Contents 1 Life and career 1.1 Early years (1945–1966) 1.2 Buffalo Springfield (1966–1968) 1.3 Going solo, Crazy Horse (1968–1969) 1.4 Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (1969–1970) 1.5 After the Gold Rush, acoustic tour and Harvest (1970–1972) 1.6 The "Ditch" Trilogy and personal struggles (1972–1974) 1.7 Reunions, retrospectives and Rust Never Sleeps (1974–1979) 1.8 Experimental years (1980–1988) 1.9 Return to prominence (1989–1999) 1.10 Continued activism and brush with death (2000s) 1.11 Recent years (2010s) 2 Archives project 3 Personal life 4 Business ventures 5 Instruments 5.1 Guitars 5.2 Reed organ 5.3 Amplification 6 Discography 7 Awards and recognition 7.1 Juno Awards 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Life and career[edit] Early years (1945–1966)[edit] Neil Young[13] was born on November 12, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario.[14] His father, Scott Alexander Young (1918–2005), was a journalist and sportswriter who also wrote fiction.[15] His mother, Edna Blow Ragland "Rassy" Young (1918–1990) was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution.[16] Although Canadian, his mother had American and French ancestry.[17] Young's parents married in 1940 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and their first son, Robert "Bob" Young, was born in 1942. Shortly after Young's birth in 1945, his family moved to rural Omemee, Ontario, which Young later described fondly as a "sleepy little place".[18] Young suffered from polio in 1951 during the last major outbreak of the disease in Ontario[19] (the Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell, then aged nine, also contracted the virus during this epidemic).[20] After his recovery, the Young family vacationed in Florida. During that period, Young briefly attended Chisolm Elementary School in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. In 1952, upon returning to Canada, Young moved from Omemee to Winnipeg for a year, before relocating to Toronto and Pickering. Young became interested in popular music he heard on the radio.[21] When Young was twelve, his father, who had had several extramarital affairs, left his mother. His mother asked for a divorce, which was granted in 1960.[22] Young went to live with his mother, who moved back to Winnipeg, while his brother Bob stayed with his father in Toronto.[23] "Neil bopped down Yonge Street. Very thin, very tall, with a greased-back D.A. on the sides but a crew cut on top. He had a transistor radio, white bucks, a nice sweater, black pants. Very slick-lookin' guy." —Comrie Smith, Young's teenage friend[24] During the mid-1950s, Young listened to rock 'n roll, rockabilly, doo-wop, R&B, country, and western pop. He idolized Elvis Presley and later referred to him in a number of his songs.[25] Other early musical influences included Link Wray,[26] Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs, The Ventures, Cliff Richard and the Shadows,[27] Chuck Berry, Hank Marvin, Little Richard, Fats Domino, The Chantels, The Monotones, Ronnie Self, the Fleetwoods, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and Gogi Grant.[28] Young first began to play music himself on a plastic ukulele, before, as he would later relate, going on to "a better ukulele to a banjo ukulele to a baritone ukulele – everything but a guitar".[29] Young and his mother settled into the working-class area of Fort Rouge, Winnipeg, where the shy, dry-humoured youth enrolled at Earl Grey Junior High School. It was there that he formed his first band, the Jades, and met Ken Koblun. While attending Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, he played in several instrumental rock bands, eventually dropping out of school in favour of a musical career.[30] Young's first stable band was the Squires, with Ken Koblun, Jeff Wuckert and Bill Edmondson on drums, who had a local hit called "The Sultan". The band played in Fort William (now part of the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario), where they recorded a series of demos produced by a local producer, Ray Dee, who Young called "the original Briggs".[31] While playing at The Flamingo, Young met Stephen Stills, whose band the Company were playing the same venue, and they became friends.[32] The Squires played in several dance halls and clubs in Winnipeg and Ontario.[33] After leaving the Squires, Young worked folk clubs in Winnipeg, where he first met Joni Mitchell.[34] Mitchell recalls Young as having been highly influenced by Bob Dylan at the time.[35] Here he wrote some of his earliest and most enduring folk songs such as "Sugar Mountain", about lost youth. Mitchell wrote "The Circle Game" in response.[36] The Winnipeg band The Guess Who (with Randy Bachman as lead guitarist) had a Canadian Top 40 hit with Young's "Flying on the Ground is Wrong", which was Young's first major success as a songwriter.[37] In 1965 Young toured Canada as a solo artist. In 1966, while in Toronto, he joined the Rick James-fronted Mynah Birds. The band managed to secure a record deal with the Motown label, but as their first album was being recorded, James was arrested for being AWOL from the Navy Reserve.[38] After the Mynah Birds disbanded, Young and the bass player Bruce Palmer relocated to Los Angeles. Young admitted in a 2009 interview that he was in the United States illegally until he received a "green card" (permanent residency permit) in 1970.[39] Buffalo Springfield (1966–1968)[edit] Main article: Buffalo Springfield Once they reached Los Angeles, Young and Palmer met up with Stephen Stills, Richie Furay, and Dewey Martin to form Buffalo Springfield. A mixture of folk, country, psychedelia, and rock, lent a hard edge by the twin lead guitars of Stills and Young, made Buffalo Springfield a critical success, and their first record Buffalo Springfield (1966) sold well after Stills' topical song "For What It's Worth" became a hit, aided by Young's melodic harmonics played on electric guitar. According to Rolling Stone, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and other sources, Buffalo Springfield helped create the genres of folk rock and country rock.[40] Distrust of their management, as well as the arrest and deportation of Palmer, worsened the already strained relations among the group members and led to Buffalo Springfield's demise. A second album, Buffalo Springfield Again, was released in late 1967, but two of Young's three contributions were solo tracks recorded apart from the rest of the group. From that album, "Mr. Soul" was the only Young song of the three that all five members of the group performed together. "Broken Arrow"" features snippets of sound from other sources, including opening the song with a soundbite of Dewey Martin singing "Mr. Soul" and closing it with the thumping of a heartbeat. "Expecting to Fly" featured a string arrangement that Young's co-producer for the track, Jack Nitzsche, dubbed "symphonic pop".[citation needed] In May 1968, the band split up for good, but to fulfill a contractual obligation a final album Last Time Around, was released, primarily from recordings made earlier that year. Young contributed the songs "On the Way Home" and "I Am a Child", singing lead on the latter. In 1997, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; Young did not appear at the ceremony. The three surviving members, Furay, Stills and Young, appeared together as Buffalo Springfield at Young's annual Bridge School Benefit on October 23–24, 2010, and at Bonnaroo in the summer of 2011. Young also played as a studio session guitarist for some 1968 recordings by The Monkees which appeared on the Head and Instant Replay albums.[41] Going solo, Crazy Horse (1968–1969)[edit] Main articles: Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young and Crazy Horse (band) After the break-up of Buffalo Springfield, Young signed a solo deal with Reprise Records, home of his colleague and friend Joni Mitchell, with whom he shared a manager, Elliot Roberts, who manages Young to this day. Young and Roberts immediately began work on Young's first solo record, Neil Young (January 22, 1969),[42] which received mixed reviews. In a 1970 interview,[43] Young deprecated the album as being "overdubbed rather than played." The album contains songs that remain a staple of his live shows including "The Loner". For his next album, Young recruited three musicians from a band called The Rockets: Danny Whitten on guitar, Billy Talbot on bass guitar, and Ralph Molina on drums. These three took the name Crazy Horse (after the historical figure of the same name), and Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere (May 1969), is credited to "Neil Young with Crazy Horse". Recorded in just two weeks, the album includes "Cinnamon Girl", "Cowgirl in the Sand" and "Down by the River." Young reportedly wrote all three songs in bed on the same day while nursing a high fever of 103 °F (39 °C).[44] Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (1969–1970)[edit] Shortly after the release of Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere, Young reunited with Stephen Stills by joining Crosby, Stills & Nash, who had already released one album Crosby, Stills & Nash as a trio in May 1969. Young was originally offered a position as a sideman, but agreed to join only if he received full membership, and the group – winners of the 1969 "Best New Artist" Grammy Award – was renamed Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.[45] The quartet debuted in Chicago on August 16, 1969, and later performed at the famous Woodstock Festival, during which Young skipped the majority of the acoustic set and refused to be filmed during the electric set, even telling the cameramen: "One of you fuckin' guys comes near me and I'm gonna fuckin' hit you with my guitar".[46] During the making of their first album, Déjà Vu (March 11, 1970), the musicians frequently argued, particularly Young and Stills, who both fought for control. Stills continued throughout their lifelong relationship to criticize Young, saying that he "wanted to play folk music in a rock band".[47] Despite the tension, Young's tenure with CSN&Y coincided with the band's most creative and successful period, and greatly contributed to his subsequent success as a solo artist. Young wrote "Ohio" following the Kent State massacre on May 4, 1970. The song was quickly recorded by CSN&Y and immediately released as a single, even though CSN&Y's "Teach Your Children" was still climbing the singles charts. After the Gold Rush, acoustic tour and Harvest (1970–1972)[edit] Later in the year, Young released his third solo album, After the Gold Rush (August 31, 1970), which featured, among others, a young Nils Lofgren, Stephen Stills, and CSNY bassist Greg Reeves. Young also recorded some tracks with Crazy Horse, but dismissed them early in the sessions. The eventual recording was less amplified than Everybody Knows This is Nowhere, with a wider range of sounds. Young's newfound fame with CSNY made the album his commercial breakthrough as a solo artist, and it contains some of his best known work, including "Tell Me Why" and "Don't Let It Bring You Down", the country-influenced singles "Only Love Can Break Your Heart" and "When You Dance I Can Really Love", and the title track, "After the Gold Rush", played on piano, with dream-like lyrics that ran a gamut of subjects from drugs and interpersonal relationships to environmental concerns. Young's bitter condemnation of racism in the heavy blues-rock song "Southern Man" (along with a later song entitled "Alabama") was also controversial with southerners in an era of desegregation, prompting Lynyrd Skynyrd to decry Young by name in the lyrics to their hit "Sweet Home Alabama". However, Young said he was a fan of Skynyrd's music, and the band's front man Ronnie Van Zant was later photographed wearing a Tonight's the Night T-shirt on the cover of an album. Young in the 1970s In the autumn of 1970, Young began a solo acoustic tour of North America, during which he played a variety of his Buffalo Springfield and CSNY songs on guitar and piano, along with material from his solo albums and a number of new songs. Some songs premiered by Young on the tour, like "Journey through the Past", would never find a home on a studio album, while other songs, like "See the Sky About to Rain", would only be released in coming years. With CSNY splitting up and Crazy Horse having signed their own record deal, Young's tour, now entitled "Journey Through the Past", continued into early 1971, and its focus shifted more to newer songs he had been writing; he famously remarked that having written so many, he could not think of anything to do but play them. Many gigs were sold out, including concerts at Carnegie Hall and a pair of acclaimed hometown shows at Toronto's Massey Hall, which were taped for a planned live album. The shows became legendary among Young fans, and the recordings were officially released nearly 40 years later as an official bootleg in Young's Archive series. Near the end of his tour, Young performed one of the new acoustic songs on the Johnny Cash TV show. "The Needle and the Damage Done", a somber lament on the pain caused by heroin addiction, had been inspired in part by Crazy Horse member Danny Whitten, who eventually died while battling his drug problems.