentary: The Contentious Magazine That Transformed the Jewish Left Into the Neoconservative Right'' (2010), pp. 100–18". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Irving Kristol, "Forty good years," Public Interest, Spring 2005, Issue 159, pp. 5–11 is Kristol's retrospective in the final issue. ^ Justin Vaïsse, Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement (Harvard University Press, 2010), pp. 214–19 ^ Martin Duberman (2013). "A Saving Remnant: The Radical Lives of Barbara Deming and David McReynolds". The New Press. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Maurice Isserman (2001) [1972-12-08]. "The Other American: The Life of Michael Harrington". Public Affairs. p. 300 of 290–304. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "Justin Vaïsse, Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement (Harvard University Press, 2010), pp. 71–75". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Jack Ross, The Socialist Party of America: A Complete History (University of Nebraska Press, 2015), the entire Chapter 17 entitled "Social Democrats USA and the Rise of Neoconservatism" ^ Matthews, Dylan (2013-08-28). "Dylan Matthews, "Meet Bayard Rustin", 28 August 2013". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ ""Table: The three ages of neoconservatism" Neoconservatism: Biography of Movement by Justin Vaisse-official website". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Alexander Bloom, Prodigal sons: the New York intellectuals and their world (1986), p. 372. ^ Oxford University Press about the Prodigal Sons book Archived 20 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.: "most grew up on the edge of American society – poor, Jewish, the children of immigrants." ^ Mason, Robert (2004). Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority. UNC Press. pp. 81–88. ISBN 0-8078-2905-6. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Justin Vaïsse, Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement (2010) ch 3. ^ Arin, Kubilay Yado: Think Tanks, the Brain Trusts of US Foreign Policy. Wiesbaden: VS Springer 2013. ^ Lind, Michael (23 February 2004). "A Tragedy of Errors". The Nation. Retrieved 30 March 2008.  ^ Eugene R. Sheppard, Leo Strauss and the politics of exile: the making of a political philosopher (2005), p. 1. ^ Allan Bloom, "Leo Strauss: September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973," Political Theory, November 1974, Vol. 2 Issue 4, pp. 372–92, an obituary and appreciation by one of his prominent students. ^ John P. East, "Leo Strauss and American Conservatism," Modern Age, Winter 1977, Vol. 21 Issue 1, pp. 2–19 online. ^ "Leo Strauss's Perspective on Modern Politics" – American Enterprise Institute ^ Kenneth L. Deutsch; John Albert Murley (1999). Leo Strauss, the Straussians, and the American Regime. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 63. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Thomas G. West, "Leo Strauss and the American Founding," Review of Politics, Winter 1991, Vol. 53 Issue 1, pp. 157–72. ^ a b Catherine H. Zuckert, Michael P. Zuckert, The Truth about Leo Strauss: Political Philosophy and American Democracy, University of Chicago Press, 2008, p. 4ff. ^ Johnathan O'Neill, "Straussian constitutional history and the Straussian political project," Rethinking History, December 2009, Vol. 13 Issue 4, pp. 459–78. ^ Irving Kristol, The Neo-conservative Persuasion: Selected Essays, 1942-2009, Basic Books, 2011, p. 217. ^ Barry F. Seidman and Neil J. Murphy, eds. Toward a new political humanism (2004), p. 197. ^ Sheppard, Leo Strauss and the politics of exile: the making of a political philosopher (2005), pp. 1–2. ^ Jeane Kirkpatrick, J (November 1979). "Dictatorships and Double Standards" Archived 4 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Commentary Magazine 68, No. 5. ^ Noah, T. (8 December 2006). Jeane Kirkpatrick, Realist. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 8 July 2012. ^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick and the Cold War (audio)". NPR. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick". The Economist. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ Jaques, Martin (16 November 2006). "America faces a future of managing imperial decline". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 January 2008.  ^ Schwarz, Jonathan (14 February 2008). "The Lost Kristol Tapes: What the New York Times Bought". Tom Dispatch. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Tucker, Spencer; Pierpaoli, Paul G., eds. (2009). U.S. Leadership in Wartime: Clashes, Controversy, and Compromise, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 947. ISBN 978-1-59884-173-2. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Hirsh, Michael (November 2004). "Bernard Lewis Revisited:What if Islam isn't an obstacle to democracy in the Middle East but the secret to achieving it?". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Wing, Joel (17 April 2012). "What Role Did Neoconservatives Play In American Political Thought And The Invasion Of Iraq?". Musings on Iraq. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Podhoretz, Norman (September 2006). "Is the Bush Doctrine Dead?". Commentary. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Pope, Charles (29 September 2008). "Cheney changed his view on Iraq". Seattle Post Intelligencer. Retrieved 25 October 2008.  ^ Solarz, Stephen, et al. "Open Letter to the President Archived 4 April 2004 at the Wayback Machine.", 19 February 1998, online at Retrieved 16 September 2006. ^ Bailey, Ronald (July 1997). "Origin of the Specious". Reason. Retrieved 31 March 2008.  ^ "Bush Begins Nation Building". WCVB TV. 16 April 2003. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.  ^ Vernon, Wes (7 April 2001). "China Plane Incident Sparks Re-election Drives of Security-minded Senators". Newsmax. Archived from the original on 12 September 2001. Retrieved 30 March 2008.  ^ Harnden, Toby; Philps, Alan (26 June 2001). "Bush accused of adopting Clinton policy on Israel". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 March 2008.  ^ "Bush: Mubarak wanted me to invade Iraq", Mohammad Sagha. Foreign Policy. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2011 ^ "The President's State of the Union Speech Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.." White House press release, 29 January 2002. ^ "Bush Speechwriter's Revealing Memoir Is Nerd's Revenge". The New York Observer, 19 January 2003 ^ Douglas Porch, "Writing History in the "End of History" Era – Reflections on Historians and the GWOT," Journal of Military History, October 2006, Vol. 70 Issue 4, pp. 1065–79. ^ "National Security Strategy of the United States". National Security Council. 20 September 2002.  ^ "International Law and the Bush Doctrine". Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ "The evolution of the Bush doctrine", in "The war behind closed doors". Frontline, PBS. 20 February 2003. ^ "The Bush Doctrine." Think Tank, PBS. 11 July 2002. ^ "Assessing the Bush Doctrine", in "The war behind closed doors." Frontline, PBS. 20 February 2003. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth; Larry Rohter (10 April 2008). "2 Camps Trying to Influence McCain on Foreign Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2008.  ^ Stephen McGlinchey, "Neoconservatism and American Foreign Policy", Politikon: The IAPSS Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, 1 (October 2010). ^ Homolar-Riechmann, Alexandra (2009). "The moral purpose of US power: neoconservatism in the age of Obama". Contemporary Politics. 15 (2): 179–96. doi:10.1080/13569770902858111.  ^ Robert Singh, "Neoconservatism in the age of Obama," in Inderjeet Parmar and Linda B. Miller, eds., Obama and the World: New Directions in US Foreign Policy (Routledge 2014), pp. 29–40 ^ Kristol, Irving. "American conservatism 1945–1995". Public Interest, Fall 1995. ^ "Viewpoint: The end of the neocons?", Jonathan Clarke, British Broadcasting Corporation, 13 January 2009. ^ a b McGowan, J. (2007). "Neoconservatism". American Liberalism: An Interpretation for Our Time. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 124–33. ISBN 0-8078-3171-9.  ^ "Neoconservatism and American Foreign Policy". Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Muravchik, Joshua (19 November 2006). "Can the Neocons Get Their Groove Back?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 November 2006.  ^ Kristol, What Is a Neoconservative? p. 87. ^ Podhoretz, p. 275. ^ Vaisse, Neoconservatism (2010), p. 110. ^ Steinfels, p. 69. ^ Francis, Samuel (2004-06-07) Idol With Clay Feet Archived 28 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine., The American Conservative. ^ "League of Dictators?". The Washington Post. April 30, 2006. ^ "US: Hawks Looking for New and Bigger Enemies?". IPS. May 5, 2006. ^ Klein, Joe "McCain's Foreign Policy Frustration" Time, 23 July 2008. ^ Andrew Sullivan (5 February 2009). "A False Premise". Sullivan's Daily Dish. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Joshua Muravchik, "The Past, Present, and Future of Neoconservatism" Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Commentary October 2007. ^ Irving Kristol (25 August 2003). "The Neoconservative Persuasion". Weekly Standard. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Murray, p. 40. ^ William Coleman. "Heroes or Heroics? Neoconservatism, Capitalism, and Bourgeois Ethics". Social Affairs Unit. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Zeev Sternhell: The Anti-Enlightenment Tradition. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2010 ISBN 978-0-300-13554-1 p. 436. ^ a b say that neocons "propose an untenable model for our nation's future" (p. 8) and then outline what they think is the inner logic of the movement:Halper, Stefan; Clarke, Johnathan (2004). America Alone: The Neo-Conservatives and the Global Order. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83834-4.  ^ Tolson 2003. ^ "Fatuous and Malicious" by Paul Gottfried., 28 March 2003. ^ a b "Goldberg Is Not the Worst" by Paul Gottfried., 20 March 2003. ^ Paul Gottfried's Paleoconservatism article in "American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia" (ISI:2006) ^ Sanger, Deborah, "Questions for William F. Buckley: Conservatively Speaking", interview in The New York Times Magazine, 11 July 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2008 ^ Retrieved 20 March 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help) ^ "A 1987 article in The New Republic described these developments as a Trotskyist takeover of the Reagan administration", wrote Lipset (1988, p. 34). ^ Lind, Michael (7 April 2003). "The weird men behind George W. Bush's war". New Statesman. London. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.  ^ Wald, Alan (27 June 2003). "Are Trotskyites Running the Pentagon?". History News Network.  ^ Wald, Alan M. (1987). The New York intellectuals: The rise and decline of the anti-Stalinist left from the 1930s to the 1980s'. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4169-2.  ^ King, William (2004). "Neoconservatives and 'Trotskyism'". American Communist History. Taylor and Francis. 3 (2): 247–66. doi:10.1080/1474389042000309817. ISSN 1474-3892.  ^ King, Bill (22 March 2004). "Neoconservatives and Trotskyism". Enter Stage Right: Politics, Culture, Economics (3): 1–2. ISSN 1488-1756.  The question of 'Shachtmanism' ^ Kinsley, Michael (17 April 2005). "The Neocons' Unabashed Reversal". The Washington Post. p. B07. Retrieved 25 December 2006.  Kinsley quotes Rich Lowry, whom he describes as "a conservative of the non-neo variety", as criticizing the neoconservatives "messianic vision" and "excessive optimism"; Kinsley contrasts the present-day neoconservative foreign policy to earlier neoconservative Jeane Kirkpatrick's "tough-minded pragmatism". ^ Martin Jacques, "The neocon revolution", The Guardian, 31 March 2005. Retrieved 25 December 2006. (Cited for "unilateralism".) ^ Rodrigue Tremblay, "The Neo-Conservative Agenda: Humanism vs. Imperialism Archived 3 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.", presented at the Conference at the American Humanist Association annual meeting Las Vegas, 9 May 2004. Retrieved 25 December 2006 on the site of the Mouvement laïque québécois. ^ [2] Dual Loyalty?, By Rebecca Phillips, ABC News, 15 March 2003 ^ [3] Joe Klein on Neoconservatives and Iran, Jeffrey Goldberg, The Atlantic, 29 July 2008 ^ Paul Krugman (12 September 2011). "More About the 9/11 Anniversary". New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  (Cited for "criticism by a significant source".) ^ [4] "Paul Krugman’s allegation of 9/11 shame – is he right?", Greg Sargent, Washington Post, 12 September 2011 ^ [5] Dual Loyalty? Are Israeli Interests ‘The Elephant in the Room’ in the Conflict With Iraq? Rebecca Phillips, ABC News, March 15, 2003 ^ [6] Whose War? Partick J. Buchanan, American Conservative, 24 March 2003 ^ a b [7] Joe Klein on Neoconservatives and Iran, Jeffery Goldberg, The Atlantic, July 29, 2008 ^ [8] "Klein Lives: Have the rules changed?", Mickey Kaus, Slate, 1 July 2008 ^ [9] The right's game-playing with "dual loyalty" and "anti-Semitism" accusations day, "Those who seek war with Iran endlessly exploit "dual loyalty" claims in order to promote their political agenda, while screaming "anti-Semitism" at political opponents who make the same claim.", Glen Greenwald, Salon, Wednesday 2 July 2008 ^ Brooks, David (2004). "The Neocon Cabal and Other Fantasies". In Irwin Stelzer. The NeoCon Reader. Grove. ISBN 0-8021-4193-5.  ^ Rubin, Barry (6 April 2003). "Letter from Washington". h-antisemitism. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ a b Krauthammer, Charles (2005-07-01). "The Neoconservative Convergence". Commentary Magazine.  ^ "Jeb Bush, neoconservative". Fox News. 2015-02-18. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ ^ USA. "Joe Lieberman – Right Web – Institute for Policy Studies". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "John McCain's Neocon Manifesto | The National Interest Blog". 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "Tim Pawlenty: The Latest Dangerous Neoconservative". The National Interest. 2011-07-05. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ ^ ^ a b c d Adam Bernstein (18 September 2009). "Irving Kristol dies at 89; godfather of neoconservatism". Los Angeles Times. many neoconservatives, such as Paul Wolfowitz, William Bennett, Richard Perle and Elliott Abrams  ^ Edward B. Fiske, Reagan's Man for Education, New York Times (22 December 1985): "Bennett's scholarly production has consisted primarily of articles in neo-conservative journals like Commentary, Policy Review and The Public Interest." ^ "Cohen, Eliot". Right Web. Institute for Policy Studies. 30 January 2017. Eliot Cohen, a professor of strategic studies at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), has been an important supporter of neoconservative-led foreign policy campaigns. Sometimes touted as 'the most influential neocon in academe,' Cohen had multiple roles in the George W. Bush administration...  ^ Joe Holley (9 December 2006). "Jeane J. Kirkpatrick; U.N. Ambassador Upheld Reagan Doctrine". Washington Post. Kirkpatrick became a neoconservative in the 1970s and then a Republican Party stalwart.  ^ Dickerson, John (21 October 2005). "Who is Scooter Libby?". Slate. Libby is a neocon's neocon. He studied political science at Yale under former Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz and began working with his former teacher under Cheney at the Defense Department during the George H.W. Bush administration...  ^ David Corn (2015-05-13). "The Jeb Bush Adviser Who Should Scare You". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "Woolsey, James". Right Web. Institute for Policy Studies. 5 January 2017. Woolsey blends Democratic Party domestic politics with advocacy for neoconservative foreign policy causes...Like other neoconservatives, Woolsey is a staunch backer of Middle East policies similar to those of Israel’s right-wing Likud Party  ^ Horowitz, Jason (15 June 2014), "Events in Iraq Open Door for Interventionist Revival, Historian Says", New York Times, retrieved 9 October 2014  ^ Beaumont, Peter (26 April 2008). "A neocon by any other name". The Guardian.  ^ Mann, James (September 2004). Rise of the Vulcans (1st paperback ed.). Penguin Books. p. 318. ISBN 0-14-303489-8.  ^ [10] Empires Without Imperialism: Anglo-American Decline and the Politics of Deflection, Jeanne Morefield, Oxford University press, 2014, p. 73 ^ "The Culture of Immodesty in American Life and Politics: The Modest Republic, Claes Glyn, eds. Michael P. Federici, Richard M Gambl, and Mark T Mitchell". Palgrave Macmillan. 2013. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "The Strange Death of Republican America: Chronicles of a Collapsing Party, Sydney Blumenthal, Union Square Press, 2008". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ "Was Irving Kristol a Neoconservative?". Foreign Policy. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ USA. "Jennifer Rubin - Right Web - Institute for Policy Studies". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ USA. "Michael Rubin - Right Web - Institute for Policy Studies". Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ John Feffer (2003). Power Trip: Unilateralism and Global Strategy After September 11. Seven Stories Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-1-60980-025-3. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ K. Dodds, K. and S. Elden, "Thinking Ahead: David Cameron, the Henry Jackson Society and BritishNeoConservatism," British Journal of Politics and International Relations (2008), 10(3): 347–63. ^ a b Danny Cooper (2011). Neoconservatism and American Foreign Policy: A Critical Analysis. Taylor & Francis. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-84052-8. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Matthew Christopher Rhoades (2008). Neoconservatism: Beliefs, the Bush Administration, and the Future. ProQuest. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-549-62046-4. Retrieved 2016-06-12.  ^ Matthew Christopher Rhoades (2008). Neoconservatism: Beliefs, the Bush Administration, and the Future. ProQuest. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-549-62046-4. Retrieved 2016-06-12. 

