Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Career 1.2.1 Los Angeles and the King Cole Trio 1.3 Success 1.4 Television 1.5 Later career 2 Personal life 2.1 Marriage and children 2.2 Experiences with racism 2.3 Politics 3 Illness and death 4 Posthumous releases 5 Legacy 6 Discography 7 Complete filmography 8 Partial television credits 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919.[1] He had three brothers—Eddie (1910–1970),[2] Ike (1927–2001),[3] and Freddy (b. 1931)[4]—and a half-sister, Joyce Coles.[5] Each of his brothers pursued careers in music.[5] When Nat was four years old,[6] he and his family moved to Chicago, Illinois, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister.[7] Nat learned to play the organ from his mother, Perlina Coles, the church organist.[8] His first performance was of "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four.[9] He began formal lessons at 12[10] and eventually learned not only jazz and gospel music but also Western classical music; he performed "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."[11] The family again moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago,[12] where he attended Wendel Phillips High School[13] (the same school Sam Cooke attended a few years later).[14] Cole would sneak out of the house and hang around outside clubs, listening to artists such as Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines and Jimmie Noone.[15] He participated in Walter Dyett's renowned music program at DuSable High School.[16] Career[edit] Portrait of Nat King Cole, Paramount Theater, New York, N.Y., ca. Nov. 1946. Inspired by the performances of Hines, Cole began his performing career while he was still a teenager in the mid-1930s; he adopted the name Nat Cole. Cole left Chicago in 1936 to lead a band in a revival of Eubie Blake's revue Shuffle Along. His older brother, Eddie, a bass player, soon joined Cole's band, and they made their first recording in 1936, under Eddie's name. They also were regular performers in clubs. Cole acquired his nickname, "King", performing at one jazz club, a nickname presumably reinforced by the otherwise unrelated nursery rhyme about Old King Cole. He was also a pianist in a national tour of Shuffle Along. When it suddenly failed in Long Beach, California, Cole decided to remain there. He later returned to Chicago in triumph to play such venues as the Edgewater Beach Hotel. Los Angeles and the King Cole Trio[edit] The following year, Cole formed a trio in Los Angeles with Oscar Moore (guitar) and Wesley Prince (double bass) known as the "King Cole Swingsters" in Long Beach and played in a number of local bars before getting a gig on the Long Beach Pike for US $90.00 per week ($1,587 in 2015). The trio played in Failsworth through the late 1930s and recorded many radio transcriptions for Capitol Transcriptions.[17] Cole was the pianist and also the leader of the combo. Radio was important to the King Cole Trio's rise in popularity. Their first broadcast was with NBC's Blue Network in 1938. It was followed by performances on NBC's Swing Soiree. In the 1940s, the trio appeared on the radio shows Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club and Kraft Music Hall. The King Cole Trio performed twice on CBS Radio's variety show The Orson Welles Almanac in 1944.[18][19] According to legend, Cole's singing career did not start until a drunken barroom patron demanded that he sing "Sweet Lorraine". Cole said that this fabricated story "sounded good, so I just let it ride." He frequently sang between instrumental numbers. Noticing that people started to request more vocal numbers, he obliged. Yet the story of the insistent customer is not without some truth. There was a customer who requested a certain song one night, but it was a song that Cole did not know, so instead he sang "Sweet Lorraine". The trio was tipped 15¢ ($2.65 in 2017) for the performance.[20] The Capitol Records Building, known as "The House That Nat Built" During World War II, Wesley Prince left the group and was replaced by Johnny Miller, who in turn was replaced by Charlie Harris in the 1950s. The King Cole Trio signed with the fledgling Capitol Records in 1943. The group had previously recorded for Excelsior Records, owned by Otis René, and had a hit with the song "I'm Lost", which René wrote, produced and distributed.[21] Revenues from Cole's record sales fueled much of Capitol Records' success during this period. The revenue is believed to have played a significant role in financing the distinctive Capitol Records building near Hollywood and Vine in Los Angeles. Completed in 1956, it was the world's first circular office building and became known as "The House that Nat Built". Cole was considered a leading jazz pianist, appearing in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts (credited on the Mercury Record label as "Shorty Nadine"—derived from his wife's name—as he was under exclusive contract with Capitol Records at the time).[22] His revolutionary lineup of piano, guitar, and bass in the era of the big band became a popular setup for jazz trios. It was emulated by many musicians, among them Art Tatum, Oscar Peterson, Ahmad Jamal, and the blues pianists Charles Brown and Ray Charles. He also performed as a pianist on sessions with Lester Young, Red Callender, and Lionel Hampton. For contractual reasons, Cole was credited as "Aye Guy" on the album The Lester Young Buddy Rich Trio. Success[edit] I started out to become a jazz pianist; in the meantime I started singing and I sang the way I felt and that's just the way it came out. — Nat King Cole, Voice of America interview[23][24] Cole's first mainstream vocal hit was his 1943 recording of one of his compositions, "Straighten Up and Fly Right", based on a black folk tale that his father had used as a theme for a sermon. Johnny Mercer invited him to record it for his fledgling Capitol Records. It sold over 500,000 copies, proving that folk-based material could appeal to a wide audience. Cole would never be considered a rocker, but the song can be seen as anticipating the first rock-and-roll records. Bo Diddley, who performed similar transformations of folk material, counted Cole as an influence. King Cole Trio Time on NBC in 1947, with Cole, Oscar Moore and Johnny Miller In 1946 the Cole trio paid to have their own 15-minute radio program on the air, King Cole Trio Time. It was the first radio program sponsored by a black performing artist. During those years, the trio recorded many "transcription" recordings, which were made in the radio studio for the