[48][49] While in Nashville for the Cash taping, Young accepted the invitation of Quadrafonic Sound Studios owner Elliot Mazer to record tracks there with a group of country-music session musicians who were pulled together at the last minute. Making a connection with them, he christened them The Stray Gators, and began playing with them. Befitting the immediacy of the project, Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor were brought in from the Cash taping to do background vocals. Against the advice of his producer David Briggs, he scrapped plans for the imminent release[50] of the live acoustic recording in favour of a studio album consisting of the Nashville sessions, electric-guitar oriented sessions recorded later in his barn, and two recordings made with the London Symphony Orchestra at Barking (credited as Barking Town Hall and now the Broadway Theatre) during March 1971.[51] The result was Young's fourth album, Harvest (February 14, 1972). The only remnant left of the original live concept was the album's live acoustic performance of "Needle and the Damage Done." After his success with CSNY, Young purchased a ranch in the rural hills above Woodside and Redwood City in Northern California ("Broken Arrow Ranch", where he lived until his divorce in 2014.[52]). He wrote the song "Old Man" in honor of the land's longtime caretaker, Louis Avila. The song "A Man Needs a Maid" was inspired by his relationship with actress Carrie Snodgress. "Heart of Gold" was released as the first single from Harvest, the only No. 1 hit in his career. "Old Man" was also popular. The album's recording had been almost accidental. Its mainstream success caught Young off guard, and his first instinct was to back away from stardom. In the Decade (1977) compilation, Young chose to include his greatest hits from the period, but his handwritten liner notes famously described "Heart of Gold" as the song that "put me in the middle of the road. Traveling there soon became a bore, so I headed for the ditch. A rougher ride but I saw more interesting people there." The "Ditch" Trilogy and personal struggles (1972–1974)[edit] Although a new tour with The Stray Gators (now augmented by Danny Whitten) had been planned to follow up on the success of Harvest, it became apparent during rehearsals that Whitten could not function due to drug abuse. On November 18, 1972, shortly after he was fired from the tour preparations, Whitten was found dead of an apparent alcohol/diazepam overdose. Young described the incident to Rolling Stone's Cameron Crowe in 1975:[53] "[We] were rehearsing with him and he just couldn't cut it. He couldn't remember anything. He was too out of it. Too far gone. I had to tell him to go back to L.A. 'It's not happening, man. You're not together enough.' He just said, 'I've got nowhere else to go, man. How am I gonna tell my friends?' And he split. That night the coroner called me from L.A. and told me he'd OD'd. That blew my mind. I loved Danny. I felt responsible. And from there, I had to go right out on this huge tour of huge arenas. I was very nervous and ... insecure." On the tour, Young struggled with his voice and the performance of drummer Kenny Buttrey, a noted Nashville session musician who was unaccustomed to performing in the hard rock milieu; Buttrey was eventually replaced by former CSNY drummer Johnny Barbata, while David Crosby and Graham Nash contributed rhythm guitar and backing vocals to the final dates of the tour. The album assembled in the aftermath of this incident, Time Fades Away (October 15, 1973), has often been described by Young as "[his] least favorite record", and was not officially released on CD until 2017 (as part of Young's Official Release Series). Nevertheless, Young and his band tried several new musical approaches in this period. Time Fades Away, for instance, was recorded live, although it was an album of new material, an approach Young would repeat with more success later on. Time was the first of three consecutive commercial failures which would later become known collectively to fans as the "Ditch Trilogy", as contrasted with the more middle-of-the-road pop of Harvest (1972).[54] These subsequent albums were seen as more challenging expressions of Young's inner conflicts on achieving success, expressing both the specific struggles of his friends and himself, and the decaying idealism of his generation in America at the time. Young in Austin, Texas, on November 9, 1976 In the second half of 1973, Young formed The Santa Monica Flyers, with Crazy Horse's rhythm section augmented by Nils Lofgren on guitar and piano and Harvest/Time Fades Away veteran Ben Keith on pedal steel guitar. Deeply affected by the drug-induced deaths of Whitten and roadie Bruce Berry, Young recorded an album specifically inspired by the incidents, Tonight's the Night (June 20, 1975). The album's dark tone and rawness led Reprise to delay and Young had to pressure them for two years before they would release it.[55] While his record company delayed the release, Young recorded another album, On the Beach (July 16, 1974), which presented a more melodic, acoustic sound at times, including a recording of the older song "See the Sky About to Rain", but dealt with similarly dark themes such as the collapse of 1960s folk ideals, the downside of success and the underbelly of the Californian lifestyle. Like Time Fades Away, it sold poorly but eventually became a critical favorite, presenting some of Young's most original work. A review of the 2003 re-release on CD of On the Beach described the music as "mesmerizing, harrowing, lucid, and bleary".[56] After completing On the Beach, Young reunited with Harvest producer Elliot Mazer to record another acoustic album, Homegrown. Most of the songs were written after Young's break-up with Carrie Snodgress, and thus the tone of the album was somewhat dark. Though Homegrown was reportedly entirely complete, Young decided, not for the first or last time in his career, to drop it and release something else instead, in this case, Tonight's the Night, at the suggestion of Band bassist Rick Danko.[57] Young further explained his move by saying: "It was a little too personal ... it scared me".[57] Most of the songs from Homegrown were later incorporated into other Young albums, but the original album never surfaced. Tonight's the Night when finally released in 1975, sold poorly, as had the previous albums of the "ditch" trilogy, and received mixed reviews at the time, but is now regarded as a landmark album. In Young's own opinion, it was the closest he ever came to art.[58] Reunions, retrospectives and Rust Never Sleeps (1974–1979)[edit] Young reunited with Crosby, Stills, and Nash after a four-year hiatus in the summer of 1974 for a concert tour which was recorded and released in 2014 as CSNY 1974. It was one of the first ever stadium tours, and the largest tour in which Young has participated to date.[59] In 1975, Young reformed Crazy Horse with Frank Sampedro on guitar as his backup band for his eighth album, Zuma (November 10, 1975). Many of the songs dealt with the theme of failed relationships; "Cortez the Killer", a retelling of the Spanish conquest of Mexico from the viewpoint of the Aztecs, may also be heard as an allegory of love lost. Zuma's closing track, "Through My Sails", was the only released fragment from aborted sessions with Crosby, Stills and Nash for another group album. In 1976, Young reunited with Stephen Stills for the album Long May You Run (September 20, 1976), credited to The Stills-Young Band; the follow-up tour was ended midway through by Young, who sent Stills a telegram that read: "Funny how some things that start spontaneously end that way. Eat a peach, Neil."[60] The Last Waltz, Young (center on left microphone) performing with Bob Dylan and The Band, among others in 1976 In 1976, Young performed with Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, and numerous other rock musicians in the high-profile all-star concert The Last Waltz, the final performance by The Band. The release of Martin Scorsese's movie of the concert was delayed while Scorsese unwillingly re-edited it to obscure the lump of cocaine that was clearly visible hanging from Young's nose during his performance of "Helpless".[61] American Stars 'n Bars (June 13, 1977) contained two songs originally recorded for the Homegrown album, "Homegrown" and "Star of Bethlehem", as well as newer material, including the future concert staple "Like a Hurricane". Performers on the record included Linda Ronstadt, Emmylou Harris and Young protégé Nicolette Larson along with Crazy Horse. In 1977, Young also released the compilation Decade, a personally selected set of songs spanning every aspect of his work, including a handful of previously unreleased songs. The record included less commercial album tracks alongside radio hits. Comes a Time (October 2, 1978), Young's first entirely new solo recording since the mid-1970s, also featured Larson and Crazy Horse. The album became Young's most commercially accessible album in quite some time and marked a return to his folk roots, including a cover of Ian Tyson's "Four Strong Winds", a song Young associated with his childhood in Canada. Another of the album's songs, "Lotta Love", was also recorded by Larson, with her version reaching number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100 in February 1979. In 1978, much of the filming was done for Young's film Human Highway, which took its name from a song featured on Comes a Time. Over four years, Young would spend $3,000,000 of his own money on production. This also marked the beginning of his brief collaboration with the post-punk band Devo, whose members appeared in the film.[62] Young set out in 1978 on the lengthy "Rust Never Sleeps" tour, in which he played a wealth of new material. Each concert was divided into a solo acoustic set and an electric set with Crazy Horse. The electric sets, featuring an aggressive style of playing, were later seen as a response to punk rock.[citation needed] Two new songs, the acoustic "My My, Hey Hey (Out of the Blue)" and electric "Hey Hey, My My (Into the Black)" were the centerpiece of the new material. Their lyrics have been among Young's most widely quoted.[citation needed] Young also compared the rise of Johnny Rotten with that of the recently deceased "King" Elvis Presley, who himself had once been disparaged as a dangerous influence only to later become an icon. Rotten returned the favour by playing one of Young's songs, "Revolution Blues" from On the Beach, on a London radio show, an early sign of Young's eventual embrace by a number of punk-influenced alternative musicians.[63] Young's two accompanying albums Rust Never Sleeps (July 2, 1979; new material, culled from live recordings, but featuring studio overdubs) and Live Rust (November 19, 1979) (a mixture of old and new, and a genuine concert recording) captured the two sides of the concerts, with solo acoustic songs on side A, and fierce, uptempo, electric songs on side B. A movie version of the concerts, also called Rust Never Sleeps (1979), was directed by Young under the pseudonym "Bernard Shakey". Young worked with rock artist Jim Evans to create the poster art for the film, using the Star Wars Jawas as a theme. Young's work since Harvest (1972) had alternated between being rejected by mass audiences and being seen as backward-looking by critics, sometimes both at once, and now he was suddenly viewed as relevant by a new generation, who began to discover his earlier work. Readers and critics of Rolling Stone voted him Artist of the Year for 1979 (along with The Who), selected Rust Never Sleeps as Album of the Year, and voted him Male Vocalist of the Year as well. The Village Voice named Rust Never Sleeps as the year's winner in the Pazz & Jop Poll, a survey of nationwide critics, and honored Young as the Artist of the Decade. The Warner Music Vision release on VHS of Rust Never Sleeps in 1987 had a running time of 116 minutes, and although fully manufactured in Germany, was initially imported from there by the markets throughout Europe. Experimental years (1980–1988)[edit] At the start of the decade, distracted by domestic medical concerns relating to his second disabled son, Ben, Young had little time to spend on writing and recording.[64] After providing the incidental music to a 1980 biographical film of Hunter S. Thompson entitled Where the Buffalo Roam, Young released Hawks & Doves (November 3, 1980)', a short record pieced together from sessions going back to 1974.[64] 1981's Re·ac·tor, an electric album recorded with Crazy Horse, also included material from the 1970s.