Contents 1 History 2 Research areas 2.1 DNA initiative 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] NIJ Directors (and Acting Directors)[1][2] Name Dates Ralph Siu 1968–1969 Henry Ruth 1969–1970 Irving Slott 1970–1971 Martin Danziger 1971–1973 Gerald Caplan 1973–1977 Blair Ewing 1977–1979 Harry Bratt 1979–1981 James Underwood 1981–1982 W. Robert Burkhart 1982 James K. Stewart 1982–1990 Charles B. DeWitt 1990–1993 Michael J. Russell 1993–1994 Carol V. Petrie 1994 Jeremy Travis 1994-2000 Julie Samuels 2000-2001 Sarah V. Hart 2001–2005 Glenn R. Schmitt 2005–June 2007 David Hagy June 2007–January 2009 Kristina Rose January 2009–June 2010 John H. Laub June 2010–2013 Greg Ridgeway 2013–2014 William J. Sabol 2014-2015 Nancy Rodriguez 2015-2017 Howard Spivak 2017-2017 David Muhlhausen 2017-present The National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice was established in 1968, under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as a component of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA). In 1978, it was renamed as the National Institute of Justice.[3] Some functions of the LEAA were absorbed by NIJ on December 27, 1979, with passage of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979.[4] The Act, which amended the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, also led to creation of the Bureau of Justice Statistics.[5] In 1982, the LEAA was succeeded by the Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics (1982–1984) and then the Office of Justice Programs in 1984.[6] NIJ was notable among U.S. governmental research organizations because it is headed by a political appointee of the President rather than by a scientist or a member of the civil service. The Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011 removed the need for Senate confirmation of the NIJ director. In 2010, the United States National Research Council released a report on reforming the NIJ, and identified issues with its independence, budget, and scientific mission. While it considered making the NIJ separate from its current department, Office of Justice Programs, it recommended retaining the NIJ within the OJP but giving it increased independence and authority through clear qualifications for its director, control over its budget, and a statutory advisory board. It also recommended that the NIJ: (1) a focus on research rather than forensic capacity building activities,(2) increase funding for programs for graduate researchers, (3) increase transparency, and (4) do periodic self-assessments.[7]

Research areas[edit] A police officer using a ballistic shield NIJ Level IIIA[further explanation needed] NIJ is focused on advancing technology for criminal justice application including law enforcement and corrections, forensics, and judicial processes, as well as criminology, criminal justice, and related social science research. Much of this research is facilitated by providing grants to academic institutions, non-profit research organizations, and other entities, as well as collaborating with state and local governments. Areas of social science research include violence against women, corrections, and crime prevention, as well as program evaluation.[8] Grants for technology development help facilitate research and development of technology and tools for criminal justice application, which is a need that the private sector is otherwise reluctant to meet. NIJ also supports development of voluntary equipment performance standards, as well as conducting compliance testing.[3] Areas of technology research and development include biometrics, communications interoperability, information technology, less-lethal technologies (e.g. tasers), and officer safety including bullet-proof vests. Crime mapping and analysis is a topic that includes both technology and social science (geography) aspects. The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers, which are located throughout the United States, play a role in law enforcement technology development, testing, and dissemination.[8] In the 2000s, NIJ developed the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System.[9] DNA initiative[edit] A major area of research and support is for forensics and the President's DNA initiative. The Federal Bureau of Investigation developed the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) system as a central database of DNA profiles taken from offenders. In the late 1980s and 1990s, all of the states and the federal government required DNA samples to be collected from offenders in certain types of cases. The demand (casework) for DNA analysis in public crime laboratories increased 73% from 1997 to 2000, and by 2003, there was a backlog of 350,000 rape and homicide cases. In 2003, President George W. Bush proposed the Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology initiative, which would include $1 billion over five years to reduce backlogs, develop and improve capacity of state and local law enforcement to use DNA analysis, support research and development to improve the technology, and additional training for those working in the criminal justice system.[10]

See also[edit] Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)

References[edit] ^ "25 Years of Criminal Justice Research". National Criminal Justice Reference Service. December 1994. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  ^ "Speeches and Presentations: NIJ Directors". National Institute of Justice. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2008-01-25.  ^ a b "The Evolution and Development of Police Technology" (PDF). National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC). July 1998. pp. vi–vii.  ^ Tonry, Michael. "Building Better Policies on Better Knowledge". Archived from the original on 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2007-06-10.  ^ Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice (1983). Federal Assistance to State and Local Law Enforcement Systems (hearing). Government Printing Office.  ^ "Records of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration". National Archives. Retrieved 2007-06-10.  ^ Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. (2010). Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. National Academies Press. ^ a b "2005 Annual Report" (PDF). National Institute of Justice. December 2006.  ^ "About NamUs". Retrieved 2013-02-23.  ^ "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology" (PDF). White House / U.S. Department of Justice. March 2003. 

External links[edit] Official website National Institute of Justice in the Federal Register National Criminal Justice Reference Service National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) The President's DNA Initiative New NIJ Body Armor Standards v t e Research and development agencies of the federal government of the United States Independent agencies National Science Foundation (NSF) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) Smithsonian Institution research centers and programs Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Economic Research Service (ERS) United States Forest Service Research and Development (R&D) Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Defense Air Force Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Air Force Life Cycle Management Center (AFLCMC) Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (NWC) Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Army Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Army Research Lab (ARL) Navy Office of Naval Research (ONR) Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Naval Medical Research Center (NMRC) Naval Warfare Centers Air (NAWC) Surface (NSWC) Undersea (NUWC) Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance (NCCOSC) Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL) Other Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) Education Institute of Education Sciences (IES) National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Energy Office of Science (DOE SC) Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) National Laboratories Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Food and Drug Administration science and research programs Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Homeland Security Directorate for Science and Technology (S&T) Coast Guard Research & Development Center (CG RDC) Interior United States Geological Survey (USGS) Justice National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering, and Development Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development (ORD) Multi-agency initiatives U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program (NITRD) National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Judicial branch Federal Judicial Center Policy-making bodies Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) (defunct) House Committee on Science, Space and Technology Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Retrieved from "" Categories: Government agencies established in 1968United States Department of JusticeHidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia

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