broadcast. Later they were released as commercial records. Beginning in the late 1940s, Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material for mainstream audiences, in which he was often accompanied by a string orchestra. His stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All For You" (1943), "The Christmas Song",[25] "(Get Your Kicks on) Route 66","(I Love You) For Sentimental Reasons" (1946), "There! I've Said It Again" (1947), "Nature Boy" (1948), "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa" (The #1 Song of 1950), "Orange Colored Sky" (1950), "Too Young" (the #1 song of 1951),[26] and his signature song, "Unforgettable" (1951) (Gainer 1), "Faith Can Move Mountains", "Walkin' My Baby Back Home", "Somewhere Along the Way" (1952), "Blue Gardenia", "Can't I", "Pretend", "That's All" (1953), "Hajji Baba (Persian Lament)", "Answer Me, My Love", "Smile" (1954), "If I May", "A Blossom Fell", "The Sea And The Sand", "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" (1955), "That's All There Is To That", "Night Lights" (1956), "Stardust", "Ballerina", "Send For Me", "When I Fall In Love" (1957), "Saint Louis Blues", "Looking Back", "Non Dimenticar" (1958), "Ansiedad", "Midnight Flyer" (1959), "Time And The River", "Whatcha Gonna Do", "My Love" (1960), "Let There Be Love" (1961), "Ramblin' Rose", "Dear Lonely Hearts" (1962), "That Sunday, That Summer" (1963), "L-O-V-E" (1964). Cole's hit recording "The Christmas Song" was the first of his solo vocal recordings to be accompanied by a studio orchestra. This marked the start of his rise as an internationally acclaimed popular singer, with a smooth and sophisticated style. Cole's shift to pop music led some jazz critics and fans to accuse him of selling out, but he never abandoned his jazz roots; as late as 1956 he recorded an all-jazz album, After Midnight, and many of his albums after this are fundamentally jazz-based, being scored for big band without strings, although the arrangements focus primarily on the vocal rather than instrumental leads. Cole had one of his last major hits in 1963, two years before his death, with "Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer", which reached number 6 on the Pop chart. "Unforgettable" was made famous again in 1991 by Cole's daughter Natalie when modern recording technology was used to reunite father and daughter in a duet. The duet version rose to the top of the pop charts, almost forty years after its original popularity.[27] Television[edit] On November 5, 1956, The Nat 'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC. The variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American,[28] which created controversy at the time.[29] Beginning as a 15-minute pops show on Monday night, the program was expanded to a half-hour in July 1957. Despite the efforts of NBC, as well as many of Cole's industry colleagues—many of whom, such as Ella Fitzgerald, Harry Belafonte, Frankie Laine, Mel Tormé, Peggy Lee, Eartha Kitt, Tony Bennett and the backing vocal group the Cheerleaders, worked for industry scale (or even for no pay)[29] in order to help the show save money—The Nat 'King' Cole Show was ultimately done in by lack of a national sponsorship.[29] Companies such as Rheingold Beer assumed regional sponsorship of the show, but a national sponsor never appeared.[29] The last episode of The Nat King Cole Show aired December 17, 1957. Cole had survived for over a year, and it was he, not NBC, who ultimately decided to end the program.[30] Commenting on the lack of sponsorship his show received, Cole quipped shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."[31][32] Later career[edit] Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to rack up successive hits, selling in millions throughout the world, including "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", and "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with well-known arrangers and conductors of the day, including Nelson Riddle,[23] Gordon Jenkins, and Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including his first 10-inch long-play album, Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love (1953). In 1955, his single "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Jenkins arranged, the album, Love Is the Thing, hitting number 1 on the charts in April 1957 and remaining for eight weeks, his only number 1 album. In 1959, he was awarded a Grammy at the 2nd Annual Grammy Awards, the category Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist, for his recording of "Midnight Flyer".[33] In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Español, an album sung entirely in Spanish. The album was so popular in Latin America, and also in the United States, that two others of the same variety followed: A Mis Amigos (sung in Spanish and Portuguese) in 1959 and More Cole Español in 1962. A Mis Amigos contains the Venezuelan hit "Ansiedad", whose lyrics Cole learned while performing in Caracas in 1958. He learned songs in languages other than English by rote. After the change in musical tastes during the late 1950s, Cole's ballad singing did not sell well with younger listeners, despite a successful stab at rock and roll with "Send for Me",[23] which peaked at number 6 on the Pop chart. Along with his contemporaries Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra and Tony Bennett, Cole found that the pop singles chart had been almost entirely taken over by youth-oriented acts. In 1960, Cole's longtime collaborator Nelson Riddle left Capitol Records for Frank Sinatra's newly formed Reprise Records. Riddle and Cole recorded one final hit album, Wild Is Love, with lyrics by Ray Rasch and Dotty Wayne. Cole later retooled the concept album into an Off-Broadway show, I'm with You. Cole recorded some hit singles during the 1960s, including "Let There Be Love" with George Shearing in 1961, the country-flavored hit "Ramblin' Rose" in August 1962, "Dear Lonely Hearts", "That Sunday, That Summer" and "Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer"[23] (his final top-ten hit, reaching number 6 on the Pop chart). He performed in many short films, sitcoms, and television shows and played W. C. Handy in the film St. Louis Blues (1958). He also appeared in The Nat King Cole Story, China Gate, and The Blue Gardenia (1953). In January 1964, Cole made one of his final television appearances, on The Jack Benny Program. He was introduced as "the best friend a song ever had" and sang "When I Fall in Love". Cat Ballou (1965), his final film, was released several months after his death.