[65] Young did not tour in support of either album; in total, he played only one show, a set at the 1980 Bread and Roses Festival in Berkeley,[66] between the end of his 1978 tour with Crazy Horse and the start of his tour with the Trans Band in mid-1982.[citation needed] "The 80s were really good. The 80s were like, artistically, very strong for me, because I knew no boundaries and was experimenting with everything that I could come across, sometimes with great success, sometimes with terrible results, but nonetheless I was able to do this, and I was able to realize that I wasn't in a box, and I wanted to establish that." —Neil Young[67] The 1982 album Trans, which incorporated vocoders, synthesizers, and electronic beats, was Young's first for the new label Geffen Records (distributed at the time by Warner Bros. Records, whose parent Warner Music Group owns most of Young's solo and band catalogue) and represented a distinct stylistic departure. Young later revealed that an inspiration for the album was the theme of technology and communication with his son Ben, who has severe cerebral palsy and cannot speak.[68] An extensive tour preceded the release of the album, and was documented by the video Neil Young in Berlin, which saw release in 1986. MTV played the video for "Sample and Hold" in light rotation. The entire song contained "robot vocals" by Young and Nils Lofgren.[citation needed] Young playing in Barcelona, Spain, 1984 Young's next album, 1983's Everybody's Rockin', included several rockabilly covers and clocked in at less than twenty-five minutes in length. Young was backed by the Shocking Pinks for the supporting US tour. Trans (1982) had already drawn the ire of label head David Geffen for its lack of commercial appeal, and with Everybody's Rockin' following only seven months later, Geffen Records sued Young for making music "unrepresentative" of himself.[69] The album was also notable as the first for which Young made commercial music videos – Tim Pope directed the videos for "Wonderin'" and "Cry, Cry, Cry". Also premiered in 1983, though little seen, was Human Highway. Co-directed and co-written by Young, the long-gestating eclectic comedy starred Young, Dean Stockwell, Russ Tamblyn, Dennis Hopper, David Blue, Sally Kirkland, Charlotte Stewart and members of Devo.[citation needed] The first year without a Neil Young album since the start of Young's musical career with Buffalo Springfield in 1966 was in 1984. Young's lack of productivity was largely due to the ongoing legal battle with Geffen, although he was also frustrated that the label had rejected his 1982 country album Old Ways.[70] It was also the year when Young's third child was born, a girl named Amber Jean. Later diagnosed with inherited epilepsy, Amber Jean was Neil and Pegi's second child together.[citation needed] Young spent most of 1984 and all of 1985 touring for Old Ways (August 12, 1985) with his country band, the International Harvesters. The album was finally released in an altered form midway through 1985. Young also appeared at that year's Live Aid concert in Philadelphia, collaborating with Crosby, Stills and Nash for the quartet's first performance for a paying audience in over ten years.[citation needed] Young's last two albums for Geffen were more conventional in the genre, although they incorporated production techniques like synthesizers and echoing drums that were previously uncommon in Young's music. Young recorded 1986's Landing on Water without Crazy Horse but reunited with the band for the subsequent year-long tour and final Geffen album, Life, which emerged in 1987. Young's album sales dwindled steadily throughout the eighties; today Life remains his all-time-least successful studio album, with an estimated four hundred thousand sales worldwide.[71] Switching back to his old label Reprise Records, Young continued to tour relentlessly, assembling a new blues band called The Bluenotes in mid-1987 (a legal dispute with musician Harold Melvin forced the eventual rechristening of the band as Ten Men Working midway through the tour). The addition of a brass section provided a new jazzier sound, and the title track of 1988's This Note's For You became Young's first hit single of the decade. Accompanied by a video that parodied corporate rock, the pretensions of advertising, and Michael Jackson, the song was initially unofficially banned by MTV for mentioning the brand names of some of their sponsors. Young wrote an open letter, "What does the M in MTV stand for: music or money?" Despite this, the video was eventually named best video of the year by the network in 1989.[72] By comparison, the major music cable network of Young's home nation, Muchmusic, ran the video immediately.[citation needed] Young reunited with Crosby, Stills, and Nash to record the 1988 album American Dream and play two benefit concerts late in the year, but the group did not embark upon a full tour. The album was only the second-ever studio record for the quartet.[citation needed] Return to prominence (1989–1999)[edit] Young performing in 1996 in Turku, Finland Young's 1989 single "Rockin' in the Free World", which hit No. 2 on the US mainstream-rock charts, and accompanying the album, Freedom, rocketed him back into the popular consciousness after a decade of sometimes-difficult genre experiments. The album's lyrics were often overtly political; "Rockin' in the Free World" deals with homelessness, terrorism, and environmental degradation, implicitly criticizing the government policies of President George H.W. Bush.[73] The use of heavy feedback and distortion on several Freedom tracks was reminiscent of the Rust Never Sleeps (1979) album and foreshadowed the imminent rise of grunge. The rising stars of the genre, including Nirvana's Kurt Cobain and Pearl Jam's Eddie Vedder, frequently cited Young as a major influence, contributing to his popular revival. A tribute album called The Bridge: A Tribute to Neil Young was released in 1989, featuring covers by alternative and grunge acts including Sonic Youth, Nick Cave, Soul Asylum, Dinosaur Jr, and the Pixies. Young's 1990 album Ragged Glory, recorded with Crazy Horse in a barn on his Northern California ranch, continued this distortion-heavy esthetic. Young toured for the album with Orange County, California country-punk band Social Distortion and alternative rock pioneers Sonic Youth as support, much to the consternation of many of his old fans.[74] Weld, a two-disc live album documenting the tour, was released in 1991.[74] Sonic Youth's influence was most evident on Arc, a 35-minute collage of feedback and distortion spliced together at the suggestion of Sonic Youth's Thurston Moore and originally packaged with some versions of Weld.[74] 1992's Harvest Moon marked an abrupt return to the country and folk-rock stylings of Harvest (1972) and reunited him with some of the musicians from that album, including singers Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor. The title track was a minor hit and the record was well received by critics, winning the Juno Award for Album of the Year in 1994. Young also contributed to Randy Bachman's nostalgic 1992 tune "Prairie Town", and garnered a 1993 Academy Award nomination for his song "Philadelphia", from the soundtrack of the Jonathan Demme movie of the same name. An MTV Unplugged performance and album emerged in 1993. Later that year, Young collaborated with Booker T. and the M.G.s for a summer tour of Europe and North America, with Blues Traveler, Soundgarden, and Pearl Jam also on the bill. Some European shows ended with a rendition of "Rockin' in the Free World" played with Pearl Jam, foreshadowing their eventual full-scale collaboration two years later. Young on stage in Barcelona In 1994 Young again collaborated with Crazy Horse for Sleeps with Angels, a record whose dark, somber mood was influenced by Kurt Cobain's death earlier that year: the title track in particular dealt with Cobain's life and death, without mentioning him by name. Cobain had quoted Young's lyric "It's better to burn out than fade away" (a line from "My My, Hey Hey") in his suicide note. Young had reportedly made repeated attempts to contact Cobain prior to his death.[75] Young and Pearl Jam performed "Act of Love" at an abortion rights benefit along with Crazy Horse, and were present at a Rock and Roll Hall of Fame dinner, sparking interest in a collaboration between the two.[76] Still enamored with the grunge scene, Young reconnected with Pearl Jam in 1995 for the live-in-the-studio album Mirror Ball and a tour of Europe with the band and producer Brendan O'Brien backing Young. 1995 also marked Young's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, where he was inducted by Eddie Vedder. "Young has consistently demonstrated the unbridled passion of an artist who understands that self-renewal is the only way to avoid burning out. For this reason, he has remained one of the most significant artists of the rock and roll era." – Rock and Roll Hall of Fame website.[77][78] In 1995, Young and his manager Elliot Roberts founded a record label, Vapor Records.[79] It has released recordings by Tegan and Sara, Spoon, Jonathan Richman, Vic Chesnutt, Everest, Pegi Young, Jets Overhead, and Young himself, among others.[79] Young's next collaborative partner was filmmaker Jim Jarmusch, who asked Young to compose a soundtrack to his 1995 black and white western film Dead Man. Young's instrumental soundtrack was improvised while he watched the film alone in a studio. The death of longtime mentor, friend, and producer David Briggs in late 1995 prompted Young to reconnect with Crazy Horse the following year for the album and tour Broken Arrow. A Jarmusch-directed concert film and live album of the tour, Year of the Horse, emerged in 1997. From 1996–97 Young and Crazy Horse toured extensively throughout Europe and North America, including a stint as part of the H.O.R.D.E. Festival's sixth annual tour. In 1998, Young renewed his collaboration with the rock band Phish, sharing the stage at the annual Farm Aid concert and then at Young's Bridge School Benefit, where he joined headliners Phish for renditions of "Helpless" and "I Shall Be Released".[80] Phish declined Young's later invitation to be his backing band on his 1999 North American tour. The decade ended with the release in late 1999 of Looking Forward, another reunion with Crosby, Stills, and Nash. The subsequent tour of the United States and Canada with the reformed super quartet earned US$42.1 million, making it the eighth largest grossing tour of 2000. Continued activism and brush with death (2000s)[edit] Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young (in photo, from L to R: Nash, Stills, Young, and Crosby) perform at the PNC Bank Arts Center in 2006 Neil Young continued to release new material at a rapid pace through the first decade of the new millennium. The studio album Silver & Gold and live album Road Rock Vol. 1 were released in 2000 and were both accompanied by live concert films. His 2001 single "Let's Roll" was a tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacks, and the effective action taken by the passengers and crew on Flight 93 in particular.[81] At the "America: A Tribute to Heroes" benefit concert for the victims of the attacks, Young performed John Lennon's "Imagine" and accompanied Eddie Vedder and Mike McCready on "Long Road", a Pearl Jam song that was written with Young during the Mirrorball sessions. "Let's Roll" was included on 2002's Are You Passionate?, an album mostly composed of mellow love songs dedicated to Young's wife, Pegi, backed by Booker T. & the M.G.s.[citation needed] In 2003, Young released Greendale, a concept album recorded with Crazy Horse members Billy Talbot and Ralph Molina. The songs loosely revolved around the murder of a police officer in a small town in California and its effects on the town's inhabitants.[82] Under the pseudonym "Bernard Shakey", Young directed an accompanying film of the same name, featuring actors lip-synching to the music from the album. He toured extensively with the Greendale material throughout 2003 and 2004, first with a solo, acoustic version in Europe, then with a full-cast stage show in North America, Japan, and Australia. Young began using biodiesel on the 2004 Greendale tour, powering his trucks and tour buses with the fuel. "Our Greendale tour is now ozone friendly", he said. "I plan to continue to use this government approved and regulated fuel exclusively from now on to prove that it is possible to deliver the goods anywhere in North America without using foreign oil, while being environmentally responsible."[83] Young spent the latter portion of 2004 giving a series of intimate acoustic concerts in various cities with his wife, who is a trained vocalist and guitar player.[citation needed] Stills and Young performing together on the Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young 2006 tour In March 2005, while working on the Prairie Wind album in Nashville, Young was diagnosed with a brain aneurysm. He was treated successfully with a minimally invasive neuroradiological procedure, performed in a New York hospital on March 29,[84] but two days afterwards he passed out on a New York street from bleeding from the femoral artery, which radiologists had used to access the aneurysm.