Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 1970s 2.2 1980s 2.3 1990s 2.4 2000s 2.5 2010s 3 Governance 4 Funding 4.1 Underwriting spots vs. commercials 5 Audience 6 Digital media 6.1 NPR One 7 Programming 7.1 Programs produced by NPR 7.1.1 News and public affairs programs 7.1.2 Storytelling and cultural programming 7.1.3 Music programming 7.2 Programs distributed by NPR 7.2.1 News and public affairs 7.2.2 Storytelling and cultural programming 7.2.3 Music programming 7.3 Public radio programs not affiliated with NPR 8 Controversies 8.1 Allegations of ideological bias 8.2 Euphemisms 8.3 Sexual harassment 8.4 Live from Death Row commentaries 8.5 Juan Williams comments 8.6 Ronald Schiller comments 8.7 July 4th Tweets of the Declaration of Independence 9 Publications 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name[edit] The organization's legal name is National Public Radio and its trademarked brand is NPR; it is known by both names.[6] In June 2010, the organization announced that it was "making a conscious effort to consistently refer to ourselves as NPR on-air and online" because NPR is the common name for the organization and the tag line "This ... is NPR" has been used by its radio hosts for many years.[6] However, National Public Radio remains the legal name of the group, as it has been for more than 45 years.[6]

History[edit] 1970s[edit] 1970s logo National Public Radio replaced the National Educational Radio Network on February 26, 1970, following Congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967.[7] This act was signed into law by 36th President Lyndon B. Johnson, and established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which also created the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) for television in addition to NPR. A CPB organizing committee under John Witherspoon first created a Board of Directors chaired by Bernard Mayes. The board then hired Donald Quayle to be the first president of NPR with 30 employees and 90 charter member local stations, and studios in Washington, D.C.[8] NPR aired its first broadcast in April 20, 1971, covering United States Senate hearings on the ongoing Vietnam War in Southeast Asia. A month later, the afternoon drive-time newscast All Things Considered began, on May 3, 1971, first hosted by Robert Conley. NPR was primarily a production and distribution organization until 1977, when it merged with the Association of Public Radio Stations. 1980s[edit] NPR suffered an almost fatal setback in 1983 when efforts to expand services created a deficit of nearly US$7 million. After a Congressional investigation and the resignation of NPR's then president, Frank Mankiewicz, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting agreed to lend the network money in order to stave off bankruptcy.[9] In exchange, NPR agreed to a new arrangement whereby the annual CPB stipend that it had previously received directly would be divided among local stations instead; in turn, those stations would support NPR productions on a subscription basis. NPR also agreed to turn its satellite service into a cooperative venture (the Public Radio Satellite System), making it possible for non-NPR shows to get national distribution. It took NPR approximately three years to pay off the debt.[10] 1990s logo 1990s[edit] Delano Lewis, the president of C&P Telephone, left that position to become NPR's CEO and president in January 1994.[11] Lewis resigned in August 1998.[11][12] In November 1998, NPR's board of directors hired Kevin Klose, the director of the International Broadcasting Bureau, as its president and chief executive officer.[12] 2000s[edit] “ September 11th made it apparent in a very urgent way that we need another facility that could keep NPR going if something devastating happens in Washington. ” — Jay Kernis, NPR's senior VP for programming[13] NPR spent nearly $13 million to acquire and equip a West Coast 25,000-square-foot (2,300 m2) production facility, NPR West, which opened in Culver City, Los Angeles County, California, in November 2002. With room for up to 90 employees, it was established to expand its production capabilities, improve its coverage of the western United States, and create a backup production facility capable of keeping NPR on the air in the event of a catastrophe in Washington, D.C.[13] In November 2003, NPR received US$235 million from the estate of the late Joan B. Kroc, the widow of Ray Kroc, founder of McDonald's Corporation. This was the largest monetary gift ever to a cultural institution.[14][15] In 2004 NPR's budget increased by over 50% to US$153 million due to the Kroc gift. US$34 million of the money was deposited in its endowment.[16] The endowment fund before the gift totaled $35 million. NPR will use the interest from the bequest to expand its news staff and reduce some member stations' fees.[14] The 2005 budget was about US$120 million. In August 2005, NPR entered podcasting with a directory of over 170 programs created by NPR and member stations. By November of that year, users downloaded NPR and other public radio podcasts 5 million times. Ten years later, by March 2015, users downloaded podcasts produced only by NPR 94 million times,[17] and NPR podcasts like Fresh Air and TED Radio Hour routinely made the iTunes Top Podcasts list.[18] Ken Stern became chief executive in September 2006, reportedly as the "hand-picked successor" of CEO Kevin Klose, who gave up the job but remained as NPR's president; Stern had worked with Klose at Radio Free Europe.