Personal life[edit] Around the time Cole launched his singing career, he entered into Freemasonry. He was raised in January 1944 in the Thomas Waller Lodge No. 49 in California. The lodge was named after fellow Prince Hall mason and jazz musician Fats Waller.[34] Cole was "an avid baseball fan", particularly of Hank Aaron. In 1968, Nelson Riddle related an incident from some years earlier and told of music studio engineers, searching for a source of noise, finding Cole listening to a game on a transistor radio.[23] Marriage and children[edit] Nat and his second wife, Maria, 1951 Cole met his first wife, Nadine Robinson, while they were on tour for the all-black Broadway musical Shuffle Along. He was only 17 when they married. She was the reason he landed in Los Angeles and formed the Nat King Cole trio.[35] This marriage ended in divorce in 1948. On March 28, 1948 (Easter Sunday), just six days after his divorce became final, Cole married the singer Maria Hawkins Ellington (she had sung with the Duke Ellington band but was not related to Duke Ellington). The Coles were married in Harlem's Abyssinian Baptist Church by Adam Clayton Powell Jr. They had five children: Natalie (1950–2015), who had a successful career as a singer; an adopted daughter, Carole (1944–2009, the daughter of Maria's sister), who died of lung cancer at the age of 64; an adopted son, Nat Kelly Cole (1959–1995), who died of AIDS at the age of 36;[36] and twin daughters, Casey and Timolin (born September 26, 1961), whose birth was announced in the "Milestones" column of Time magazine on October 6, 1961 (along with the birth of Melissa Newman). Maria supported him during his final illness and stayed with him until his death. In an interview, she emphasized his musical legacy and the class he exhibited despite his imperfections.[37] Experiences with racism[edit] Nat King Cole corner in the Hotel Nacional de Cuba In August 1948, Cole purchased a house from Col. Harry Gantz, the former husband of the silent film actress Lois Weber, in the all-white Hancock Park neighborhood of Los Angeles. The Ku Klux Klan, still active in Los Angeles well into the 1950s, responded by placing a burning cross on his front lawn. Members of the property-owners association told Cole they did not want any "undesirables" moving into the neighborhood. Cole retorted, "Neither do I. And if I see anybody undesirable coming in here, I'll be the first to complain."[38] In 1956 Cole was assaulted on stage during a concert in Birmingham, Alabama, with the Ted Heath Band (while singing the song "Little Girl"). Having already circulated photographs of Cole with white female fans bearing incendiary boldface captions reading "COLE AND HIS WHITE WOMEN" and "COLE AND YOUR DAUGHTER,"[39] three men belonging to the North Alabama Citizens Council physically assaulted Cole, apparently attempting to kidnap him. The three assailants ran down the aisles of the auditorium towards Cole and his band. Local law enforcement quickly ended the invasion of the stage, but in the ensuing melée Cole was toppled from his piano bench and injured his back. He did not finish the concert and never again performed in the South. A fourth member of the group who had participated in the plot was later arrested in connection with the act. All were tried and convicted for their roles in the crime.[40] In 1956 Cole was contracted to perform in Cuba and wanted to stay at the Hotel Nacional de Cuba in Havana, but was not allowed to, because it operated a color bar. Cole honored his contract, and the concert at the Tropicana was a huge success. The following year, he returned to Cuba for another concert, singing many songs in Spanish. There is now a tribute to him in the form of a bust and a jukebox in the Hotel Nacional.[41] After his attack in Birmingham, Cole said, "I can't understand it ... I have not taken part in any protests. Nor have I joined an organization fighting segregation. Why should they attack me?" A native of Alabama, he seemed eager to assure southern whites that he would not challenge the customs and traditions of the region. A few would keep the protests going for a while, he said, but "I'd just like to forget about the whole thing." Cole had no intention of altering his practice of playing to segregated audiences in the South. He did not condone the practice, but he was not a politician and believed that "I can't change the situation in a day." Some African Americans responded to Cole's self-professed political indifference with an immediate, harsh, and virtually unanimous rejection, unaffected by his revelations that he had contributed money to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and had sued several northern hotels that had hired but refused to serve him. Thurgood Marshall, the chief legal counsel of the NAACP, reportedly suggested that he was an Uncle Tom and therefore ought to perform with a banjo. Roy Wilkins, the executive secretary of the organization, challenged Cole in a telegram: "You have not been a crusader or engaged in an effort to change the customs or laws of the South. That responsibility, newspapers quote you as saying, you leave to the other guys. That attack upon you clearly indicates that organized bigotry makes no distinction between those who do not actively challenge racial discrimination and those who do. This is a fight which none of us can escape. We invite you to join us in a crusade against racism." [42] Cole's appearances before all-white audiences, the Chicago Defender charged, were "an insult to his race". As boycotts of his records and shows were organized, the New York Amsterdam News claimed that "thousands of Harlem blacks who have worshiped at the shrine of singer Nat King Cole turned their backs on him this week as the noted crooner turned his back on the NAACP and said that he will continue to play to Jim Crow audiences." To play "Uncle Nat's" discs, wrote a commentator in The American Negro, "would be supporting his 'traitor' ideas and narrow way of thinking". Deeply hurt by the criticism in the black press, Cole was also chastened. Emphasizing his opposition to racial segregation "in any form", he agreed to join other entertainers in boycotting segregated venues. He quickly and conspicuously paid $500 to become a life member of the Detroit branch of the NAACP. Until his death in 1965, Cole was an active and visible participant in the civil rights movement, playing an important role in planning the March on Washington in 1963.