[85] The complication forced Young to cancel his scheduled appearance at the Juno Awards telecast in Winnipeg, but within months he was back on stage, appearing at the close of the Live 8 concert in Barrie, Ontario, on July 2. During the performance, he debuted a new song, a soft hymn called "When God Made Me". Young's brush with death influenced Prairie Wind's themes of retrospection and mortality.[86] The album's live premiere in Nashville was recorded by filmmaker Jonathan Demme in the 2006 film Neil Young: Heart of Gold.[citation needed] Young's renewed activism manifested itself in the 2006 album Living with War, which like the much earlier song "Ohio", was recorded and released in less than a month as a direct result of current events.[87] In early 2006, three years after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the sectarian war and casualties there were escalating. While doing errands on a visit to his daughter, Young had seen a newspaper photo of wounded U.S. veterans on a transport plane to Germany, and noticing that the same paper devoted little actual coverage to the story, he was unable to get the image out of his head, realizing the suffering caused to families by the war had not truly registered to him and most Americans who were not directly affected by it. Young cried, and immediately got his guitar out and began to write multiple songs at once. Within a few days he had completed work and assembled a band. He later said he had restrained himself for a long time from writing any protest songs, waiting for someone younger, with a different perspective, but no one seemed to be saying anything.[citation needed] Most of the album's songs rebuked the Bush administration's policy of war by examining its human costs to soldiers, their loved ones, and civilians, but Young also included a few songs on other themes, and an outright protest titled, "Let's Impeach the President",[88] in which he stated that Bush had lied to lead the country into war. Young's lyrics in another song named Illinois Senator Barack Obama, who had not declared any intention to run for president at the time and was widely unexpected to be able to win either the Democratic Party nomination or a general election, as potentially a replacement for Bush. That summer, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young reunited for the supporting "Freedom of Speech Tour '06", in which they played Young's new protest songs alongside the group's older material, meeting with both enthusiasm and anger from different fans, some of whom were supportive of Bush politically. CSNY Déjà Vu, a concert film of the tour directed by Young himself, was released in 2008, along with an accompanying live album.[citation needed] While Young had never been a stranger to eco-friendly lyrics, themes of environmentalist spirituality and activism became increasingly prominent in his work throughout the 1990s and 2000s, especially on Greendale (2003)[89] and Living with War (2006).[90] The trend continued on 2007's Chrome Dreams II, with lyrics exploring Young's personal eco-spirituality.[91] Also in 2007, Young accepted an invitation to participate in Goin' Home: A Tribute to Fats Domino, contributing his version of "Walking to New Orleans".[citation needed] Young remains on the board of directors of Farm Aid, an organization he co-founded with Willie Nelson and John Mellencamp in 1985. According to its website, it is the longest running concert benefit series in the U.S. and it has raised $43 million since its first benefit concert in 1985. Each year, Young co-hosts and performs with well-known guest performers who include Dave Matthews and producers who include Evelyn Shriver and Mark Rothbaum, at the Farm Aid annual benefit concerts to raise funds and provide grants to family farms and prevent foreclosures, provide a crisis hotline, and create and promote home grown farm food in the United States.[92] Young performing in Oslo, Norway in 2009 In 2008, Young revealed his latest project, the production of a hybrid-engine 1959 Lincoln called LincVolt.[93] A new album loosely based on the Lincvolt project, Fork in the Road, was released on April 7, 2009.[94] The album, partly composed of love songs to the car, also commented on the economic crisis, with one narrator attacking the Wall Street bailouts enacted in late 2008. Unfortunately, the car caught fire in November 2010, in a California warehouse, and along the way it burned an estimated US$850,000 worth of Young's rock and roll memorabilia collection. Initial reports suggest the fire might have been triggered by an error in the vehicle's plug-in charging system. Young blamed the fire on human error and said he and his team were committed to rebuilding the car. "The wall charging system was not completely tested and had never been left unattended. A mistake was made. It was not the fault of the car", he said.[citation needed] A Jonathan Demme concert film from a 2007 concert at the Tower Theater in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, called the Neil Young Trunk Show premiered on March 21, 2009, at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Film Conference and Festival in Austin, Texas. It was featured at the Cannes Film Festival on May 17, 2009 and was released in the U.S. on March 19, 2010[95] to critical acclaim.[96][97][98] Young's guested on the album Potato Hole, released on April 21, 2009 by Memphis organ player Booker T. Jones, of Booker T. & the MGs fame. Young plays guitar on nine of the album's ten instrumental tracks, alongside Drive-By Truckers, who already had three guitar players, giving some songs on the album a total of five guitar tracks. Jones contributed guitars on a couple of tracks.[citation needed] Young continues to tour extensively. In 2009, he headlined the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, and Glastonbury Festival in Pilton, England,[99] at Hard Rock Calling in London (where he was joined onstage by Paul McCartney for a rendition of "A Day in the Life") and, after years of unsuccessful booking attempts, the Isle of Wight Festival[100] in addition to performances at the Big Day Out festival in New Zealand and Australia and the Primavera Sound Festival in Barcelona.[citation needed] Young has been a vocal opponent of the proposed Keystone XL oil pipeline, which would run from Alberta to Texas. When discussing the environmental impact on the oilsands of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Young asserted that the area now resembles the Japanese city of Hiroshima in the aftermath of the atomic bomb attack of World War II.[101] Young has referred to issues surrounding the proposed use of oil pipelines as “scabs on our lives”.[101] In an effort to become more involved, Young has worked directly with the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation to draw attention to this issue, performing benefit concerts and speaking publicly on the subject. In 2014, he played four shows in Canada dedicated to the Honor the Treaties[102] movement, raising money for the Athabasca Chipewyan legal defence fund.[103] In 2015, he and Willie Nelson held a festival in Neligh, Nebraska, called Harvest the Hope, raising awareness of the impact of tar sands and oil pipelines on Native Americans and family farmers. Both received honours from leaders of the Rosebud, Oglala Lakota, Ponca and Omaha nations, and were invested with sacred buffalo robes.[104] Young participated in the Blue Dot Tour, which was organized and fronted by environmental activist David Suzuki, and toured all 10 Canadian provinces alongside other Canadian artists including the Barenaked Ladies, Feist, and Robert Bateman. The intent of Young’s participation in this tour was to raise awareness of the environmental damage caused by the exploitation of tar sands. Young has argued that the amount of CO2 released as a byproduct of tar-sand oil extraction is equivalent to the amount released by the total number of cars in Canada each day.[105] Young has faced criticism by representatives from within the Canadian petroleum industry, who have argued that his statements are irresponsible.[101] Young’s opposition to the construction of oil pipelines has influenced his music as well. His song, “Who’s Going to Stand Up?” was written to protest this issue, and features the lyric “Ban fossil fuel and draw the line / Before we build one more pipeline”.[101] In addition to directly criticizing members of the oil industry, Young has also focused blame on the actions of the Canadian Government for ignoring the conclusions regarding the environmental impacts of climate change. He referred to Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper as “an embarrassment to many Canadians ...[and] a very poor imitation of the George Bush administration in the United States”.[105] Young has also been critical of Barack Obama’s government for failing to uphold the promises made regarding environmental policies during his election campaign.[105] In criticism of Coffee chain Starbucks and their possible involvement with Monsanto and use of GM food, he recorded "A Rock Star Bucks a Coffee Shop" in protest.[106] The song was included on his concept album called The Monsanto Years.[107] Recent years (2010s)[edit] Young performing at Farm Aid, Oct 2, 2010 On January 22, 2010, Young performed "Long May You Run" on the final episode of The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien. On the same night, he and Dave Matthews performed the Hank Williams song "Alone and Forsaken", for the Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earthquake Relief charity telethon, in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Young also performed "Long May You Run" at the closing ceremony of the 2010 Olympic winter games in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In May 2010, it was revealed Young had begun working on a new studio album produced by Daniel Lanois. This was announced by David Crosby, who said that the album "will be a very heartfelt record. I expect it will be a very special record."[108] On May 18, 2010, Young embarked upon a North American solo tour to promote his then upcoming album, Le Noise, playing a mix of older songs and new material. Although billed as a solo acoustic tour, Young also played some songs on electric guitars, including Old Black.[109] Young continued his Twisted Road tour with a short East Coast venture during spring 2011. Young also contributed vocals to the Elton John–Leon Russell album The Union, singing the second stanza on the track "Gone to Shiloh" and providing backing vocals.[citation needed] In September 2011, Jonathan Demme's third documentary film on the singer songwriter, Neil Young Journeys, premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival.[110] Like Demme's earlier work with Young, most of the film consists of a simply filmed live performance, in this case, Young's homecoming show in May 2011 at Toronto's Massey Hall, four decades after he first played at the iconic venue. Playing old songs, as well as new ones from Le Noise, Young performs solo on both electric and acoustic instruments. His performance is a counterpoint to Demme's footage of Young's return to Omemee, Ontario, the small town near Toronto where he grew up, which has now become physically unrecognizable, though he vividly recalls events from his childhood there.[citation needed] On January 22, 2012, the Master Class at the Slamdance Festival featured Coffee with Neil Young & Jonathan Demme for their new film Neil Young Journeys. A report from the event by Bob & Kim C. revealed that Neil Young has been recording with Crazy Horse. One album is complete and they are working on another.[111] Neil Young and Crazy Horse performed a full-on grunge version of the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There" for Paul McCartney's MusiCares Person of the Year dinner on February 10, 2012, in Hollywood.[112] Neil Young with Crazy Horse released the album Americana on June 5, 2012. It was Young's first collaboration with Crazy Horse since the Greendale album and tour in 2003 and 2004. The record is a tribute to unofficial national anthems that jumps from an uncensored version of "This Land Is Your Land" to "Clementine" and includes a version of "God Save the Queen", which Young grew up singing every day in school in Canada.[113] Americana is Neil Young's first album composed entirely of cover songs. On June 5, 2012, American Songwriter also reported that Neil Young & Crazy Horse would be launching their first tour in eight years in support of the album.[114] Neil Young with Crazy Horse launched a new tour on August 3, 2012, in anticipation of their second album of 2012, Psychedelic Pill, which was released in late October.