[19] On December 10, 2008, NPR announced that it would reduce its workforce by 7% and cancel the news programs Day to Day and News & Notes.[20] The organization indicated this was in response to a rapid drop in corporate underwriting in the wake of the economic crisis of 2008.[20] In the fall of 2008, NPR programming reached a record 27.5 million people weekly, according to Arbitron ratings figures. NPR stations reach 32.7 million listeners overall.[21] In March 2008, the NPR Board announced that Stern would be stepping down from his role as Chief Executive Officer, following conflict with NPR's Board of Directors "over the direction of the organization" (including issues NPR's member station managers had had with NPR's expansion into new media "at the expense of serving" the stations that financially support NPR).[19] As of 2009, corporate sponsorship made up 26% of the NPR budget.[22] 2010s[edit] NPR's former headquarters at 635 Massachusetts Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. (demolished in 2013) The new NPR sign at 1111 North Capital St, NE. In October 2010, NPR accepted a $1.8 million grant from the Open Society Institute. The grant is meant to begin a project called Impact of Government that was intended to add at least 100 journalists at NPR member radio stations in all 50 states by 2013.[23] The OSI has made previous donations, but does not take on air credit for its gifts.[24] In April 2013, NPR moved from its home of 19 years (635 Massachusetts Avenue NW) to new offices and production facilities at 1111 North Capitol Street NE in a building adapted from the former C&P Telephone Warehouse and Repair Facility.[25] The new headquarters—at the corner of North Capitol Street NE and L Street NW—is in the burgeoning NoMa neighborhood of Washington.[26] The first show scheduled to be broadcast from the new studios was Weekend Edition Saturday.[27] Morning Edition was the last show to move to the new location.[28] In June 2013 NPR canceled the weekday call-in show Talk of the Nation.[29] In September 2013, certain of NPR's 840 full- and part-time employees were offered a voluntary buyout plan, with the goal of reducing staff by 10 percent and returning NPR to a balanced budget by the 2015 fiscal year.[30]

Governance[edit] NPR is a membership organization. Member stations are required to be non-commercial or non-commercial educational radio stations; have at least five full-time professional employees; operate for at least 18 hours per day; and not be designed solely to further a religious broadcasting philosophy or be used for classroom distance learning programming. Each member station receives one vote at the annual NPR board meetings—exercised by its designated Authorized Station Representative ("A-Rep"). To oversee the day-to-day operations and prepare its budget, members elect a Board of Directors. This board is composed of ten A-Reps, five members of the general public, and the chair of the NPR Foundation. Terms are for three years and are staggered such that some stand for election every year.[31] As of March 2015[update], the Board of Directors of NPR included the following members:[32] NPR Member Station Managers Mike Crane, Director, Wisconsin Public Radio Betsy Gardella, President and CEO, New Hampshire Public Radio Kit Jensen, Chief Operating Officer WVIZ/PBS & 90.3 WCPN ideastream, Chair of the Board Roger LaMay, General Manager, WXPN Caryn Mathes, President and General Manager, KUOW Greg Petrowich, Executive Director, WSIU Public Broadcasting Florence Rogers, President and General Manager, Nevada Public Radio Mike Savage, General Manager, WBAA Kerry Swanson, Station Manager, Northwest Public Radio Connie Walker, General Manager, WUNC President of NPR Jarl Mohn, President and CEO Chair of the NPR Foundation Howard Wollner, Senior Vice President, Retired, Starbucks Coffee Company Public Members of the Board Fabiola Arredondo, Managing Partner, Siempre Holdings Chris Boskin, Media Company Consultant Patricia Diaz Dennis, Senior Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, Retired, AT&T Paul G. Haaga, Jr., Chairman of the Board, Retired, Capital Research and Management Company John S. Wotowicz, Managing Partner of Concentric Capital, Vice Chair of the Board The original purposes of NPR, as ratified by the Board of Directors, are the following: Provide an identifiable daily product which is consistent and reflects the highest standards of broadcast journalism. Provide extended coverage of public events, issues and ideas, and to acquire and produce special public affairs programs. Acquire and produce cultural programs which can be scheduled individually by stations. Provide access to the intellectual and cultural resources of cities, universities and rural districts through a system of cooperative program development with member public radio stations. Develop and distribute programs for specific groups (adult education, instruction, modular units for local productions) which may meet needs of individual regions or groups, but may not have general national relevance. Establish liaison with foreign broadcasters for a program exchange service. Produce materials specifically intended to develop the art and technical potential of radio[33] NPR Ombudsman/Public Editor Elizabeth Jensen The Ombudsman/Public Editor responds to significant listener queries, comments and criticisms.[34] The position reports to the President and CEO Jarl Mohn.[35] Elizabeth Jensen was appointed to a three-year term in January 2015.[34]