[42][43][44] Politics[edit] Cole sang at the 1956 Republican National Convention in the Cow Palace, Daly City, California, to show support for President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[45] He sang "That's All There Is to That" and was "greeted with applause."[46] He was also present at the Democratic National Convention in 1960 to support Senator John F. Kennedy. He was among the dozens of entertainers recruited by Frank Sinatra to perform at the Kennedy Inaugural gala in 1961. Cole consulted with President Kennedy and his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, on civil rights.

Illness and death[edit] In September 1964, Cole began to lose weight and he experienced back pain. He was appearing in a touring musical revue, Sights and Sounds and commuting to Los Angeles to film music for Cat Ballou when he became increasingly involved in an extramarital relationship with a 19-year-old Caucasian Swedish dancer, Gunilla Hutton; Cole's cheating led Maria to contemplate divorce.[47] Cole collapsed with pain after performing at the Sands in Las Vegas. In December, he was working in San Francisco when he was finally persuaded by friends to seek medical help. A malignant tumor in an advanced state of growth on his left lung was observed on a chest X-ray. Cole, who had been a heavy cigarette smoker, had lung cancer and was expected to have only months to live.[48] Against his doctors' wishes, Cole carried on his work and made his final recordings December 1–3 in San Francisco, with an orchestra conducted by Ralph Carmichael. The music was released on the album L-O-V-E shortly before his death.[49] Cole entered St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica on December 7, and cobalt therapy was started on December 10. Frank Sinatra performed in Cole's place at the grand opening of the new Dorothy Chandler Pavilion of the Los Angeles Music Center on December 12.[50] Cole's condition gradually worsened, but he was released from the hospital over the New Year's period. At home Cole was able to see the hundreds of thousands of cards and letters that had been sent after news of his illness was made public. Cole returned to the hospital in early January. He also sent $5,000 (US$39,453 in 2017 dollars[51]) to Hutton, who later telephoned Maria and implored her to divorce him. Maria confronted her husband, and Cole finally broke off the relationship with Hutton.[52] Cole's illness reconciled him with his wife, and he vowed that if he recovered he would go on television to urge people to stop smoking. On January 25, Cole's entire left lung was surgically removed. His father died of heart problems on February 1.[53] Throughout Cole's illness his publicists promoted the idea that he would soon be well and working, despite the private knowledge of his terminal condition. Billboard magazine reported that "Nat King Cole has successfully come through a serious operation and ... the future looks bright for 'the master' to resume his career again."[54] On Valentine's Day, Cole and his wife briefly left St. John's to drive by the sea. He died at the hospital early in the morning of February 15, 1965, aged 45.[55] Cole's vault at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cole's funeral was held on February 18 at St. James Episcopal Church on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles; 400 people were present, and thousands gathered outside the church. Hundreds of members of the public had filed past the coffin the day before.[56] Notable honorary pallbearers included Robert F. Kennedy, Count Basie, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Johnny Mathis, George Burns, Danny Thomas, Jimmy Durante, Alan Livingston, Frankie Laine, Steve Allen, and Pat Brown (the governor of California). The eulogy was delivered by Jack Benny, who said that "Nat Cole was a man who gave so much and still had so much to give. He gave it in song, in friendship to his fellow man, devotion to his family. He was a star, a tremendous success as an entertainer, an institution. But he was an even greater success as a man, as a husband, as a father, as a friend."[57] Cole's remains were interred in Freedom Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, in Glendale, California.[58]

Posthumous releases[edit] Cole's last album, L-O-V-E, was recorded in early December 1964—just a few days before he entered the hospital for cancer treatment—and was released just before he died. It peaked at number 4 on the Billboard Albums chart in the spring of 1965. A Best Of album was certified a gold record in 1968. His 1957 recording of "When I Fall in Love" reached number 4 in the UK charts in 1987. In 1983, an archivist for EMI Electrola Records, a subsidiary of EMI Records (Capitol's parent company) in Germany, discovered some unreleased recordings by Cole, including one in Japanese and another in Spanish ("Tu Eres Tan Amable"). Capitol released them later that year as the LP Unreleased. In 1991, Mosaic Records released The Complete Capitol Records Recordings of the Nat King Cole Trio, a compilation of 349 songs available as an 18-CD or a 27-LP set. In 2008 it was re-released in digital-download format through services like iTunes and Amazon Music. Also in 1991, Natalie Cole recorded a new vocal track that was mixed with her father's 1961 stereo re-recording of his 1951 hit "Unforgettable" for a tribute album of the same title. The song and album won seven Grammy awards in 1992 for Best Album and Best Song.