[citation needed] On August 25, 2012, Young was mistakenly reported dead by, the day when astronaut Neil Armstrong died.[115] On September 25, 2012, Young's autobiography Waging Heavy Peace: A Hippie Dream was released to critical and commercial acclaim.[116] Reviewing the book for the New York Times, Janet Maslin reported that Young chose to write his memoirs in 2012 for two reasons. For one, he needed to take a break from stage performances for health reasons but continue to generate income. For another, he feared the onset of dementia, considering his father's medical history and his own present condition. Maslin gives the book a higher than average grade, describing it as frank but quirky and without pathos as it delves into his relationships and his experience in parenting a child with disabilities as well as his artistic and commercial activities and associations.[117] In November 2013, Young performed at the annual fundraiser for the Silverlake Conservatory of Music. Following the Red Hot Chili Peppers, he played an acoustic set to a crowd who had paid a minimum of $2,000 a seat to attend the benefit in the famous Paramour Mansion overlooking downtown Los Angeles.[118] The album A Letter Home was released on April 19, 2014, through Jack White's record label, and his second memoir, entitled Special Deluxe, was tentatively scheduled for a late 2014 release.[needs update] He appeared with Jack White on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon on May 12, 2014.[119] The 2014 debut solo album by Chrissie Hynde, entitled Stockholm, featured Young on guitar on the track "Down the Wrong Way".[120] Young released his thirty-fifth studio album, Storytone on November 4, 2014. The first song released from the album, "Who's Gonna Stand Up?", was released in three different versions on September 25, 2014.[121] Storytone was followed in 2015 by his concept album The Monsanto Years.[122] The Monsanto Years is an album themed both in support of sustainable farming, and to protest the biotechnology company Monsanto.[123] Young achieves this protest in a series of lyrical sentiments against genetically modified food production. He created this album in collaboration with Willie Nelson's sons, Lukas and Micah, and is also backed by Lukas’s fellow band members from Promise of the Real.[124] Additionally, Young released a film in tandem to the album, (also entitled "The Monsanto Years"), that documents the album's recording, and can be streamed online.[125] In summer 2015, Young undertook a North America tour titled the Rebel Content Tour. The tour began on July 5, 2015 at the Summerfest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and ended on July 24, 2015 at the Wayhome Festival in Oro-Medonte, Ontario. Lukas Nelson & Promise of the Real were special guests for the tour.[126][127][128][needs update] After a show on September 19, 2015 in Chicago, Illinois, the tour started over on October 1, 2015 in Missoula, Montana and ended on October 25, 2015 in Mountain View, California.[needs update] In October 2016, Young performed at Desert Trip in Indio, California,[129][130] and announced his thirty-seventh studio album, Peace Trail, recorded with drummer Jim Keltner and bass guitarist Paul Bushnell,[131] which was released that December. On September 8, 2017, Young released Hitchhiker, a studio LP recorded on August 11, 1976 at Indigo Studios in Malibu. The album features ten songs that Young recorded accompanied by acoustic guitar or piano.[132] While different versions of most of the songs have been previously released, the new album will include two never-before-released songs: "Hawaii" and "Give Me Strength," which Young has occasionally performed live.[133] On July 4, 2017, Young released the song "Children of Destiny" which would appear on his next album. On November 3, 2017, Young announced a new album with Promise of the Real – an anti-Trump one – to be released on December 1, 2017 entitled The Visitor and shared a new song from it called "Already Great".[134] On December 1, 2017, Young performed live in Omemee, Ontario, Canada, a town he had lived in as a boy.[135]

Archives project[edit] Main article: Neil Young Archives As far back as 1988, Young spoke in interviews of his efforts to compile his unreleased material and to remaster his existing catalogue. The collection was eventually titled the Neil Young Archives Series. The first installment, titled The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972, was originally planned for a 2007 release but was delayed, and released on June 2, 2009.[citation needed] Three performances from the Performance Series of the archives were released individually before The Archives Vol. 1. Live at the Fillmore East, a selection of songs from a 1970 gig with Crazy Horse, was released in 2006. Live at Massey Hall 1971, a solo acoustic set from Toronto's Massey Hall, saw release in 2007. Sugar Mountain – Live at Canterbury House 1968, an early solo performance and, chronologically, the first disc in the performance series, emerged late in 2008.[citation needed] In an interview in 2008, Young discussed Toast, an album originally recorded with Crazy Horse in San Francisco in 2000 but never released.[136] The album will be part of the Special Edition Series of the Archives. No release date currently exists for Toast. The album A Treasure, with live tracks from a 1984–85 tour with the International Harvesters, during a time when he was being sued by Geffen Records, was released in June 2011.[citation needed] On July 14, 2009, Young's first four solo albums were reissued as remastered HDCD discs and digital downloads as discs 1–4 of the Original Release Series of the Archives.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit] Young married his first wife, restaurant owner Susan Acevedo, in December 1968. They were together until October 1970, when she filed for divorce.[137] From late 1970 to 1975, Young was in a long-term relationship with actress Carrie Snodgress. The song "A Man Needs a Maid" from Harvest is inspired by him seeing her in the film Diary of a Mad Housewife. They met soon afterward and she moved in with him on his new ranch in northern California. They have a son, Zeke, who was born September 8, 1972.[138] Young met future wife Pegi Young (née Morton) in 1974 when she was working as a waitress at a diner near his ranch, a story he tells in the 1992 song "Unknown Legend". They married in 1978 and have two children together, Ben and Amber. Both Ben and Zeke are diagnosed with cerebral palsy,[139] and Amber with epilepsy.[139] Young lived on Broken Arrow Ranch, about a thousand acres[140] near La Honda, California, purchased in 1970 for US$350,000 cash and subsequently grew to thousands of acres.[141][142] The couple were musical collaborators and co-founded the Bridge School in 1986.[143][144] On July 29, 2014, Young filed for divorce after 36 years of marriage. He gave Pegi the ranch and moved to Los Angeles with his current partner, Daryl Hannah.[52] Young has been widely reported to be the godfather of actress Amber Tamblyn;[145] in a 2009 interview with Parade, Tamblyn explained that "godfather" was "just a loose term" for Young, Dennis Hopper and Dean Stockwell, three famous friends of her father's, who were always around the house when she was growing up, and who were big influences on her life.[146] Young is an environmentalist[147] and outspoken advocate for the welfare of small farmers, having co-founded in 1985 the benefit concert Farm Aid. He is currently working on a documentary about electric car technology, tentatively titled LincVolt. The project involves his 1959 Lincoln Continental converted to hybrid technology as an environmentalist statement.[148][149] In 1986, Young helped found The Bridge School,[150] an educational organization for children with severe verbal and physical disabilities, and its annual supporting Bridge School Benefit concerts, together with his ex-wife Pegi Young.[citation needed]

Business ventures[edit] Young was part owner of Lionel, LLC, a company that makes toy trains and model railroad accessories.[151] In 2008 Lionel emerged from bankruptcy and his shares of the company were wiped out. He was instrumental in the design of the Lionel Legacy control system for model trains,[151] and remains on the board of directors of Lionel.[2] He has been named as co-inventor on seven US patents related to model trains.[152] Young has long held that the digital audio formats in which most people download music are deeply flawed, and do not provide the rich, warm sound of analog recordings. He is acutely aware of the difference and compares it with taking a shower in tiny ice cubes vs. ordinary water.[153] Young and his company PonoMusic developed Pono, a music download-service and dedicated music player focusing on "high-quality" uncompressed digital audio.[154] It is designed to compete against MP3 and other formats. Pono promises to present songs "as they first sound during studio recording".[155][156][157] The service and the selling of the player launched in October 2014.[158][159]

Instruments[edit] Guitars[edit] Young playing a Gretsch White Falcon in Cologne, June 19, 2009 In 2003, Rolling Stone listed Young as eighty-third in its ranking of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" (although in a more recent version of the list, he has been moved up to seventeenth place), describing him as a "restless experimenter ... who transform[s] the most obvious music into something revelatory".[160] Young is a collector of second-hand guitars, but in recording and performing, he uses frequently just a few instruments, as is explained by his longtime guitar technician Larry Cragg in the film Neil Young: Heart of Gold. They include: 1953 Gibson Les Paul Goldtop. Nicknamed "Old Black", this is Young's primary electric guitar and is featured on Rust Never Sleeps (1979) and other albums. Old Black got its name from an amateur paintjob applied to the originally gold body of the instrument, some time before Young acquired the guitar in the late 1960s. In 1972, a mini humbucker pick-up from a Gibson Firebird was installed in the lead/treble position. This pick-up, severely microphonic, is considered a crucial component of Young's sound. A Bigsby vibrato tailpiece was installed as early as 1969, and can be heard during the opening of "Cowgirl in the Sand" from Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere. Martin D-45. His primary steel-string acoustic guitar, which was used to originally play "Old Man" and many other songs. It was one of four instruments bought by Stephen Stills for himself and his bandmates in CSNY to celebrate their first full concert at the Greek Theater in 1969. Martin D-28. Nicknamed "Hank" after its previous owner, Hank Williams. Hank Williams, Jr., had traded it for some shotguns; it went through a succession of other owners until it was located by Young's longtime friend Grant Boatwright. The guitar was purchased by Young from Tut Taylor. Young has toured with it for over 30 years. A story about the guitar and the song it inspired, "This Old Guitar", can be seen about 50 minutes into the film Neil Young: Heart of Gold. It is Young's primary guitar for Prairie Wind (2005). Vintage Martin D-18: Young used an old D-18 throughout his early days performing in coffee houses in Canada and on some early Buffalo Springfield work, before he received the D-45 from Stills. It can also be seen on unreleased footage from the Woodstock documentary, particularly on an exceptional acoustic duet of the Buffalo Springfield track "Mr. Soul" with Stills. The guitar has often been used to carry "dropped standard tuning" (DGCFAD) which Young often uses in concert. This allowed him to perform songs such as "Ambulance Blues" and "Don't Let It Bring You Down" live without having to retune all 6 strings onstage. Other notable (or odd) instruments played by Young include: Taylor 855 12-string, used in the first half of Rust Never Sleeps (1979). 1927 Gibson Mastertone, a six-string banjo guitar, a banjo body tuned like a guitar, used on many recordings and played by James Taylor on "Old Man". Gretsch 6120 (Chet Atkins model). Before Young bought Old Black, this was his primary electric guitar during his Buffalo Springfield days. Gretsch White Falcon. Young purchased a late 1950s model near the end of the Buffalo Springfield era; in 1969 he bought a stereo version of the same vintage guitar from Stephen Stills, and this instrument is featured prominently during Young's early 1970s period, and can be heard on tracks like "Ohio", "Southern Man", "Alabama", "Words (Between the Lines of Age)", and "L.A.". It was Young's primary electric guitar during the Harvest (1972) era, since Young's deteriorating back condition (eventually fixed with surgery) made playing the much heavier Les Paul difficult.[161] This particular White Falcon is the stereo 6137, in which the signal from the three bass strings is separated from the signal from the three treble strings. Young typically plays this guitar in this stereo mode, sending the separate signals to two different amps, a Fender Deluxe and either a Fender Tremolux or a low-powered Tweed Fender Twin. The separation of the signals is most prominently heard on the Harvest (1972) song "Words". Gibson Flying V, on the Time Fades Away tour. Fender Broadcaster, on the Tonight's the Night (1975) album and tour. Guild M-20, seen in the film Neil Young Journeys. Reed organ[edit] Young owns an Estey reed organ, serial number 167272, dating from 1885, which he frequently plays in concert and which was recently restored.[162] Amplification[edit] Young uses various vintage Fender Tweed Deluxe amplifiers. His preferred amplifier for electric guitar is the Fender Deluxe, specifically a Tweed-era model from 1959. He purchased his first vintage Deluxe in 1967 for US$50 from Saul Bettman's Music in Los Angeles and has since acquired nearly 450 different examples, all from the same era, but he maintains that it is the original model that sounds superior and is crucial to his trademark sound.[163] The Tweed Deluxe is almost always used in conjunction with a late-1950s Magnatone 280 (similar to the amplifier used by Lonnie Mack and Buddy Holly). The Magnatone and the Deluxe are paired together in a most unusual manner: the external speaker jack from the Deluxe sends the amped signal through a volume potentiometer and directly into the input of the Magnatone. The Magnatone is notable for its true pitch-bending vibrato capabilities, which can be heard as an electric piano amplifier on "See the Sky About to Rain". A notable and unique accessory to Young's Deluxe is the Whizzer, a device created specifically for Young by Rick Davis, which physically changes the amplifier's settings to pre-set combinations. This device is connected to footswitches operable by Young onstage in the manner of an effects pedal. Tom Wheeler's book Soul of Tone highlights the device on page 182/183.[164]