References[edit] Albanese, Matteo. "The Concept of War in Neoconservative Thinking", IPOC, Milan, 2012.Translated by Nicolas Lewkowicz. ISBN 978-8867720002 Auster, Lawrence. "Buchanan's White Whale", FrontPageMag, 19 March 2004. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Buchanan, Patrick J.. "Whose War", The American Conservative, 24 March 2003. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Bush, George W., Gerhard Schroeder, et al., "Transcript: Bush, Schroeder Roundtable With German Professionals[dead link]", The Washington Post, 23 February 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Critchlow, Donald T. The conservative ascendancy: how the GOP right made political history (2nd ed. 2011) Dean, John. Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush, Little, Brown, 2004. ISBN 0-316-00023-X (hardback). Critical account of neo-conservatism in the administration of George W. Bush. Frum, David. "Unpatriotic Conservatives", National Review, 7 April 2003. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Gerson, Mark, ed. The Essential Neo-Conservative Reader, Perseus, 1997. ISBN 0-201-15488-9 (paperback), ISBN 0-201-47968-0 (hardback). Gerson, Mark. "Norman's Conquest: A Commentary on the Podhoretz Legacy", Policy Review, Fall 1995, Number 74. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Gray, John. Black Mass, Allen Lane, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7139-9915-0. Hanson, Jim The Decline of the American Empire, Praeger, 1993. ISBN 0-275-94480-8. Halper, Stefan and Jonathan Clarke. America Alone: The Neo-Conservatives and the Global Order, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-83834-7. Kagan, Robert, et al., Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign and Defense Policy. Encounter Books, 2000. ISBN 1-893554-16-3. Kristol, Irving. Neo-Conservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea: Selected Essays 1949-1995, New York: The Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874021-1 (10). ISBN 978-0-02-874021-8 (13). (Hardcover ed.) Reprinted as Neoconservatism: The Autobiography of an Idea, New York: Ivan R. Dee, 1999. ISBN 1-56663-228-5 (10). (Paperback ed.) – . "What Is a Neoconservative?", Newsweek, 19 January 1976. Lara Amat y León, Joan y Antón Mellón, Joan, "Las persuasiones neoconservadoras: F. Fukuyama, S. P. Huntington, W. Kristol y R. Kagan", en Máiz, Ramón (comp.), Teorías políticas contemporáneas, (2ªed.rev. y ampl.) Tirant lo Blanch, Valencia, 2009. ISBN 978-84-9876-463-5. Ficha del libro Lara Amat y León, Joan, "Cosmopolitismo y anticosmoplitismo en el neoconservadurismo: Fukuyama y Huntington", en Nuñez, Paloma y Espinosa, Javier (eds.), Filosofía y política en el siglo XXI. Europa y el nuevo orden cosmopolita, Akal, Madrid, 2009. ISBN 978-84-460-2875-8. Ficha del libro Lasn, Kalle. "Why won't anyone say they are Jewish?", Adbusters, March/April 2004. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Lewkowicz, Nicolas. "Neoconservatism and the Propagation of Democracy", Democracy Chronicles, 11 February 2013. Lipset, Seymour (4 July 1988). "Neoconservatism: Myth and reality". Society. New York: Transactions (purchased by Springer). 25 (5): 29–37. doi:10.1007/BF02695739. ISSN 0147-2011.  Mann, James. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet, Viking, 2004. ISBN 0-670-03299-9 (cloth). Massing, Michael (1987). "Trotsky's orphans: From Bolshevism to Reaganism". The New Republic: 18–22.  Mascolo, Georg. "A Leaderless, Directionless Superpower: interview with Ex-Powell aide Wilkerson"[permanent dead link], Spiegel Online, 6 December 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Muravchik, Joshua. "Renegades", Commentary, 1 October 2002. Bibliographical information is available online, the article itself is not. Muravchik, Joshua. "The Neoconservative Cabal", Commentary, September 2003. Bibliographical information is available online, the article itself is not. Prueher, Joseph. U.S. apology to China over spy plane incident, 11 April 2001. Reproduced on Retrieved 16 September 2006. Podoretz, Norman. The Norman Podhoretz Reader. New York: Free Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-3661-0. Roucaute Yves. Le Neoconservatisme est un humanisme. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2005.ISBN 2-13-055016-9. Roucaute Yves. La Puissance de la Liberté. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004.ISBN 2-13-054293-X. Ruppert, Michael C.. Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil, New Society, 2004. ISBN 0-86571-540-8. Ryn, Claes G., America the Virtuous: The Crisis of Democracy and the Quest for Empire, Transaction, 2003. ISBN 0-7658-0219-8 (cloth). Stelzer, Irwin, ed. Neoconservatism, Atlantic Books, 2004. Smith, Grant F. Deadly Dogma: How Neoconservatives Broke the Law to Deceive America. ISBN 0-9764437-4-0. Solarz, Stephen, et al. "Open Letter to the President", 19 February 1998, online at Retrieved 16 September 2006. Steinfels, Peter (1979). The neoconservatives: The men who are changing America's politics. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22665-7.  Strauss, Leo. Natural Right and History, University of Chicago Press, 1999. ISBN 0-226-77694-8. Strauss, Leo. The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism, University of Chicago Press, 1989. ISBN 0-226-77715-4. Tolson, Jay. "The New American Empire?", U.S. News and World Report, 13 January 2003. Retrieved 16 September 2006. Wilson, Joseph. The Politics of Truth. Carroll & Graf, 2004. ISBN 0-7867-1378-X. Woodward, Bob. Plan of Attack, Simon and Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-5547-X.