Legacy[edit] Cole was inducted into the Alabama Music Hall of Fame and the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame. He was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1990. He was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2007. A United States postage stamp featuring Cole's likeness was issued in 1994.[6] He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, as a major influence on early rock and roll,[6] and the Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2013, for his contribution to Latin music.[59] Cole's success at Capitol Records, for which he recorded more than 150 singles that reached the Billboard Pop, R&B, and Country charts, has yet to be matched by any Capitol artist.[60] His records sold 50 million copies during his career.[61] His recording of "The Christmas Song" still receives airplay every holiday season, even hitting the Billboard Top 40 in December 2017.[62]

Discography[edit] Main article: Nat King Cole discography The King Cole Trio (1945) The King Cole Trio, Volume 2 (1946) The King Cole Trio, Volume 3 (1947) The King Cole Trio, Volume 4 (1949) Nat King Cole at the Piano (1950) King Cole for Kids (1951) Penthouse Serenade (1952) Top Pops (1952) Harvest of Hits (1952) Unforgettable (1954) Penthouse Serenade (1955) Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love (1955) The Piano Style of Nat King Cole (1955) After Midnight (1957) Just One of Those Things (1957) Love Is the Thing (1957) Cole Español (1958) St. Louis Blues (1958) The Very Thought of You (1958) To Whom It May Concern (1958) Welcome to the Club (1958) A Mis Amigos (1959) Tell Me All About Yourself (1960) Every Time I Feel the Spirit (1960) Wild Is Love (1960) The Magic of Christmas (1960) The Nat King Cole Story (1961) The Touch of Your Lips (1961) Nat King Cole Sings/George Shearing Plays (1962) Ramblin' Rose (1962) Dear Lonely Hearts (1962) More Cole Español (1962) Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer (1963) Where Did Everyone Go? (1963) Nat King Cole Sings My Fair Lady (1964) Let's Face the Music! (1964, recorded 1961) I Don't Want to Be Hurt Anymore (1964) L-O-V-E (1965) Live at the Sands (album) (1966, recorded 1960)

Complete filmography[edit] Film Year Title Role Notes 1941 Citizen Kane Pianist in "El Rancho" Uncredited 1943 Pistol Packin' Mama As part of the King Cole Trio Uncredited 1943 Here Comes Elmer Himself 1944 Pin Up Girl Canteen pianist Uncredited 1944 Stars on Parade As part of the King Cole Trio 1944 Swing in the Saddle As part of the King Cole Trio Uncredited 1944 See My Lawyer Specialty act As part of the King Cole Trio 1944 Is You Is, or Is You Ain't My Baby? Himself Short subject 1945 Frim Fram Sauce Himself Short subject 1946 Breakfast in Hollywood As part of the King Cole Trio 1946 Errand Boy for Rhythm Himself Short subject 1946 Come to Baby Do Himself Short subject 1948 Killer Diller Himself As part of the King Cole Trio 1949 Make Believe Ballroom Himself As part of the King Cole Trio 1950 King Cole Trio & Benny Carter Orchestra Himself Short subject 1951 You Call It Madness Himself Short subject 1951 When I Fall in Love Himself Short subject 1951 The Trouble with Me Is You Himself Short subject 1951 Sweet Lorraine Himself Short subject 1951 Route 66 Himself Short subject 1951 Nature Boy Himself Short subject 1951 Mona Lisa Himself Short subject 1951 Home Himself Short subject 1951 For Sentimental Reasons Himself Short subject 1951 Calypso Blues Himself Short subject 1952 Nat "King" Cole and Joe Adams Orchestra Himself Short subject 1953 The Blue Gardenia Himself 1953 Small Town Girl Himself 1953 Nat "King" Cole and Russ Morgan and His Orchestra Himself Short subject 1955 Kiss Me Deadly Singer (voice) 1955 Rhythm and Blues Revue Himself Documentary 1955 Rock 'n' Roll Revue Himself Short subject 1955 The Nat 'King' Cole Musical Story Himself Short subject 1955 Rhythm and Blues Revue Himself Documentary 1956 The Scarlet Hour Nightclub vocalist 1956 Basin Street Revue Himself 1957 Istanbul Danny Rice 1957 China Gate Goldie 1958 St. Louis Blues W. C. Handy 1959 Night of the Quarter Moon Cy Robbin Alternative title: The Color of Her Skin 1959 Premier Khrushchev in the USA Himself Documentary 1960 Schlager-Raketen Sänger, Himself 1960 Academy Award Songs Himself TV movie 1960 Special Gala to Support Kennedy Campaign Himself TV movie 1961 Main Event Himself TV movie 1963 An Evening with Nat King Cole Himself TV movie 1964 Freedom Spectacular Himself TV movie 1965 Cat Ballou Shouter Released posthumously 1989 Benny Carter: Symphony in Riffs Himself Documentary