Discography[edit] Main article: Neil Young discography and filmography See also: Crazy Horse (band) § Discography; Buffalo Springfield § Discography; and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young discography Neil Young (1968) Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere with Crazy Horse (1969) After the Gold Rush (1970) Harvest (1972) Time Fades Away (1973) On the Beach (1974) Tonight's the Night (1975) Zuma (1975) Long May You Run with Stephen Stills (1976) American Stars 'n Bars (1977) Comes a Time (1978) Rust Never Sleeps with Crazy Horse (1979) Live Rust with Crazy Horse (1979) Hawks & Doves (1980) Re·ac·tor with Crazy Horse (1981) Trans (1982) Everybody's Rockin' (1983) Old Ways (1985) Landing on Water (1986) Life with Crazy Horse (1987) This Note's for You (1988) Eldorado EP (1989) Freedom (1989) Ragged Glory with Crazy Horse (1990) Weld with Crazy Horse (1991) Arc with Crazy Horse (1991) Harvest Moon (1992) Unplugged (1993) Sleeps with Angels with Crazy Horse (1994) Mirror Ball with Pearl Jam (1995) Dead Man soundtrack album (1995) Broken Arrow with Crazy Horse (1996) Year of the Horse with Crazy Horse (1997) Silver & Gold (2000) Road Rock Vol. 1: Friends & Relatives (2000) Are You Passionate? with Booker T. & the M.G.'s (2002) Greendale with Crazy Horse (2003) Prairie Wind (2005) Living with War (2006) Living with War: "In the Beginning" (2006) Chrome Dreams II (2007) Fork in the Road (2009) Le Noise (2010) Americana with Crazy Horse (2012) Psychedelic Pill with Crazy Horse (2012) A Letter Home (2014) Storytone (2014) The Monsanto Years with Promise of the Real (2015) Earth with Promise of the Real (2016) Peace Trail (2016) The Visitor with Promise of the Real (2017)

Awards and recognition[edit] Young's Star on Canada's Walk of Fame 2011 Juno Awards Artist of the Year, Adult Alternative Album of the Year, and Allan Waters Humanitarian Award 2011 Grammy Awards Best Rock Song "Angry World" written by Neil Young. 2010 Grammy Awards Best Art Direction on a Boxed/Special Limited Edition Package The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972 – Neil Young, Gary Burden, Jenice Heo Canadian Music Hall of Fame, 1982 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame He has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice: first in 1995 for his solo work and in 1997 as a member of Buffalo Springfield. In 2006, Artist of the Year by the American Music Association.[165] As one of the original founders of Farm Aid (1985–), he remains an active member of the board of directors. For one weekend each October, in Mountain View, California, Young and his ex-wife have hosted the Bridge School Concerts, which have been drawing international talent and sell-out crowds for nearly two decades with some of the biggest names in rock having performed at the event including Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, Bruce Springsteen, David Bowie, The Who, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails, Tom Waits, Thom Yorke of Radiohead, R.E.M., Foo Fighters, Metallica, Pearl Jam, Sonic Youth, The Smashing Pumpkins, Paul McCartney and Dave Matthews. He announced in June 2017, however, that he would no longer host the concerts.[166] The concerts are a benefit for the Bridge School, which develops and uses advanced technologies to aid in the instruction of children with disabilities. Young's involvement stemmed at least partially from the fact that both of his sons have cerebral palsy and his daughter, like Young himself, has epilepsy. Young was nominated for an Oscar in 1994 for his song "Philadelphia" from the film Philadelphia. Bruce Springsteen won the award for his song "Streets of Philadelphia" from the same film. In his acceptance speech, Springsteen said that "the award really deserved to be shared by the other nominee's song". That same night, Tom Hanks, when accepting the Oscar for Best Actor, gave credit for his inspiration to Young's song. Young has twice received honorary doctorates. He received an honorary doctorate of music from Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, in 1992, and an honorary doctorate of humane letters from San Francisco State University in 2006. The latter honour was shared with his wife Pegi for their creation of the Bridge School. In 2006, Young was given Manitoba's highest civilian honour when he was appointed to the Order of Manitoba. In 2009, he was appointed to Canada's second highest civilian order, the Order of Canada. Rolling Stone magazine in 2000, ranked Young thirty-fourth in its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time,[167] and in 2003, included five of his albums in its list of 500 greatest albums of all time.[168] In 2000, Young was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame.[169] In 2006, when Paste magazine compiled a "Greatest Living Songwriters" list, Young was ranked second behind Bob Dylan. (While Young and Dylan have occasionally played together in concert, they have never collaborated on a song together or played on each other's records.) He ranked thirty-ninth on VH1's 100 Greatest Artist of Hard Rock that same year. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame explained that while Young has "avoided sticking to one style for very long, the unifying factors throughout Young's peripatetic musical journey have been his unmistakable voice, his raw and expressive guitar playing, and his consummate songwriting skill."[77] Young's political outspokenness and social awareness influenced artists such as Blind Melon, Phish, Pearl Jam, and Nirvana. Young is referred to as "the Godfather of Grunge" because of the influence he had on Kurt Cobain and Eddie Vedder and the entire grunge movement. Vedder inducted Young into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, citing him as a huge influence. Young is cited as being a significant influence on the experimental rock group Sonic Youth, and Thom Yorke of Radiohead. Yorke recounted of first hearing Young after sending a demo tape into a magazine when he was 16, who favourably compared his singing voice to Young's. Unaware of Young at that time, he bought After the Gold Rush (1970), and "immediately fell in love" with his work, calling it "extraordinary".[170] Yorke later covered the title track in concert. Dave Matthews lists Young as one of his favourite songwriters and most important inspirations and covers his songs on occasion. The British indie band The Bluetones named their number one debut album after the song "Expecting to Fly" (written by Young when still with Buffalo Springfield) and have covered the song while touring. Young also inspired the singer-songwriter Noel Gallagher of Oasis, who covered "Hey Hey, My My (Into the Black)" on the live album Familiar to Millions (2000). The Australian rock group Powderfinger named themselves after Young's song "Powderfinger" from Rust Never Sleeps (1979). The members of the Constantines have occasionally played Neil Young tribute shows under the name Horsey Craze.[171] While in Winnipeg on November 2, 2008, during the Canadian leg of his tour, Bob Dylan visited Young's former home in River Heights, where Young spent his teenage years. Dylan was interested in seeing the room where some of Young's first songs were composed. Jason Bond, an East Carolina University biologist, discovered a new species of trapdoor spider in 2007 and named it Myrmekiaphila neilyoungi after Young,[172] his favourite singer.[173] In 2001, Young was awarded the Spirit of Liberty award by the civil liberties group People for the American Way. Young was honoured as the MusiCares Person of the Year on January 29, 2010, two nights prior to the 52nd Annual Grammy Awards. He was also nominated for two Grammy Awards: Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance for "Fork in the Road" and Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package for Neil Young Archives Vol. 1 (1963–1972). Young won the latter Grammy Award. In 2010, he was ranked No. 26 in's Top 50 Guitarists of All Time.[174] Juno Awards[edit] Year Category Nominated work Result 2011 Artist of the Year Neil Young Won Adult Alternative Album of the Year Le Noise Won 2008 Adult Alternative Album of the Year Chrome Dreams II Nominated 2007 Adult Alternative Album of the Year Living With War Won 2006 Adult Alternative Album of the Year Prairie Wind Nominated Jack Richardson Producer of the Year "The Painter" Won Songwriter of the Year "The Painter", "When God Made Me", "Prairie Wind" Nominated 2001 Best Male Artist Neil Young Won Best Roots & Traditional Album – Solo Silver & Gold Nominated 1997 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1996 Best Rock Album Mirror Ball Nominated Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1995 Songwriter of the Year Neil Young Nominated Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Won Entertainer of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1994 Single of the Year "Harvest Moon" Nominated Album of the Year Harvest Moon Won 1993 Songwriter of the Year Neil Young Nominated Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1991 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1990 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1989 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1986 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1982 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1981 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1980 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1979 Male Vocalist of the Year Neil Young Nominated 1975 Composer of the Year Neil Young Nominated

See also[edit] Neil Young portal Music of Canada portal List of peace activists Canadian rock Music of Canada