Funding[edit] In 2010, NPR revenues totaled $180 million, with the bulk of revenues coming from programming fees, grants from foundations or business entities, contributions and sponsorships.[22] According to the 2009 financial statement, about 50% of NPR revenues come from the fees it charges member stations for programming and distribution charges.[22] Typically, NPR member stations receive funds through on-air pledge drives, corporate underwriting, state and local governments, educational institutions, and the federally funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). In 2009, member stations derived 6% of their revenue from federal, state and local government funding, 10% of their revenue from CPB grants, and 14% of their revenue from universities.[22][36] While NPR does not receive any direct federal funding, it does receive a small number of competitive grants from CPB and federal agencies like the Department of Education and the Department of Commerce. This funding amounts to approximately 2% of NPR's overall revenues.[22] During the 1970s and early 1980s, the majority of NPR funding came from the federal government. Steps were taken during the 1980s to completely wean NPR from government support, but the 1983 funding crisis forced the network to make immediate changes. According to CPB, in 2009 11.3% of the aggregate revenues of all public radio broadcasting stations were funded from federal sources, principally through CPB;[37] in 2012 10.9% of the revenues for Public Radio came from federal sources.[38] In 2011, NPR announced the roll-out of their own online advertising network, which allows member stations to run geographically targeted advertisement spots from national sponsors that may otherwise be unavailable to their local area, opening additional revenue streams to the broadcaster.[39] 2013 saw the launch of Center Stage, a mix of native advertising and banner ad featured prominently on the NPR homepage, above-the-fold. The launch partner for Center Stage was Squarespace.[40] In 2014, NPR CEO Jarl Mohn said the network would begin to increase revenue by having brands NPR views as more relevant to the audience underwrite NPR programs and requesting higher rates from them.[41] Underwriting spots vs. commercials[edit] In contrast with commercial broadcasting, NPR's radio broadcasts do not carry traditional commercials, but has advertising in the form of brief statements from major sponsors which may include corporate slogans, descriptions of products and services, contact information such as website addresses and telephone numbers.[42] These statements are called underwriting spots and, unlike commercials, are governed by specific FCC restrictions in addition to truth in advertising laws; they cannot advocate a product or "promote the goods and services" of for-profit entities.[43] These restrictions apply only to radio broadcasts and not NPR's other digital platforms. When questioned on the subject of how corporate underwriting revenues and foundation grants were holding up during the recession, in a speech broadcast on C-SPAN before the National Press Club on March 2, 2009, then President and CEO Vivian Schiller stated: "underwriting is down, it's down for everybody; this is the area that is most down for us, in sponsorship, underwriting, advertising, call it whatever you want; just like it is for all of media."[44] Hosts of the NPR program Planet Money stated the audience is indeed a product being sold to advertisers in the same way as commercial stations, saying: "they are not advertisers exactly but, they have a lot of the same characteristics; let's just say that."[45]

Audience[edit] A Harris telephone survey conducted in 2005 found that NPR was the most trusted news source in the United States.[46] According to 2009, NPR statistics, about 20.9 million listeners tune into NPR each week.[47] By 2017, NPR's weekly on-air audience had reached 30.2 million.[2] According to 2015 figures, 87% of the NPR terrestrial public radio audience and 67% of the NPR podcast audience is white.[48] According to the 2012 Pew Research Center 2012 News Consumption Survey, NPR listeners tend to be highly educated, with 54% of regular listeners being college graduates and 21% having some college.[49] NPR's audience is almost exactly average in terms of the sex of listeners (49% male, 51% female).[49] NPR listeners have higher incomes than average (the 2012 Pew study showed that 43% earn over $75,000, 27% earn between $30,000 and $75,000).[49] The Pew survey found that the NPR audience tends Democratic (17% Republican, 37% independent, 43% Democratic) and liberal (21% conservative, 39% moderate, 36% liberal).[49] NPR stations generally do not subscribe to the Arbitron rating service and are not included in published ratings and rankings such as Radio & Records. However, NPR station listenership is measured by Arbitron in both Diary and PPM (people meter) markets. NPR stations are frequently not included in "summary level" diary data used by most advertising agencies for media planning. Data on NPR listening can be accessed using "respondent level" diary data. Additionally, all radio stations (public and commercial) are treated equally within the PPM data sets making NPR station listenership data much more widely available to the media planning community. NPR's signature morning news program, Morning Edition, is the network's most popular program, drawing 14.63 million listeners a week, with its afternoon newsmagazine, All Things Considered, a close second, with 14.6 million listeners a week according to 2017 Nielsen ratings data.[5] Arbitron data is also provided by Radio Research Consortium, a non-profit corporation which subscribes to the Arbitron service and distributes the data to NPR and other non-commercial stations and on its website.[50]