Partial television credits[edit] Year Title Role Notes 1950 The Ed Sullivan Show Himself 14 episodes 1951–1952 Texaco Star Theatre Himself 3 episodes 1952–1955 The Jackie Gleason Show Himself 2 episodes 1953 The Red Skelton Show Himself Episode #2.20 1953–1961 What's My Line? "Mystery guest" 2 episodes 1954–1955 The Colgate Comedy Hour Himself 4 episodes 1955 Ford Star Jubilee Himself 2 episodes 1956–1957 The Nat King Cole Show Host 42 episodes 1957–1960 The Dinah Shore Chevy Show Himself 2 episodes 1958 The Patti Page Oldsmobile Show Himself Episode #1.5 1959 The Perry Como Show Himself Episode: January 17, 1959 1959 The George Gobel Show Himself Episode #5.10 1960 The Steve Allen Show Himself Episode #5.21 1960 This Is Your Life Himself Episode: "Nat King Cole" 1961–1964 The Garry Moore Show Himself 4 episodes 1962–1964 The Jack Paar Program Himself 4 episodes 1963 An Evening with Nat King Cole Himself BBC Television special 1963 The Danny Kaye Show Himself Episode #1.14 1964 The Jack Benny Program Nat Episode: "Nat King Cole, Guest"

See also[edit] Book: Nat King Cole Music portal Biography portal List of African-American firsts List of Notable Freemasons

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ISBN 9781439634646.  ^ "Phillips High School is cradle of history". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ "Tracing the Highs and Tragic End of Sam Cooke". Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ "Nat "King" Cole Is Born". History Channel. 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ Bonner, Wilma F. (2011-01-01). The Sumner Story: Capturing Our History Preserving Our Legacy. Morgan James Publishing. ISBN 9781600377822.  ^ "Capitol Transcriptions ad" (PDF). Broadcasting. June 28, 1948. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ "Radio Almanac". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "Orson Welles Almanac—Part 1". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ Cole, Maria, with Robinson, Louie (1971). Nat King Cole: An Intimate Biography. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0688021535. ^ "Buck-Five Disk of Indies Seen Different Ways". Billboard. September 1, 1945. Retrieved 2012-02-24. ^ Holmes, Roy; Windisch, Simon. "Nat King Cole Biography". Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ a b c d e Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 22 – Smack Dab in the Middle on Route 66: A Skinny Dip in the Easy Listening Mainstream. [Part 1]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.  ^ "Search | University of North Texas Libraries". Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ Cole recorded "The Christmas Song" four times — on June 14, 1946, with the Nat King Cole Trio; on August 19, 1946, with an added string section; on August 24, 1953; and in 1961 for the double album The Nat King Cole Story. The final version, recorded in stereo, is the one most often heard today. ^ "''Billboard'' website". Retrieved 2010-03-04.  ^ Teachout, Terry (1992). "Nat King Cole". The American Scholar. 26. Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ Chilton, Karen (October 15, 2009). "Hazel Scott's Lifetime of High Notes". Smithsonian. Retrieved November 30, 2016. ...the first black performer to host her own nationally syndicated television show...  ^ a b c d Shulman, Arthur; Youman, Roger (1966). "Chapter 3: The Sounds of Music". How Sweet It Was. Television: A Pictorial Commentary. Bonanza Books, Crown Publishers.  (unpaginated). ^ Gourse, Leslie, (1991). Unforgettable: The Life and Mystique of Nat 'King' Cole. New York: St. Martin's Press. Quoting (p. 185) an interview with Cole in Hollywood, announcing that he was leaving television because of advertising agencies: "The network supported this show from the beginning. From Mr. Sarnoff on down, they tried to sell it to agencies. They could have dropped it after the first thirteen weeks. Shows that made more money than mine were dropped. They offered me a new time at 7:00 p.m. on Saturdays on a cooperative basis, but I decided not to take it. I feel played out." ^ [2] Archived November 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Study: Ad Agencies Exhibit 'Pervasive Racial Discrimination' | News". 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ "Grammy Awards 1959". Grammy.  ^ "Famous Masons". Pinal Lodge No. 30. Archived from the original on 2011-12-24.  ^ "Nat King Cole — Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-05-16.  ^ "TCM". TCM. Retrieved 2010-03-04.  ^ "Gale:Free Resources:Black History:Biographies: Nat King Cole". Gale. Retrieved 2012-04-20.  ^ Levinson, Peter J. (2001). September in the Rain: The Life of Nelson Riddle. New York: Billboard Books. p. 89. ISBN 0-8230-7672-5. Retrieved 2010-10-10.  ^ Burford, Mark (2012). "Sam Cooke as Pop Album Artist". Journal of the American Musicological Society. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ Eyewitness account published in the Birmingham News. Felts, Jim. Letter to the editor. December 15, 2007. ^ "Cuba Now". Cuba Now. 2007-04-30. Retrieved 2010-03-04. [dead link] ^ a b Altschuler, Glenn C. (2003). All Shook Up: How Rock 'n' Roll Changed America. Oxford University Press. ^ James Gilbert, James (1986). A Cycle of Outrage: America's Reaction to the Juvenile Delinquent in the 1950s. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 9. ^ Sussman, Warren, with the assistance of Edward Griffin (1989). "Did Success Spoil the United States? Dual Representations in Postwar America". In May, Lary, ed. Recasting America: Culture and Politics in the Age of the Cold War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226511758. ^ "It's All Right to Still Like Ike: History: Once Painted as a 'Distanced' President, Dwight Eisenhower Now is Heralded for his Strong Sense of Service". 1990-10-16. Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Republican National Convention, August 20–23, 1956, p. 327. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 338. ^ "Tobacco Victim Nat King Cole". Retrieved 2016-01-31.  ^ Epstein 1999, p. 342. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 347. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018.  ^ Epstein 1999, p. 350. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 355. ^ "Blues News". Billboard. 1965-02-06. p. 28. Retrieved 2015-09-17.  ^ Epstein 1999, p. 356. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 358. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 359. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 360. ^ "Special Awards – Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame". Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame. 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-23.  ^ "Documentary Profiles Nat 'King' Cole". ProQuest. 4 May 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ "Remembering The Legendary Nat King Cole". ProQuest. 23 February 2000. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ "Holiday Airplay". Billboard. January 10, 2015. 

Further reading[edit] Epstein, Daniel Mark (1999). Nat King Cole. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 0-374-21912-5.  Bill Dobbins and Richard Wang. "Cole, Nat ‘King’." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 28 Sep. 2016. Pelote, Vincent. "Book Reviews: "Unforgettable: The Life and Mystique of Nat King Cole," by Leslie Gourse." Notes – Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association, vol. 49, no. 3, 1993., pp. 1073–1074,

External links[edit] Find more aboutNat King Coleat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Nat King Cole at Encyclopædia Britannica Nat King Cole at Find a Grave Nat King Cole on IMDb Nat King Cole at AllMusic Nat King Cole discography at Discogs Nat King Cole at The Nat King Cole Society The Unforgettable Nat King Cole Biography at Tiscali Music Nat "King" Cole article in the Encyclopedia of Alabama "Nat King Cole". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.  Nat King Cole interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969) v t e Nat King Cole Studio albums The King Cole Trio Nat King Cole at the Piano King Cole for Kids Penthouse Serenade Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love The Piano Style of Nat King Cole After Midnight Just One of Those Things Love Is the Thing Cole Español St. Louis Blues The Very Thought of You To Whom It May Concern Welcome to the Club A Mis Amigos Tell Me All About Yourself Every Time I Feel the Spirit Wild Is Love The Magic of Christmas The Nat King Cole Story The Touch of Your Lips Nat King Cole Sings/George Shearing Plays Ramblin' Rose Dear Lonely Hearts More Cole Español Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer Where Did Everyone Go? Nat King Cole Sings My Fair Lady Let's Face the Music! I Don't Want to Be Hurt Anymore L-O-V-E Compilation albums Top Pops Harvest of Hits Unforgettable 10th Anniversary Album Ballads of the Day This Is Nat King Cole The Beautiful Ballads For Sentimental Reasons Love Songs Tribute albums All for You: A Dedication to the Nat King Cole Trio Dear Mr. Cole Inspiration: A Tribute to Nat King Cole The Nat King Cole Songbook P.S. Mr. Cole A Tribute to the Great Nat "King" Cole With Respect to Nat You're Lookin' at Me (A Collection of Nat King Cole Songs) Songs "Mona Lisa" "Night Lights" "To the Ends of the Earth" "Unforgettable" "The Christmas Song" Related