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Retrieved July 28, 2009.  ^ "30 years on, Neil Young remains one of the most distinctive voices of his, or any other, generation." Surkamp, David (September 15, 1992). "Internal Fire from Neil Young Lights the Stage". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 4D.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ Miller, Edward (2003). "The Nonsensical Truth of the Falsetto Voice: Listening to Sigur Rós". Popular Musicology Online. ISSN 1357-0951. Retrieved May 26, 2010.  ^ Sinclair, Scott (April 4, 2009). "Neil Young – Fork in the Road". Popular Musicology Online. Archived from the original on April 5, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2010.  ^ Echard 2005, p. 43. ^ "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee-list". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. 2009. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.  ^ "Resurrection of Neil Young, Continued". Time. September 28, 2005. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ McDonough 2002, p. 37. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Artist Biography [Neil Young]". 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If you wanted to make a weapon that could destroy people, digital could do it, okay?" Neil Young  ^ Arthur, Charles. "Pono: only a man pays for music quality that he can't hear". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved April 8, 2014. Pono is the latest in a long line of attempts to give people "high-quality" recorded audio  ^ Geere, Duncan. "Neil Young's 'Pono' is a music service and player for audiophiles". Wired UK. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ Michaels, Sean (September 28, 2012). "Neil Young to take on Apple's iTunes Music Store". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ Boilen, Bob. "Neil Young Wants You To Truly Hear Music". NPR. Retrieved March 20, 2014.  ^ Kamps, Garrett. "Neil Young Pitches Pono Music Service at SXSW as Alternative to Digital 'Shit'". Spin. SpinMedia. 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External links[edit] This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Find more aboutNeil Youngat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata Official website Official archive with rare recordings Neil Young at AllMusic Neil Young on IMDb "Neil Young". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.  Youngtown Rock and Roll Museum – Omemee, Ontario Neil Young on Charlie Rose Works by or about Neil Young in libraries (WorldCat catalog) "Neil Young collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Review of Crazy Horse at the Fillmore 1970 "Neil Young: Don't be Denied", PBS, American Masters, TV documentary, 2009 Sugar Mountain – a compilation of set lists from Neil Young's concert performances v t e Neil Young Crazy Horse The Stray Gators Promise of the Real Studio albums Neil Young Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere After the Gold Rush Harvest On the Beach Tonight's the Night Zuma American Stars 'n Bars Comes a Time Hawks & Doves Re·ac·tor Trans Everybody's Rockin' Old Ways Landing on Water This Note's for You Freedom Ragged Glory Harvest Moon Sleeps with Angels Mirror Ball Broken Arrow Silver & Gold Are You Passionate? Greendale Prairie Wind Living with War Chrome Dreams II Fork in the Road Le Noise Americana Psychedelic Pill A Letter Home Storytone The Monsanto Years Peace Trail Hitchhiker The Visitor EPs Eldorado Live albums Time Fades Away Rust Never Sleeps Live Rust Life Arc Weld Unplugged Year of the Horse Road Rock Vol. 1 Earth Soundtracks Journey Through the Past Where the Buffalo Roam Philadelphia Dead Man Compilations Decade Lucky Thirteen Greatest Hits Archives series The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972 Archives Performance series Live at the Fillmore East Live at Massey Hall 1971 Sugar Mountain – Live at Canterbury House 1968 Live at the Riverboat 1969 Dreamin' Man Live '92 A Treasure Live at the Cellar Door Bluenote Café Unreleased albums Homegrown Chrome Dreams Songs "Mr. Soul" "Broken Arrow" "Expecting to Fly" "Sugar Mountain" "The Loner" "I've Been Waiting for You" "Cinnamon Girl" "Down by the River" "Cowgirl in the Sand" "Helpless" "Ohio" "Tell Me Why" "After the Gold Rush" "Only Love Can Break Your Heart" "Southern Man" "Don't Let It Bring You Down" "When You Dance I Can Really Love" "Bad Fog of Loneliness" "A Man Needs a Maid" "Heart of Gold" "Are You Ready for the Country?" "Old Man" "The Needle and the Damage Done" "Cortez the Killer" "Will to Love" "Like a Hurricane" "Love Is a Rose" "Lotta Love" "Hey Hey, My My (Into the Black)" "Pocahontas" "Powderfinger" "Sedan Delivery" "Rockin' in the Free World" "No More" "Wrecking Ball" "Downtown" "Let's Impeach the President" "Angry World" "A Rock Star Bucks a Coffee Shop" Films and Videos Journey Through the Past Human Highway Neil Young in Berlin Solo Trans Year of the Horse Neil Young: Silver and Gold Greendale Neil Young: Heart of Gold CSNY/Déjà Vu Neil Young Trunk Show Neil Young Journeys Books Waging Heavy Peace: A Hippie Dream Related Discography The Squires The Mynah Birds Buffalo Springfield Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young The Stills–Young Band The Bridge: A Tribute to Neil Young Myrmekiaphila neilyoungi Pono Old Black Farm Aid Bridge School Benefit Pegi Young (former wife) Carrie Snodgress Category Portal Topics related to Neil Young v t e Buffalo Springfield Richie Furay Dewey Martin Jim Messina Stephen Stills Neil Young Bruce Palmer Studio albums Buffalo Springfield Buffalo Springfield Again Last Time Around Compilations and box sets Retrospective: The Best of Buffalo Springfield Buffalo Springfield (compilation album) Buffalo Springfield (box set) Songs "For What It's Worth" "Sit Down, I Think I Love You" "Mr. Soul" "Broken Arrow" "Expecting to Fly" Related artists The Au Go Go Singers The Mynah Birds Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young The Stills-Young Band Poco Manassas Crazy Horse Loggins and Messina Poco v t e Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young David Crosby Stephen Stills Graham Nash Neil Young Studio albums Crosby, Stills & Nash Déjà Vu CSN Daylight Again American Dream Live It Up After the Storm Looking Forward Live albums 4 Way Street Allies Déjà Vu Live CSN 2012 CSNY 1974 Compilation albums So Far Replay CSN Carry On Greatest Hits Demos Songs "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes" "Marrakesh Express" "Guinnevere" "Wooden Ships" "Lady of the Island" "Helplessly Hoping" "Woodstock" "Helpless" "Teach Your Children" "Almost Cut My Hair" "Our House" "Ohio" "Just a Song Before I Go" "Wasted on the Way" "Southern Cross" Related bands The Byrds Buffalo Springfield The Hollies CPR Crosby & Nash The Stills-Young Band Manassas Crazy Horse Related people Joni Mitchell Judy Collins Chris Hillman Cass Elliot Timothy B. Schmit Greg Reeves Dallas Taylor Other related articles Discography CSNY/Déjà Vu v t e Crazy Horse Billy Talbot Ralph Molina Frank "Poncho" Sampedro Danny Whitten Jack Nitzsche Nils Lofgren George Whitsell Greg LeRoy John Blanton Rick Curtis Michael Curtis Sonny Mone Crazy Horse Crazy Horse Loose At Crooked Lake Crazy Moon Left for Dead Gone Dead Train: The Best of Crazy Horse 1971–1989 Scratchy: The Complete Reprise Recordings Neil Young & Crazy Horse Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere After the Gold Rush Tonight's the Night Zuma American Stars 'n Bars Comes a Time Rust Never Sleeps Live Rust Re·ac·tor Trans Life Ragged Glory Weld Arc Sleeps with Angels Broken Arrow Year of the Horse Are You Passionate? Greendale Live at the Fillmore East Americana Psychedelic Pill Related articles Neil Young The Rockets Accolades received by Neil Young v t e MusiCares Person of the Year David Crosby (1991) Bonnie Raitt (1992) Natalie Cole (1993) Gloria Estefan (1994) Tony Bennett (1995) Quincy Jones (1996) Phil Collins (1997) Luciano Pavarotti (1998) Stevie Wonder (1999) Elton John (2000) Paul Simon (2001) Billy Joel (2002) Bono (2003) Sting (2004) Brian Wilson (2005) James Taylor (2006) Don Henley (2007) Aretha Franklin (2008) Neil Diamond (2009) Neil Young (2010) Barbra Streisand (2011) Paul McCartney (2012) Bruce Springsteen (2013) Carole King (2014) Bob Dylan (2015) Lionel Richie (2016) Tom Petty (2017) Fleetwood Mac (2018) v t e Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Class of 1995 Performers The Allman Brothers Band (Duane Allman, Gregg Allman, Dickey Betts, Jaimoe, Berry Oakley, Butch Trucks) Al Green Janis Joplin Led Zeppelin (John Bonham, John Paul Jones, Jimmy Page, Robert Plant) Martha and the Vandellas (Rosalind Ashford, Annette Beard, Betty Kelly, Lois Reeves, Martha Reeves, Sandra Tilley) Neil Young Frank Zappa Early influences The Orioles Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award) Paul Ackerman v t e Juno Award for Artist of the Year 2000s Shania Twain (2003) Sam Roberts (2004) Avril Lavigne (2005) Michael Bublé (2006) Nelly Furtado (2007) Feist (2008) Sam Roberts (2009) 2010s K'naan (2010) Neil Young (2011) Feist (2012) Leonard Cohen (2013) Serena Ryder (2014) The Weeknd (2015 and 2016) Leonard Cohen (2017) v t e Juno Award for Album of the Year (1980–1999) 1980s 1980: Anne Murray – New Kind of Feeling 1981: Anne Murray – Anne Murray's Greatest Hits 1982: Loverboy – Loverboy 1983: Loverboy – Get Lucky 1984: Bryan Adams – Cuts Like a Knife 1985: Bryan Adams – Reckless 1986: Glass Tiger – The Thin Red Line 1987: Kim Mitchell – Shakin' Like a Human Being 1988: no award ceremony held 1989: Robbie Robertson – Robbie Robertson 1990s 1990: Alannah Myles – Alannah Myles 1991: Celine Dion – Unison 1992: Tom Cochrane – Mad Mad World 1993: k.d. lang – Ingénue 1994: Neil Young – Harvest Moon 1995: Celine Dion – The Colour of My Love 1996: Alanis Morissette – Jagged Little Pill 1997: The Tragically Hip – Trouble at the Henhouse 1998: Sarah McLachlan – Surfacing 1999: Celine Dion – Let's Talk About Love (2000–2019) Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 198007 LCCN: n82063191 ISNI: 0000 0003 7388 9026 GND: 119133695 SELIBR: 170643 SUDOC: 035136782 BNF: cb13901347v (data) BIBSYS: 99030456 MusicBrainz: 75167b8b-44e4-407b-9d35-effe87b223cf NLA: 35988322 NDL: 00477649 BNE: XX938078 SNAC: w6n605xz Retrieved from "" Categories: Neil YoungCanadian male singersCanadian male singer-songwriters20th-century Canadian multi-instrumentalists1945 birthsLiving peopleAnti–Vietnam War activistsCanadian anti–Iraq War activistsBuffalo Springfield membersCanadian activistsCanadian country guitaristsMale guitaristsCanadian country rock musiciansCanadian country singersCanadian country singer-songwritersCanadian expatriates in the United StatesCanadian expatriate musicians in the United StatesCanadian film directorsCanadian folk guitaristsCanadian folk singersCanadian folk singer-songwritersCanadian keyboardistsCanadian rock pianistsCanadian harmonica playersCanadian Music Hall of Fame inducteesCanadian people of American descentCanadian rock guitaristsCanadian rock keyboardistsCanadian rock singersCounterculture of the 1960sCrazy Horse (band) membersCrosby, Stills, Nash & Young membersFilm directors from TorontoFilm directors from WinnipegGrammy Award winnersJuno Award for Album of the Year winnersLead guitaristsReprise Records artistsMembers of the Order of ManitobaMusicians from TorontoMusicians from WinnipegOfficers of the Order of CanadaPeople with epilepsyRock and Roll Hall of Fame inducteesWriters from TorontoWriters from WinnipegPeople from the San Francisco Bay AreaPeople from Topanga, CaliforniaPeople with poliomyelitis20th-century Canadian singers21st-century Canadian singers21st-century Canadian writersJuno Award for Adult Alternative Album of the Year winnersJuno Award for Artist of the Year winners20th-century Canadian pianists21st-century Canadian pianists20th-century Canadian guitarists21st-century Canadian guitarists20th-century American singers21st-century American singers20th-century American guitarists21st-century American guitaristsAmerican folk guitaristsAmerican rock guitaristsAmerican folk singersAmerican rock singersCanadian hard rock musiciansAmerican hard rock musiciansAmerican country rock musiciansAmerican country rock singersAmerican male singer-songwritersAmerican male singersHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLWebarchive template wayback linksUse Canadian English from March 2016All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian EnglishUse mdy dates from July 2017Articles with hCardsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 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Neil_Young - Photos and All Basic Informations