Digital media[edit] NPR's history in digital media includes the work of an independent, for-profit company called Public Interactive, which was founded in 1999[51] and acquired by PRI in June 2004, when it became a non-profit company.[52] By July 2008, Public Interactive had "170 subscribers who collectively operate 325 public radio and television stations" and clients such as Car Talk, The World, and The Tavis Smiley Show; by the end of that month, NPR acquired Public Interactive from PRI[51] In March 2011, NPR revealed a restructuring proposal in which Boston-based Public Interactive would become NPR Digital Services, separate from the Washington D.C.-based NPR Digital Media, which focuses on NPR-branded services.[53] NPR Digital Services would continue offering its services to public TV stations.[53] The technical backbone of its digital news publishing system is Core Publisher, which was built on Drupal, an open-source content management system.[53] Kinsey Wilson and the crew at the 69th Annual Peabody Awards NPR has been dubbed as "leveraging the Twitter generation"[54] because of its adaptation of the popular microblogging service as one of its primary vehicles of information. Of NPR's Twitter followers, the majority (67%) still do listen to NPR on the radio. In a survey of more than 10,000 respondents, NPR found that its Twitter followers are younger, more connected to the social web, and more likely to access content through digital platforms such as its Peabody Award-winning website, as well as podcasts, mobile apps and more.[55] NPR has more than one Twitter account including @NPR;[56] its survey found that most respondents followed between two and five NPR accounts, including topical account, show-specific accounts and on-air staff accounts.[55] In addition, NPR's Facebook page has been at the forefront of the company foray into social media. Started by college student and fan Geoff Campbell[57] in 2008, the page was quickly taken over by the organization,[58] and over the last two years has grown to nearly 4 million fans and is a popular example of the company's new focus on a younger audience.[59] NPR also has a YouTube channel featuring regularly posted videos covering news and informational subjects.[60] NPR One[edit] Main article: NPR One In July 2014, NPR launched NPR One, an app for iOS and Android smartphones and other mobile devices, which aimed to make it easier for listeners to stream local NPR stations live, and listen to NPR podcasts by autoplaying content and permitting easy navigation.[61] Since launch NPR has made the service available on additional channels: Windows mobile devices, web browsers, Chromecast, Apple Car Play, Apple Watch, Android Auto, Android Wear, Samsung Gear S2 and S3, Amazon Fire TV, and Amazon Alexa-enabled devices.[62]

Programming[edit] Programs produced by NPR[edit] News and public affairs programs[edit] NPR News logo NPR produces a morning and an afternoon news program, both of which also have weekend editions with different hosts. It also produces hourly news briefs around the clock. NPR formerly distributed the World Radio Network, a daily compilation of news reports from international radio news, but no longer does so. All Things Considered, hosted by Audie Cornish, Kelly McEvers, and Ari Shapiro[63] Weekend All Things Considered, hosted by Michel Martin Morning Edition, hosted by Steve Inskeep, Rachel Martin and David Greene Weekend Edition Saturday, hosted by Scott Simon Weekend Edition Sunday, hosted by Lourdes Garcia-Navarro Here and Now, news, current affairs and culture hosted by Robin Young and Jeremy Hobson (co-produced with WBUR) Code Switch, a podcast about race and identity hosted by Shereen Marisol Meraji and Gene Demby Embedded, a podcast hosted by Kelly McEvers NPR Politics Podcast, a podcast hosted by Tamara Keith and Scott Detrow Up First, a morning news podcast hosted by Rachel Martin, David Green and Steve Inskeep Storytelling and cultural programming[edit] Ask Me Another, a trivia quiz hosted by Ophira Eisenberg (co-produced with WNYC) Hidden Brain, a social sciences podcast hosted by Shankar Vedantam How I Built This, a podcast on entrepreneurship hosted by Guy Raz Invisibilia, hosted by Alix Spiegel, Hanna Rosin, and Lulu Miller Planet Money, a podcast on the economy Pop Culture Happy Hour, a podcast on culture hosted by Linda Holmes TED Radio Hour, hosted by Guy Raz Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!, a humorous news quiz co-produced with WBEZ and hosted by Peter Sagal Music programming[edit] First Listen, album previews All Songs Considered, a music podcast Songs We Love Tiny Desk Concerts, video concert series Alt.Latino, a podcast on Latino arts and culture Jazz Night In America, hosted by Christian McBride (co-produced with WBGO and Jazz at Lincoln Center) The Thistle & Shamrock, Celtic music hosted by Fiona Ritchie Programs distributed by NPR[edit] News and public affairs[edit] 1A, public affairs roundtable program hosted by Joshua Johnson (WAMU) Fresh Air, interviews with cultural news-makers hosted by Terry Gross (WHYY) Latino USA, Latino issues hosted by Maria Hinojosa (Futuro Media Group) On Point, public