Contents 1 History of censorship in early American cinema 2 Rating system 3 Pledge 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History of censorship in early American cinema[edit] In 1915, the Supreme Court heard a case regarding censorship in motion pictures called Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of Ohio; the Supreme Court held that states could censor films before they were released.[3] In 1948, the Supreme Court reversed the Mutual decision in the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. case. This is the case that established the Supreme Court's position on censoring films: that they are protected under the First Amendment as part of freedom of the press.[4]:63 Just four years later, in 1952, the Supreme Court heard Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, the first case where the holding was that movies were protected under the free speech section of the First Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment.[5] This case, also known as "The Miracle" case, was based on the New York state ban on the Italian film The Miracle because it was deemed sacrilegious by many Catholic groups, including the Legion of Decency.[4]:64 The court's decision that a film could not be banned because it was sacrilegious was challenged a year later in the Gelling v. Texas case, in which a city in Texas had banned a film before its release. The court upheld its previous ruling in the Miracle case, explaining that the American people could decide for themselves what they should and should not see.[6] Later, in 1957, the Supreme Court gave the film industry even more freedom in Roth v. United States, which held that movies could not be banned for being unsuitable for children if the movie was made for general audiences.[7] The Supreme Court's position on film censorship, established in 1948, has been consistently against state censorship of film.

Rating system[edit] The Legion of Decency had a strict set of rules and regulations that Hollywood had to adhere to in order to have their movies viewed by the public in good light. If there were suggestive scenes or dialogue that was frowned upon in the Catholic Church there would be speculation to the morality of the film and its makers. This was a time where Hollywood not only had to worry about its reception by moviegoers, but also its reception by the church. The idea of censorship appealed to the people who thought that the overall good was more important than individual liberties.[8]:54 The Catholic Church brought its authority to the moviegoing process in attempts to purify it for the greater good of the people who watch film. They harshly critiqued film and its morality. A priest from Buffalo, New York, went so far as to give a sermon regarding the film industry by spelling out the word "movies" with new meanings attached, "M - means moral menace, O - obscenity, V - vulgarity, I - immorality, E - exposure, S - sex."[8]:55 With the introduction of sound in film, there was worry within the church that this would bring more subjective material to audiences. "Sound unlocked a vast amount of dramatic material which for the first time could be effectively presented on the screen."[9] This code was meant to "amplify and add to those principles in the light of responsible opinion, so that all engaged in the making of sound pictures might have a commonly understandable and commonly acceptable guide in the maintenance of social and community values in pictures."[9] In 1930 there was a production code (also known as the Hays Code) written that all movie producers had to follow in order to avoid conflict. The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America created a section of general principles that mostly fell in the realm of moral standards, correct standards of life, and standards of human law not be violated whatsoever.[10] Movies were stated as to be for entertainment use, and were frowned upon when extending beyond that definition. After the general principles were stated there were subsections of more specific rules that covered topics of murder, sex, vulgar language, profanity in dialogue, what the actors wore, how they danced, how they practiced religion in film, even the titles that were used for the film.[10] Because the movies were seen as speaking to the morality of the viewer, the church believed that they needed to reflect that morality and not question it or lead them to sin. The Legion distributed a list of ratings for films in order to provide "a moral estimate of current entertainment feature motion pictures". The Legion was often more conservative in its views on films than the Motion Picture Association of America's Production Code. Films were rated according to the following schema: A: Morally unobjectionable B: Morally objectionable in part C: Condemned by the Legion of Decency The A rating was subsequently divided: A-I: Suitable for all audiences A-II: Suitable for adults; later — after the introduction of A-III — suitable for adults and adolescents A-III: Suitable for adults only A-IV: For adults with reservations In 1978, the B and C ratings were combined into a new O rating for "morally offensive" films. The Legion of Decency blacklisted many films for morally offensive content. "The condemnation came in the form of a 'C' rating."[11] Practicing Catholics were directed to refrain from viewing such films. More explicitly, they were directed to "remain away from all motion pictures except those which do not offend decency and Christian morality."[12] Officially, the terminology for a Legion of Decency blacklisted film was a C-rating, which stood for "condemned". The general breakdown of their rating system goes as follows: "A-I, general approval; A-II, approved for adults; B, unsatisfactory in part, neither recommended nor condemned; and C, condemned".[13]

Pledge[edit] In 1933, Archbishop John T. McNicholas, OP, composed a membership pledge for the Legion, which read in part: I wish to join the Legion of Decency, which condemns vile and unwholesome moving pictures. I unite with all who protest against them as a grave menace to youth, to home life, to country and to religion. I condemn absolutely those salacious motion pictures which, with other degrading agencies, are corrupting public morals and promoting a sex mania in our land. … Considering these evils, I hereby promise to remain away from all motion pictures except those which do not offend decency and Christian morality. The pledge was revised in 1934: I condemn all indecent and immoral motion pictures, and those which glorify crime or criminals. I promise to do all that I can to strengthen public opinion against the production of indecent and immoral films, and to unite with all who protest against them. I acknowledge my obligation to form a right conscience about pictures that are dangerous to my moral life. I pledge myself to remain away from them. I promise, further, to stay away altogether from places of amusement which show them as a matter of policy. In 1938, the league requested that the Pledge of the Legion of Decency be administered each year on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception (December 8).