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Neil Young (disambiguation)TorontoWinnipegRock MusicFolk RockHard RockCountry RockVocalsGuitarHarmonicaPianoWarner Bros. RecordsReprise RecordsAtco RecordsAtlantic Records GroupGeffen RecordsThe SquiresThe Mynah BirdsRick JamesBuffalo SpringfieldCrosby, Stills, Nash & YoungCrazy Horse (band)The Stray GatorsThe Stills-Young BandThe DucksNorthern Lights (Canadian Band)Pearl JamBooker T. JonesLeon RussellElton JohnPegi YoungLukas Nelson & Promise Of The RealWillie NelsonOrder Of CanadaOrder Of ManitobaBuffalo SpringfieldStephen StillsRichie FurayCrosby, Stills, Nash & YoungCrazy Horse (band)TenorFolk MusicRock MusicCountry MusicGrungeMirror Ball (Neil Young Album)Pearl JamLukas Nelson & Promise Of The RealJourney Through The Past (film)Rust Never SleepsHuman HighwayGreendale (album)CSNY/Déjà VuPhiladelphia (film)Dead ManGrammyJuno AwardsRock And Roll Hall Of FameBuffalo SpringfieldRolling StoneOrder Of ManitobaOrder Of CanadaTorontoScott Young (writer)Daughters Of The American RevolutionWinnipegOmemee, OntarioPolioJoni MitchellNew Smyrna Beach, FloridaPickering, OntarioRock And RollRockabillyDoo-wopRhythm And BluesCountry MusicElvis PresleyLink WrayChuck BerryHank MarvinLittle RichardFats DominoThe ChantelsThe MonotonesRonnie SelfThe FleetwoodsJerry Lee LewisJohnny CashRoy OrbisonGogi GrantUkuleleFort Rouge, WinnipegKen KoblunKelvin High SchoolThe SquiresFort William, OntarioStephen StillsBob DylanSugar Mountain (song)The Guess WhoRandy BachmanMotownDesertionBruce PalmerPermanent Residence (United States)Buffalo SpringfieldStephen StillsRichie FurayDewey Martin (musician)Buffalo SpringfieldPsychedeliaBuffalo Springfield (album)For What It's WorthBuffalo Springfield AgainMr. SoulExpecting To Fly (song)Jack NitzscheWikipedia:Citation NeededLast Time AroundThe MonkeesHead (The Monkees Album)Instant Replay (The Monkees Album)Crosby, Stills, Nash & YoungCrazy Horse (band)Reprise RecordsJoni MitchellElliot RobertsNeil Young (album)Danny WhittenBilly TalbotRalph MolinaCrazy Horse (band)Crazy HorseEverybody Knows This Is NowhereCrosby, Stills & Nash (and Young)Crosby, Stills & Nash (album)Grammy AwardCrosby, Stills, Nash & YoungWoodstock FestivalDéjà Vu (Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Album)Ohio (CSNY Song)Kent State MassacreAfter The Gold RushNils LofgrenStephen StillsGreg ReevesTell Me Why (Neil Young Song)Don't Let It Bring You DownOnly Love Can Break Your HeartWhen You Dance I Can Really LoveAfter The Gold Rush (song)EnvironmentalismSouthern Man (song)Lynyrd SkynyrdSweet Home Alabama (song)Ronnie Van ZantEnlargeCarnegie HallMassey HallThe Johnny Cash Show (TV Series)The Needle And The Damage DoneHeroin AddictionDanny WhittenQuadrafonic Sound StudiosElliot MazerThe Stray GatorsLinda RonstadtJames TaylorDavid Briggs (producer)London Symphony OrchestraThe Broadway (theatre)Harvest (Neil Young Album)Old Man (song)A Man Needs A Maid (song)Carrie SnodgressHeart Of Gold (Neil Young Song)Decade (Neil Young Album)Alcohol (drug)DiazepamOverdoseCameron CroweKenny ButtreyHard RockJohnny BarbataDavid CrosbyGraham NashTime Fades AwayNeil Young ArchivesHarvest (Neil Young Album)EnlargeAustin, TexasNils LofgrenBen KeithRoadieBruce BerryTonight's The Night (Neil Young Album)On The Beach (Neil Young Album)Homegrown (Neil Young Album)The BandRick DankoCrosby, Stills, And NashCSNY 1974Frank SampedroZuma (album)Cortez The KillerSpanish ConquestAztecLong May You RunThe Stills-Young BandTelegramEnlargeThe BandThe Last WaltzMartin ScorseseHelpless (song)American Stars 'n BarsLike A Hurricane (Neil Young Song)Linda RonstadtEmmylou HarrisNicolette LarsonDecade (Neil Young Album)Comes A TimeIan TysonFour Strong WindsLotta LoveHuman HighwayUnited States DollarDevoWikipedia:Citation NeededMy My, Hey Hey (Out Of The Blue)Hey Hey, My My (Into The Black)Wikipedia:Citation NeededJohnny RottenElvis PresleyPop IconOn The Beach (Neil Young Album)Rust Never SleepsLive RustJim Evans (artist)Star WarsJawasRust Never SleepsThe Village VoicePazz & JopWarner Music VisionHunter S. ThompsonWhere The Buffalo RoamHawks & DovesRe·ac·torBerkeley, CaliforniaWikipedia:Citation NeededTrans (album)VocoderGeffen RecordsWarner Bros. RecordsWarner Music GroupCerebral PalsyNeil Young In BerlinWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeBarcelonaEverybody's Rockin'RockabillyDavid GeffenTim PopeHuman HighwayDean StockwellRuss TamblynDennis HopperDavid Blue (musician)Sally KirklandCharlotte StewartDevoWikipedia:Citation NeededOld WaysWikipedia:Citation NeededLive AidPhiladelphiaWikipedia:Citation NeededLanding On WaterLife (1987 Album)Harold MelvinBrass InstrumentsJazzThis Note's For YouMichael JacksonMTV Video Music Award For Best Video Of The YearMuchmusicWikipedia:Citation NeededAmerican Dream (Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Album)Wikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeTurkuFinlandRockin' In The Free WorldFreedom (1989 Album)George H.W. BushFeedbackRust Never SleepsGrungeNirvana (band)Kurt CobainPearl JamEddie VedderThe Bridge: A Tribute To Neil YoungSonic YouthNick CaveSoul AsylumDinosaur JrPixiesRagged GloryNorthern CaliforniaSocial DistortionAlternative RockSonic YouthWeld (album)Arc (Neil Young & Crazy Horse Album)Thurston MooreHarvest Moon (album)Harvest (Neil Young Album)Linda RonstadtJames TaylorJuno Award For Album Of The YearRandy BachmanAcademy Award For Best SongJonathan DemmePhiladelphia (movie)Unplugged (Neil Young Album)Booker T. And The M.G.sBlues TravelerSoundgardenPearl JamPearl JamEnlargeBarcelonaSleeps With AngelsKurt CobainMy My, Hey Hey (Out Of The Blue)Death Of Kurt CobainMirror Ball (Neil Young Album)Brendan O'Brien (music Producer)Rock And Roll Hall Of FameRock And Roll Hall Of FameElliot RobertsTegan And SaraSpoon (band)Jonathan RichmanVic ChesnuttEverest (band)Pegi YoungJets OverheadJim JarmuschDead Man (soundtrack)Dead ManDavid Briggs (producer)Broken Arrow (album)Year Of The HorseH.O.R.D.E.PhishFarm AidHelpless (song)I Shall Be ReleasedLooking ForwardEnlargeCrosby, Stills, Nash & YoungPNC Bank Arts CenterSilver & Gold (Neil Young Album)Road Rock Vol. 1September 11 AttacksLet's RollUnited Airlines Flight 93America: A Tribute To HeroesJohn LennonImagine (John Lennon Song)Mike McCreadyAre You Passionate?Booker T. & The M.G.sWikipedia:Citation NeededGreendale (album)Concept AlbumRalph MolinaBiodieselWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargePrairie WindNashville, TennesseeAneurysmNeuroradiologyFemoral ArteryJuno AwardsLive 8Barrie, OntarioJonathan DemmeNeil Young: Heart Of GoldWikipedia:Citation NeededLiving With WarOhio (CSNY Song)Protest SongWikipedia:Citation NeededLet's Impeach The PresidentBarack ObamaCrosby, Stills, Nash & YoungCSNY Déjà VuWikipedia:Citation NeededGreendale (album)Living With WarChrome Dreams IIGoin' Home: A Tribute To Fats DominoWalking To New OrleansWikipedia:Citation NeededFarm AidWillie NelsonJohn MellencampDave MatthewsForeclosureEnlargeOsloNorwayHybrid VehicleLincoln (automobile)LincVoltFork In The RoadWikipedia:Citation NeededTower Theater (Upper Darby, Pennsylvania)Upper Darby, PennsylvaniaNeil Young Trunk ShowSouth By SouthwestAustin, TexasPotato HoleBooker T. JonesBooker T. & The MGsDrive-By TruckersWikipedia:Citation NeededNew Orleans Jazz And Heritage FestivalGlastonbury FestivalPilton, SomersetHard Rock CallingPaul McCartneyA Day In The LifeIsle Of Wight FestivalBig Day OutPrimavera Sound FestivalWikipedia:Citation NeededKeystone XLFort McMurrayChipewyanWillie NelsonRosebud Indian ReservationOglala LakotaPoncaOmaha (tribe)Buffalo RobeDavid SuzukiBarenaked LadiesFeist (singer)Robert Bateman (artist)MonsantoA Rock Star Bucks A Coffee ShopThe Monsanto YearsEnlargeThe Tonight Show With Conan O'BrienDave MatthewsHank WilliamsHope For Haiti Now: A Global Benefit For Earthquake Relief2010 Haiti Earthquake2010 Winter Olympics Closing CeremonyDaniel LanoisLe NoiseElton JohnLeon RussellThe Union (Elton John And Leon Russell Album)Wikipedia:Citation NeededNeil Young JourneysToronto International Film FestivalMassey HallOmemee, OntarioWikipedia:Citation Needed2012 Slamdance Film FestivalNeil Young JourneysI Saw Her Standing TherePaul McCartneyMusiCares Person Of The YearAmericana (Neil Young Crazy Horse Album)This Land Is Your LandOh My Darling, ClementineGod Save The QueenAmerican SongwriterPsychedelic PillWikipedia:Citation NeededList Of Premature ObituariesNBCNews.comNeil ArmstrongWaging Heavy Peace: A Hippie DreamJanet MaslinSilverlake Conservatory Of MusicRed Hot Chili PeppersParamour MansionA Letter HomeJack WhiteWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersThe Tonight Show Starring Jimmy FallonChrissie HyndeStockholm (Chrissie Hynde Album)StorytoneConcept AlbumThe Monsanto YearsSustainable FarmingMonsantoGenetically Modified FoodWillie NelsonLukas And MicahPromise Of The RealMilwaukee, WIWisconsinWayhome FestivalOro-MedonteOntarioLukas Nelson & Promise Of The RealWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersChicagoIllinoisMissoulaMontanaMountain View, CaliforniaCaliforniaWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersDesert TripIndio, CaliforniaPeace Trail (album)Jim KeltnerHitchhiker (Neil Young Album)Malibu, CaliforniaAnti-TrumpThe Visitor (Neil Young & Promise Of The Real Album)Neil Young ArchivesNeil Young ArchivesThe Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972Wikipedia:Citation NeededLive At The Fillmore East (Neil Young Album)Crazy Horse (band)Live At Massey Hall 1971Sugar Mountain – Live At Canterbury House 1968Wikipedia:Citation NeededNeil Young ArchivesA TreasureWikipedia:Citation NeededHDCDWikipedia:Citation NeededCarrie SnodgressDiary Of A Mad HousewifePegi YoungGiven NameCerebral PalsyEpilepsyLa Honda, CaliforniaBridge School (California)Los AngelesDaryl HannahGodparentAmber TamblynParade MagazineDennis HopperDean StockwellRuss TamblynBenefit ConcertFarm AidElectric CarLincVoltLincoln ContinentalBridge School (California)Bridge School BenefitPegi YoungWikipedia:Citation NeededLionel, LLCPonoMusicPono (digital Music Service)FLACMP3EnlargeGretsch White FalconNeil Young: Heart Of GoldGibson Les PaulOld BlackRust Never SleepsHumbuckerGibson FirebirdMicrophonicBigsby Vibrato TailpieceCowgirl In The SandEverybody Knows This Is NowhereMartin D-45Steel-string GuitarOld Man (song)Hank WilliamsHank Williams, Jr.Tut TaylorNeil Young: Heart Of GoldPrairie Wind (album)Buffalo SpringfieldMr. SoulDon't Let It Bring You DownTaylor GuitarsRust Never SleepsGibson Guitar CorporationBanjo GuitarJames TaylorOld Man (song)Gretsch 6120Chet AtkinsBuffalo SpringfieldGretsch White FalconBuffalo SpringfieldOhio (CSNY Song)Southern Man (song)Harvest (Neil Young Album)Harvest (Neil Young Album)Gibson Flying VTime Fades AwayFender BroadcasterTonight's The Night (Neil Young Album)Neil Young JourneysEstey OrganReed OrganFender Tweed DeluxeAmplifierMagnatoneLonnie MackBuddy HollyEffects PedalNeil Young Discography And FilmographyCrazy Horse (band)Buffalo SpringfieldCrosby, Stills, Nash & Young DiscographyNeil Young (album)Everybody Knows This Is NowhereAfter The Gold RushHarvest (Neil Young Album)Time Fades AwayOn The Beach (Neil Young Album)Tonight's The Night (Neil Young Album)Zuma (album)Long May You RunAmerican Stars 'n BarsComes A TimeRust Never SleepsLive RustHawks & DovesRe·ac·torTrans (album)Everybody's Rockin'Old WaysLanding On WaterLife (Neil Young & Crazy Horse Album)This Note's For YouEldorado (EP)Freedom (Neil Young Album)Ragged GloryWeld (album)Arc (Neil Young & Crazy Horse Album)Harvest Moon (album)Unplugged (Neil Young Album)Sleeps With AngelsMirror Ball (Neil Young Album)Dead Man (soundtrack)Broken Arrow (album)Year Of The HorseSilver & Gold (Neil Young Album)Road Rock Vol. 1Are You Passionate?Greendale (album)Prairie WindLiving With WarLiving With War: "In The Beginning"Chrome Dreams IIFork In The RoadLe NoiseAmericana (Neil Young & Crazy Horse Album)Psychedelic PillA Letter HomeStorytoneThe Monsanto YearsEarth (Neil Young And Promise Of The Real Album)Peace Trail (Neil Young Album)The Visitor (Neil Young & Promise Of The Real Album)EnlargeCanada's Walk Of FameJuno Awards Of 20112011 Grammy AwardsAngry World2010 Grammy AwardsThe Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972Gary BurdenJenice HeoCanadian Music Hall Of FameRock And Roll Hall Of FameAmericana Music AssociationFarm AidMountain View, CaliforniaBridge School BenefitTom Petty And The HeartbreakersBruce SpringsteenDavid BowieThe WhoRed Hot Chili PeppersTrent ReznorNine Inch NailsTom WaitsThom YorkeRadioheadR.E.M.Foo FightersMetallicaPearl JamSonic YouthThe Smashing PumpkinsPaul McCartneyDave MatthewsCerebral PalsyEpilepsyAcademy AwardsPhiladelphia (film)Streets Of PhiladelphiaTom HanksLakehead UniversityThunder BaySan Francisco State UniversityOrder Of ManitobaOrder Of Canada500 Greatest Albums Of All TimeCanada's Walk Of FamePaste (magazine)Bob DylanVH1Blind MelonPhishPearl JamNirvana (band)GrungeKurt CobainEddie VedderExperimental RockSonic YouthThom YorkeRadioheadAfter The Gold RushDave MatthewsThe BluetonesExpecting To Fly (album)Expecting To Fly (song)Noel GallagherOasis (band)Hey Hey, My My (Into The Black)Familiar To MillionsPowderfingerPowderfinger (song)Rust Never SleepsConstantinesJason BondEast Carolina UniversityMyrmekiaphila NeilyoungiPeople For The American WayMusiCares Person Of The YearGrammy AwardsThe Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972Juno Awards Of 2011Juno Award For Adult Alternative Album Of The YearLe NoiseJuno Awards Of 2008Juno Award For Adult Alternative Album Of The YearJuno Awards Of 2007Juno Awards Of 2006Jack Richardson Producer Of The YearJuno Award For Songwriter Of The YearJuno Awards Of 2001Juno Award For Roots & Traditional Album Of The Year - SoloJuno Awards Of 1997Juno Awards Of 1996Juno Award For Rock Album Of The YearJuno Awards Of 1995Juno Award For Entertainer Of The YearJuno Awards Of 1994Juno Award For Album Of The YearJuno Awards Of 1993Juno Awards Of 1991Juno Awards Of 1990Juno Awards Of 1989Juno Awards Of 1986Juno Awards Of 1982Juno Awards Of 1981Juno Awards Of 1980Juno Awards Of 1979Juno Awards Of 1975Portal:Neil YoungPortal:Music Of CanadaList Of Peace ActivistsCanadian RockMusic Of CanadaCharlie Rose (talk Show)New York TimesHelp:CS1 ErrorsHelp:CS1 ErrorsInternational Standard Serial NumberAllMusic.comYouTubeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-316-00526-5Rollingstone.comInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9529540-4-4Uncut (magazine)St. Martin's PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-21930-XOCLCCanadian Music Hall Of FamePittsburgh Post-GazetteUnited Methodist ChurchThe IndependentCanadian Broadcasting CorporationWayback MachineTiff.netAmazon.comThe A.V. 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