affairs call-in program hosted by Tom Ashbrook (WBUR) On the Media, media issues hosted by Brooke Gladstone and Bob Garfield (WNYC) Youth Radio, stories told by youth (self-produced) Storytelling and cultural programming[edit] The Big Listen, a radio show about podcasts hosted by Lauren Ober (WAMU)[64] Bullseye with Jesse Thorn, hosted by Jesse Thorn (Maximum Fun) Car Talk, humorous automotive advice hosted by Tom Magliozzi and Ray Magliozzi (WBUR, ending September 2017[65]) Only A Game, sports issues hosted by Bill Littlefield (WBUR) Radio Ambulante, a Spanish language podcast on Latin American and Latino stories hosted by Daniel Alarcón (self-produced)[66] Rough Cuts, a podcast and blog encouraging participation in the development of other new radio programs Says You!, word game show (WGBH) State of the Re:Union, hosted by Al Letson StoryCorps, oral history recordings (self-produced) Music programming[edit] From the Top, A program showcasing young classical musicians between the ages of 8–18 (self-produced) JazzSet, hosted by Dee Dee Bridgewater (WBGO) Metropolis, a show on electronic music hosted by Jason Bentley (KCRW) Mountain Stage, hosted by Larry Groce (West Virginia Public Broadcasting) Piano Jazz, hosted by Marian McPartland (South Carolina ETV Radio) World Cafe, a 2-hour music program featuring both recorded music and interviews and live in-studio performances, hosted by David Dye, (WXPN) Public radio programs not affiliated with NPR[edit] Individual NPR stations can broadcast programming from sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. If these programs are distributed by another distributor, a public radio station must also affiliate with that network to take that network's programming. BBC World Service, world news produced by the BBC in the United Kingdom, distributed by American Public Media. Often used to fill overnight hours, a low-trafficked period for public radio programming (albeit in the UK's high-profile morning drive period). Echoes, a daily program of ambient, new age, and electronic music hosted by John Diliberto and distributed by Public Radio International Forum, call-in panel discussion program, wide-ranging national and local topics hosted by Michael Krasny (KQED-FM). Hearts of Space, a weekly program of Ambient, Space, and contemplative music hosted by Stephen Hill, San Rafael, Calif. Jazz from Lincoln Center, Wynton Marsalis, hosted by Ed Bradley, Murray Street Productions The Merrow Report, education issues hosted by John Merrow, Learning Matters Inc. The People's Pharmacy, a call-in and interview program on personal health from WUNC in Chapel Hill, N.C. Philosophy Talk, everyday topics examined through a philosophical lens, hosted by Stanford philosophy professors John Perry and Ken Taylor, produced by Ben Manilla Productions, distributed by Public Radio Exchange Planetary Radio, space exploration radio program hosted by Mat Kaplan, The Planetary Society, Pasadena, Calif. Pulse of the Planet, a daily 2-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, hosted by Jim Metzner. Science Friday, science issues call-in hosted by Ira Flatow and independently produced, distributed by Public Radio International Selected Shorts, dramatic readings hosted by Isaiah Sheffer, Symphony Space, (WNYC) and distributed by Public Radio International Serial, a podcast exploring a nonfiction story over multiple episodes. Serial is a spin-off from This American Life. The Takeaway, a daily news program from WNYC distributed by Public Radio International StarDate, short segments relating to science and astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin's McDonald Observatory hosted by Sandy Wood. Sunday Baroque, baroque and early music hosted by Suzanne Bona (WSHU-FM) This American Life, stories of real life hosted by Ira Glass, distributed by Public Radio Exchange A Way With Words, a show about language; distributed by Public Radio Exchange and Public Radio Satellite System WireTap, comedy radio program hosted by Jonathan Goldstein of CBC Radio One and distributed by Public Radio International in the United States. Wits, a sketch comedy, music, and artist interview program, hosted by John Moe Many shows produced or distributed by Public Radio International—such as Living on Earth —are broadcast on public radio stations, but are not affiliated with NPR. PRI and NPR are separate production and distribution organizations with distinct missions, and each competes with the other for programming slots on public radio stations. Public Radio Exchange also offers a national distribution network where a significant number of public radio stations go to acquire programs from independent producers. PRX provides a catalog of thousands of radio pieces available on-demand as broadcast quality audio files and available for streaming on the website. Most public radio stations are NPR member stations and affiliate stations of PRI, APM, and PRX at the same time. The organizations have different governance structures and missions and relationships with stations. Other popular shows, like Live from Here (the former A Prairie Home Companion) and Marketplace, are produced by American Public Media, the national programming unit of Minnesota Public Radio. These programs were distributed by Public Radio International prior to APM's founding. Democracy Now!, the flagship news program of the Pacifica Radio network, provides a feed to NPR stations, and other Pacifica programs can occasionally be heard on these stations as well.