See also[edit] United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Office for Film and Broadcasting — successor List of films condemned by the Legion of Decency Hays Code — a secular American censorship code in effect during much of the same period Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson Religious censorship

References[edit] ^ a b Lasalle, Mick (March 20, 2016). "Ask Mick Lasalle". San Francisco Chronicle.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ a b c d Black, Gregory (1998). The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies, 1940-1975. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Walter, Robert H.K. (1951). "Constitutional Law: Possible Impact of Television Rule on Motion Picture Censorship". California Law Review. 39 (3): 421.  ^ a b Secrest, Thales L. (1955). "Constitutional Law - Freedom of the Press - Does Censorship of Motion Pictures Violate Freedom of the Press". North Dakota Law Review. 31 (1).  ^ Harris, Albert W. (1954). "Movie Censorship and the Supreme Court: What Next?". California Law Review. 42 (1): 122.  ^ McCarroll, Tolbert H. (1955). "Constitutional Law - Freedom of Speech and Press - Censorship of Films". Oregon Law Review. 34 (1): 253.  ^ Friedman, Jane M. (1973). "The Motion Picture Rating System of 1968: A Constitutional Analysis of Self-regulation by the Film Industry". Columbia Law Review. 73 (2): 207.  ^ a b Wittern-Keller, Laura (2008). Freedom of the Screen. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813172644.  ^ a b "The Motion Picture Production Code (as Published 31, March, 1930) - Appendix 1" (PDF). Arizona State University. Retrieved April 12, 2016.  ^ a b Doherty, Thomas (2009). Hollywood's Censor: Joseph I. Breen and the Production Code Administration. Columbia University Press. p. 352–355. ISBN 9780231512848.  ^ "C Is for 'Condemned': A Nun Looks Back on 47 Years of Unholy Filmmaking".  ^ "Religion: Legion of Decency". Time. June 11, 1934. Retrieved January 10, 2017.  ^ Walsh, Frank. Sin and Censorship. Yale University Press. p. 130. 

Further reading[edit] Black, Greg. Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics and Movies: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1994: ISBN 0-521-45299-6 Black, Greg. Catholic Crusade Against the Movies: 1940–1975: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1998: ISBN 0-521-62905-5 Facey, Paul. The Legion of Decency: A Sociological Analysis of the Emergence and Development of a Pressure Group: New York: Arno Press: 1974: ISBN 0-405-04871-8 Skinner, James. The Cross and the Cinema: The Legion of Decency and the National Catholic Office for Motion Pictures: 1933–1970: Westport, Conn: Praegar 1993: ISBN 0-275-94193-0 Walsh, Frank. Sin and Censorship: The Catholic Church and the Motion Picture Industry: New Haven: Yale University Press: 1996: ISBN 0-300-06373-3 Wittern-Keller, Laure and Haberski, Raymond. The Miracle Case: Film Censorship and the Supreme Court: Kansas: University Press of Kansas: 2008: ISBN 978-0-7006-1619-0

External links[edit] The National Legion of Decency Collection at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (archived) Retrieved from "" Categories: 1933 establishments in the United StatesCensorship in ChristianityCensorship in the United StatesChristianity and society in the United StatesDefunct organizations based in the United StatesEntertainment rating organizationsFilm censorship in the United StatesFirst Amendment to the United States ConstitutionReligious organizations established in 1933Catholic Church in the United StatesCatholic organizations established in the 20th centuryHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLArticles needing additional references from March 2016All articles needing additional references

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages ČeštinaFrançaisPolskiРусскийSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Edit links This page was last edited on 18 July 2017, at 07:46. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.224","walltime":"0.281","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2273,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":31842,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":3626,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":15,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 254.664 1 -total"," 50.63% 128.948 1 Template:Reflist"," 21.03% 53.547 6 Template:ISBN"," 19.73% 50.238 3 Template:Cite_news"," 19.17% 48.807 1 Template:Refimprove"," 12.91% 32.880 1 Template:Ambox"," 8.84% 22.508 5 Template:Cite_journal"," 7.96% 20.282 6 Template:Catalog_lookup_link"," 7.47% 19.014 4 Template:Cite_book"," 4.83% 12.299 6 Template:Error-small"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.100","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4150514,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1327","timestamp":"20180303193339","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":83,"wgHostname":"mw1267"});});

National_Legion_of_Decency - Photos and All Basic Informations

National_Legion_of_Decency More Links

Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalMotion PicturesCatholic ChurchMotion Picture Production CodePriestSupreme Court Of The United StatesCensorshipMutual Film Corp. V. Industrial Commission Of OhioUnited States V. Paramount Pictures, Inc.First Amendment To The United States ConstitutionFreedom Of The PressJoseph Burstyn, Inc. V. WilsonFourteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionSacrilegiousTexasRoth V. United StatesFilm Censorship In The United StatesBuffalo, New YorkMotion Picture Production CodeMotion Picture Association Of AmericaMotion Picture Association Of AmericaMotion Picture Production CodeJohn T. McNicholasOrder Of PreachersFeast Of The Immaculate ConceptionUnited States Conference Of Catholic Bishops' Office For Film And BroadcastingList Of Films Condemned By The Legion Of DecencyMotion Picture Production CodeJoseph Burstyn, Inc. V. WilsonReligious CensorshipHelp:CS1 ErrorsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780813172644International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780231512848International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-45299-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-62905-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-405-04871-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-275-94193-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-300-06373-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7006-1619-0Academy Of Motion Picture Arts And SciencesHelp:CategoryCategory:1933 Establishments In The United StatesCategory:Censorship In ChristianityCategory:Censorship In The United StatesCategory:Christianity And Society In The United StatesCategory:Defunct Organizations Based In The United StatesCategory:Entertainment Rating OrganizationsCategory:Film Censorship In The United StatesCategory:First Amendment To The United States ConstitutionCategory:Religious Organizations Established In 1933Category:Catholic Church In The United StatesCategory:Catholic Organizations Established In The 20th CenturyCategory:Pages Using Citations With Accessdate And No URLCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From March 2016Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link