Further reading[edit] Arin, Kubilay Yado: Think Tanks, the Brain Trusts of US Foreign Policy. Wiesbaden: VS Springer 2013. Balint, Benjamin V. Running Commentary: The Contentious Magazine that Transformed the Jewish Left into the Neoconservative Right (2010). Dorrien, Gary. The Neoconservative Mind. ISBN 1-56639-019-2, n attack from the Left. Ehrman, John. The Rise of Neoconservatism: Intellectual and Foreign Affairs 1945 – 1994, Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-06870-0. Eisendrath, Craig R. and Melvin A. Goodman. Bush League Diplomacy: How the Neoconservatives are Putting The World at Risk (Prometheus Books, 2004), ISBN 1-59102-176-6. Friedman, Murray. The Neoconservative Revolution: Jewish Intellectuals and the Shaping of Public Policy. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-54501-3. Grandin, Greg."Empire's Workshop: Latin America, the United States, and the Rise of the New Imperialism." Metropolitan Books Henry Holt & Company, 2006.ISBN 978-0-8050-8323-1. Heilbrunn, Jacob. They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons, Doubleday (2008) ISBN 0-385-51181-7. Heilbrunn, Jacob. "5 Myths About Those Nefarious Neocons", The Washington Post, 10 February 2008. Kristol, Irving. "The Neoconservative Persuasion". Lind, Michael. "How Neoconservatives Conquered Washington", Salon, 9 April 2003. MacDonald, Kevin. "The Neoconservative Mind", review of They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons by Jacob Heilbrunn. Vaïsse, Justin. Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement (Harvard U.P. 2010), translated from the French. McClelland, Mark, The unbridling of virtue: neoconservatism between the Cold War and the Iraq War. Shavit, Ari, "White Man's Burden", Haaretz, 3 April 2003. Identity[edit] Rose, David, "Neo Culpa", Vanity Fair, 2006. Steigerwald, Bill. "So, what is a 'Neocon'?". Lind, Michael, "A Tragedy of Errors". Critiques[edit] Fukuyama, Francis. "After Neoconservatism", The New York Times, 2006. Thompson, Bradley C. (with Yaron Brook). Neoconservatism. An Obituary for an Idea. Boulder/London: Paradigm Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-1-59451-831-7. "Kristol Confesses: Neoconservatism Is Not Conservative" by Samuel Francis. "Paul Gottfried and Claes Ryn on Leo Strauss" by Kevin MacDonald.

External links[edit] Adam Curtis, The Power of Nightmares, BBC. Archive. "Why Neoconservatism Still Matters" by Justin Vaïsse. "Neoconservativism in a Nutshell" by Jim Lobe. v t e Neoconservatism General American exceptionalism Democratization Globalization Humanitarian intervention Liberal internationalism Bush Doctrine Pax Americana Figures William Kristol Robert Kagan Frederick Kagan Irving Kristol Paul Wolfowitz Richard Perle John R. Bolton Charles Krauthammer David Frum Elliott Abrams Norman Podhoretz David Wurmser Douglas J. Feith Paul Bremer Peter Berkowitz Douglas Murray David Aaronovitch Oliver Kamm Max Boot Eliot A. Cohen Jeane Kirkpatrick Michael Novak Jonah Goldberg Joshua Muravchik Jennifer Rubin Irwin Stelzer Bret Stephens Zalmay Khalilzad Scooter Libby Yuval Levin Michael Ledeen James Kirchick Michael Gerson Dan Senor Reuel Marc Gerecht R. James Woolsey Jr. Major influences Leo Strauss Bernard Lewis Henry M. 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