Controversies[edit] Main article: NPR controversies Over the course of NPR's history, controversies have arisen over several incidents and topics. Allegations of ideological bias[edit] NPR has been accused of displaying both liberal bias, as alleged in work such as a UCLA and University of Missouri study of Morning Edition, and conservative bias, including criticism of alleged reliance on conservative think-tanks.[67] NPR has also been accused of bias related to specific topics, including support of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and coverage of Israel. The NPR ombudsman has described how NPR's coverage of the Israel-Palestinian conflict has been simultaneously criticized as biased by both sides.[68] UT Austin journalism professor and author Robert Jensen has criticized NPR as taking a pro-war stance during coverage of Iraq war protests.[69] In 2002 and 2003, surveys and follow-up focus groups conducted by the Tarrance Group and Lake Snell Perry & Associates have indicated that, "The majority of the U.S. adult population does not believe that the news and information programming on public broadcasting is biased. The plurality of Americans indicate that there is no apparent bias one way or the other, while approximately two-in-ten detect a liberal bias and approximately one-in-ten detect a conservative bias."[70] Euphemisms[edit] In a controversial act, NPR banned in 2009 the use of the word "torture" in the context of the Bush administration's use of enhanced interrogation techniques.[71] NPR's Ombudswoman Alicia Shepard's defense of the policy was that "calling waterboarding torture is tantamount to taking sides."[72] But Berkeley Professor of Linguistics, Geoffrey Nunberg pointed out that virtually all media around the world, other than what he called the "spineless U.S. media", call these techniques torture.[73][74] In an article which criticized NPR and other U.S. media for their use of euphemisms for torture, Glenn Greenwald discussed what he called the enabling "corruption of American journalism": This active media complicity in concealing that our Government created a systematic torture regime, by refusing ever to say so, is one of the principal reasons it was allowed to happen for so long. The steadfast, ongoing refusal of our leading media institutions to refer to what the Bush administration did as "torture" – even in the face of more than 100 detainee deaths; the use of that term by a leading Bush official to describe what was done at Guantanamo; and the fact that media outlets frequently use the word "torture" to describe exactly the same methods when used by other countries – reveals much about how the modern journalist thinks.[75] Sexual harassment[edit] In October 2017, sexual harassment charges were leveled against Michael Oreskes, senior vice president of news and editorial director since 2015. Some of the accusations dated back to when he was Washington, DC bureau chief for The New York Times during the 1990s, while others involved his conduct at NPR.[76] After a report on the Times accusations was published in The Washington Post, NPR put Oreskes on administrative leave, and the following day his resignation was requested.[77][78][79] CNN's Brian Stelter reported that NPR staffers were dissatisfied with the handling of Oreskes, were demanding an external investigation, and that Oreskes poisoned the newsroom atmosphere by abusing his position to meet young women.[80] Live from Death Row commentaries[edit] In 1994, NPR arranged to air, on All Things Considered, a series of three-minute commentaries by Mumia Abu-Jamal, a journalist convicted in a controversial trial of murdering a Philadelphia Police officer. They cancelled airing them after the Fraternal Order of Police and members of the U.S. Congress objected.[81] Juan Williams comments[edit] On October 20, 2010, NPR terminated Senior News Analyst Juan Williams's independent contract[82] over a series of incidents culminating in remarks he made on the Fox News Channel regarding Muslims. Ronald Schiller comments[edit] In March 2011, conservative political activist and provocateur James O'Keefe sent partners Simon Templar (a pen name) and Shaughn Adeleye[83] to secretly record their discussion with Ronald Schiller, NPR's outgoing senior vice president for fundraising, and an associate, in which Schiller made remarks viewed as disparaging of "the current Republican party, especially the Tea Party", and controversial comments regarding Palestine and funding for NPR. NPR disavowed Schiller's comments. CEO Vivian Schiller, who is not related to Ronald, later resigned over the fallout from the comments and the previous firing of Juan Williams.[84] July 4th Tweets of the Declaration of Independence[edit] Starting on July 4, 1988, NPR has broadcast an annual reading of the United States Declaration of Independence over the radio.[85] In 2017 it began using Twitter as a medium for reading the document as well. On July 4, 2017, the 100+ tweets were met with considerable opposition, some online supporters of Donald Trump mistakenly believing the words of the Declaration referring to George III of the United Kingdom to be directed towards the president. The tweets were called "trash"[86] and were accused of being left-wing propaganda,[87] condoning violence[86] and calling for revolution.[88][89] Many of the responses to NPR's tweets have since been retracted.

Publications[edit] Source:[90] The NPR Guide to Building a Classical CD Collection by Ted Libbey (1994) ISBN 156305051X The NPR Classical Music Companion: An Essential Guide for Enlightened Listening by Miles Hoffman (1997) ISBN 0618619453 The NPR Classical Music Companion: Terms and Concepts from A to Z by Miles Hoffman (1997) ISBN 0395707420 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Classical Music by Tim Smith (2002) ISBN 0399527958 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Jazz by Loren Schoenberg (2002) ISBN 039952794X The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Opera by William Berger (2002) ISBN 0399527435 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Popular Standards by Max Morath (2002) ISBN 0399527443 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide To American Folk Music by Kip Lornell (2004) ISBN 0399530339 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music by Chris Nickson (2004) ISBN 0399530320 The NPR Curious Listener's Guide To Blues by David Evans (2005) ISBN 039953072X The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Celtic Music by Fiona Ritchie (2005) ISBN 0399530711 The NPR Listener's Encyclopedia of Classical Music by Ted Libbey (2006) ISBN 0761120726

See also[edit] Australian Broadcasting Corporation BBC Radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation List of NPR personnel List of NPR stations NPR Berlin the only NPR affiliate operated by NPR itself

References[edit] ^ "National Public Radio, Inc. Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). National Public Radio.  ^ a b "Audience". NPR. Retrieved January 23, 2018.  ^ >"All Things Considered". National Public Media. Retrieved October 12, 2016. Heard by 13.3 million people on 814 radio stations each week, All Things Considered is one of the most popular programs in America.  ^ Mitchell, Jack W. (2005). Listener supported: the culture and history of public radio. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 0-275-98352-8. Conceived as "alternatives," Morning Edition and All Things Considered are the second and third most listened-to radio programs in the ...  ^ a b NPR Reaches 99 Million People Monthly, GenXers And Millennials Drive Growth NPR, October 25, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2017. ^ a b c Dana Davis Rehm, NPR: What's In A Name?, NPR (July 12, 2012). ^ Jarvik, Laurence Ariel (1997). PBS, behind the screen. Rocklin, CA: Forum. ISBN 0761506683.  ^ "History". NPR. Retrieved February 24, 2011.  ^ "GAO statement on NPR financial crisis, 1984". Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at 1984. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.  ^ "History of public broadcasting in the United States". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.  ^ a b "Delano Lewis Resigns". NPR. April 3, 1998. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ a b "NPR Announces New President and CEO". NPR. November 11, 1998. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ a b "NPR Establishes Major Production Center in California NPR West Opens November 2, Expanding Network's Presence and Reach". NPR. November 2, 2002. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ a b Steinberg, Jacques (November 7, 2003). "Billions and Billions Served, Hundreds of Millions Donated". New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2008. National Public Radio announced yesterday that it had received a bequest worth at least $200 million from the widow of the longtime chairman of the McDonald's restaurant chain. The gift is the largest in the 33-year history of NPR, the nonprofit broadcasting corporation – and about twice the size of NPR's annual operating budget. It is believed to be among the largest ever pledged to an American cultural institution.  ^ "NPR Receives a Record Bequest of More Than $200 Million" (Press release). National Public Radio. November 6, 2003. Retrieved October 2, 2006.  ^ Janssen, Mike (May 24, 2004). "Kroc gift lets NPR expand news, lower fees". Archived from the original on March 22, 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2006.  ^ "NPR Podcasts Turn 10!".  ^ " US Podcasts".  ^ a b Farhi, Paul (March 6, 2008). "NPR Leader out After Board Clash". The Washington Post.  ^ a b Carney, Steve (December 10, 2008). "National Public Radio to cut shows, personnel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008.  ^ "NPR reaches new audience high". Press release. NPR. March 24, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2010.  ^ a b c d e "Public Radio Finances". NPR. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "The Situation Room".  ^ Chiu, Lisa (March 17, 2011). "Secret Recording Explores Relationship Between Billionaire Soros and NPR". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ "New NPR Headquarters Nears Completion". NPR. February 1, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ Clinton Yates, NPR Moves to NoMa, D.C.'s SimCity of Gentrification, The Washington Post (June 5, 2013). ^ Simon, Scott (6 April 2013). "Saying Goodbye To The Old NPR Headquarters". Weekend Edition. NPR. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ "NPR Moves to New Headquarters – Morning Edition Airs First Broadcast from New Building Today". NPR. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.  ^ "A Fond Farewell to Talk of the Nation". Tell Me More. NPR. June 27, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013. ^ "NPR to Offer Voluntary Buyouts in Bid to Balance Budget". The Observer. September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.  ^ NPR Bylaws Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.; Public Broadcasting Policy Base; January 20, 1999 ^ "NPR Board of Directors". NPR. Retrieved 2015-03-06.  ^ Siemering, William (November 29, 1999). "National Public Radio Purposes". Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved October 2, 2006.  ^ a b "Elizabeth Jensen".  ^ "New Ombudsman To Start Jan. 26".  ^ "NPR Responds". Retrieved January 14, 2010.  ^ "Table 2 Public Broadcasting Revenue by Public Television and Radio System and Source of Revenue, Fiscal Year 2008–2009" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2009. Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ "Table 2 Public Broadcasting Revenue by Public Television and Radio System and Source of Revenue, Fiscal Year 2011–2012" (PDF). Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2012. Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.  ^ Ungerleider, Neal. NPR Launching Centralized Online Ad Network to Bolster Revenue at Member Stations. Fast Company. 12 April 2011 ^ Taintor, David (16 August 2013). "NPR's New Ad Unit Falls Somewhere Between Banners and Native". Adweek.  ^ Hart, Peter (8 September 2014). "New NPR Boss: 'We're Going to Be Talking About Brands That Matter a Little Bit More'". FAIR.  ^ "NPR Underwriting Credit Guidelines" (PDF). NRP. November 24, 2008. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2014.  ^ "The Public and Broadcasting". Federal Communications Commission. 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2013.  ^ "Public Broadcasting and Commercial Media". C-SPAN. March 2, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2014.  ^ "The Friday Podcast: Economists On Federal Funding For NPR". NPR (Planet Money). March 25, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2014.  ^ Eggerton, John (November 10, 2005). "Survey Says: Noncom News Most Trusted". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved October 2, 2006.  ^ Farhi, Paul (March 24, 2009). "Good News for NPR: Its Most Listeners Ever". Washington Post. Retrieved March 7, 2013.  ^ Tracie Powell, Are podcasts the new path to diversifying public radio? Columbia Journalism Review (May 22, 2015). ^ a b c d Section 4: Demographics and Political Views of News Audiences, Pew Research Center (September 27, 2012). ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (March 12, 2006). "Radio Waves". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 26, 2008.  ^ a b "PRI And NPR Announce Deal To Grow Public Interactive, Public Media's Leading Web Services Company". NPR. July 31, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ "Public Interactive Press Area". NPR. June 2, 2004. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ a b c Everhart, Karen (March 7, 2011). "Web infrastructure for pubmedia, 2011". Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.  ^ O'Dell, Jodie (30 September 2010). "How NPR Is Leveraging the Twitter Generation". Mashable. Retrieved 22 January 2017.  ^ a b Carvin, Andy; Heard, Meredith (30 September 2010). "Results Of The NPR Twitter User Survey". NPR. Retrieved 22 January 2017.  ^ "NPR (@NPR) – Twitter".  ^ Campbell, Geoff. "Mount Allison student gets Facebook ball rolling for American media organization, NPR". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011.  ^ Campbell, Geoff. "How Andy Carvin took over NPR's Facebook Page from Student/Creator Geoff Campbell". Retrieved March 2, 2011.  ^ Tenore, Mallary Jean. "Carvin: Facebook Lets NPR Empower Those Who Love Us, Listen to Those Who Don't". Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011.  ^ "NPR". YouTube. Retrieved 2017-12-29.  ^ ^ ^ "About 'All Things Considered'".  ^ NPR Will Distribute WAMU 88.5's 'The Big Listen' ^ NPR’s ‘Best of Car Talk’ will end in September 2017 ^ NPR Adds Radio Ambulante To Its Podcast Lineup ^ "Does Public Radio Have A Liberal Bias? The Finale!" (Radio Transcript). On The Media. WNYC. March 25, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2011.  ^ Listeners Hear Same Israeli-Palestinian Coverage Differently; NPR Ombudsman; June 18, 2010 ^ Published Articles – 2003 Archived October 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.; University of Texas, Robert Jensen ^ "Public Perceptions of Public Broadcasting". Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ; Corporation for Public Broadcasting; December 2003 ^ "The still-growing NPR "torture" controversy" July 2, 2009 ^ Torturous Wording Archived July 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. NPR (transcript) June 26, 2009 ^ "Calling a Spade a Spade: Use of the Word 'Torture'", KPCC June 26, 2009 ^ McQuaid, John."The semantics of torture" – Comment-is-free May 13, 2009. ^ "The NYT's nice, new euphemism for torture", June 6, 2009 ^ Farhi, Paul (October 31, 2017). "NPR's top editor placed on leave after accusations of sexual harassment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-11-01.  ^ Folkenflik, David (October 31, 2017). "NPR's Head Of News Placed On Leave After Past Harassment Allegations Surface". NPR. Retrieved 1 November 2017.  ^ Stelter, Brian; Smith, Aaron (November 1, 2017). "Top NPR editor resigns amid allegations of harassment". CNN. Retrieved November 1, 2017.  ^ Farhi, Paul. "Michael Oreskes, top NPR newsroom official, resigns amid harassment allegations". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-11-01.  ^ Stelter, Brian. "At NPR, Oreskes harassment scandal leaves deep wounds". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-11-02.  ^ "Judge Dismisses Inmate's Suit Against NPR". The Washington Post. August 22, 1997.  ^ Stanglin, Doug (October 21, 2010). "Update: NPR exec says Juan Williams crossed the line before". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2010.  ^ Hagey, Keach (March 8, 2011). "NPR exec: tea party is 'scary,' 'racist'". Politico.  ^ Mark Memmott (March 9, 2011). "NPR CEO Vivian Schiller resigns". NPR. Retrieved March 9, 2011.  ^ "The Declaration Of Independence, 240 Years Later". Retrieved 2017-07-05.  ^ a b "NPR tweets the Declaration of Independence, and people freak out about a 'revolution'". kansascity. Retrieved 2017-07-05.  ^ "Some Trump supporters thought NPR tweeted 'propaganda.' It was the Declaration of Independence". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-07-05.  ^ "NPR Tweets Declaration Of Independence, Triggers Outrage". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 2017-07-05.  ^ CNN, Nancy Coleman. "No, NPR was not trying to start a revolution". CNN. Retrieved 2017-07-05.  ^ "FolkLib Index -Music Reference Books by National Public Radio (NPR)". Retrieved 11 May 2017. 

Further reading[edit] Gibson, George H. Public Broadcasting: The Role of the Federal Government, 1919–1976 (Praeger Publishers, 1977). ISBN 9780030228315. OCLC 3167293. McCauley, Michael P. NPR: The Trials and Triumphs of National Public Radio (Columbia University Press, 2005). ISBN 9780231121606. OCLC 937175101. Magee, Sara. "All Things Considered: A Content Analysis of National Public Radio's Flagship News Magazine from 1999–2009". Journal of Radio & Audio Media (2013) 20#2 pp. 236–250.

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