articles Discography Maria Cole (wife) Carole Cole (daughter) Natalie Cole (daughter) v t e Natalie Cole Studio albums Inseparable (1975) Natalie (1976) Unpredictable (1977) Thankful (1977) I Love You So (1979) We're the Best of Friends (1979) Don't Look Back (1980) Happy Love (1981) Unforgettable – A Musical Tribute to Nat King Cole (1983) I'm Ready (1983) Dangerous (1985) Everlasting (1987) Good to Be Back (1989) Unforgettable... with Love (1991) Take a Look (1993) Holly & Ivy (1994) Stardust (1996) Snowfall on the Sahara (1999) The Magic of Christmas (1999) Ask a Woman Who Knows (2002) Leavin' (2006) Still Unforgettable (2008) Caroling, Caroling: Christmas with Natalie Cole (2008) Natalie Cole en Español (2013) Compilation albums The Natalie Cole Collection (1987) Live albums Natalie Live! (1978) Singles "This Will Be" "Inseparable" "Sophisticated Lady (She's a Different Lady)" "I've Got Love on My Mind" "Our Love" "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds "What You Won't Do for Love" (with Peabo Bryson) "Pink Cadillac" "When I Fall in Love" "Miss You Like Crazy" "Unforgettable" (with Nat King Cole) "A Smile Like Yours" "Day Dreaming" Filmography Cats Don't Dance (1997) Freak City (1999) De-Lovely (2004) Grey's Anatomy (2006) The Real Housewives of Miami (2011) The Real Housewives of New York City (2011) Related articles Discography Nat King Cole (father) Maria Cole (mother) Carole Cole (sister) Book:Natalie Cole v t e Billboard Year-End number one singles (1946–1959) 1946: "Prisoner of Love" – Perry Como 1947: "Near You" – Francis Craig 1948: "Twelfth Street Rag" – Pee Wee Hunt 1949: "Riders in the Sky" – Vaughn Monroe Orchestra 1950: "Goodnight, Irene" – Gordon Jenkins and The Weavers 1951: "Too Young" – Nat King Cole 1952: "Blue Tango" – Leroy Anderson 1953: "The Song from Moulin Rouge" – Percy Faith 1954: "Little Things Mean a Lot" – Kitty Kallen 1955: "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White" – Pérez Prado 1956: "Heartbreak Hotel" – Elvis Presley 1957: "All Shook Up" – Elvis Presley 1958: "Nel Blu Dipinto di Blu (Volare)" – Domenico Modugno 1959: "The Battle of New Orleans" – Johnny Horton Complete list (1946–1959) (1960–1979) (1980–1999) (2000–2019) v t e Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Class of 2000 Performers Eric Clapton Earth, Wind & Fire (Philip Bailey, Larry Dunn, Johnny Graham, Ralph Johnson, Al McKay, Fred White, Maurice White, Verdine White, Andrew Woolfolk) The Lovin' Spoonful (Steve Boone, Joe Butler, John Sebastian, Zal Yanovsky) The Moonglows (Prentiss Barnes, Harvey Fuqua, Peter Graves, Billy Johnson, Bobby Lester) Bonnie Raitt James Taylor Early influences Nat King Cole Billie Holiday Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award) Clive Davis Sidemen Hal Blaine King Curtis James Jamerson Scotty Moore Earl Palmer Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 34642861 LCCN: n84072857 ISNI: 0000 0001 1489 8972 GND: 11909908X SUDOC: 076127621 BNF: cb13892629p (data) BIBSYS: 1094613 MusicBrainz: fbe054ec-a143-4101-9e9e-64abc5ff5ac9 BNE: XX854430 IATH: w66q29vm Retrieved from "" Categories: Nat King Cole1919 births1965 deathsGrammy Lifetime Achievement Award winnersRock and Roll Hall of Fame inducteesAfrican-American singersAfrican-American jazz pianistsAfrican-American male actorsAfrican-American male singersAfrican-American singer-songwritersAfrican-American songwritersAfrican-American television hostsAfrican-American television personalitiesAmerican baritonesAmerican croonersAmerican gospel singersAmerican jazz pianistsAmerican jazz singersAmerican male film actorsAmerican male pop singersAmerican male singersAmerican pop singersAmerican male television actorsAmerican organistsAmerican performers of Latin musicAmerican pop pianistsAmerican singer-songwritersBig band pianistsSwing pianistsTraditional pop music singersJapanese-language singersSpanish-language singers of the United StatesCapitol Records artistsDecca Records artistsAfrican-American EpiscopaliansAmerican EpiscopaliansDeaths from cancer in CaliforniaDeaths from lung cancerPeople from North Chicago, IllinoisGuitarists from AlabamaGuitarists from ChicagoMale actors from CaliforniaMale actors from ChicagoMale actors from Montgomery, AlabamaMusicians from Montgomery, AlabamaSingers from ChicagoSingers from Los AngelesBurials at Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale)20th-century American Episcopalians20th-century African-American people20th-century American male actors20th-century American pianists20th-century American singersHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2010Articles with dead external links from September 2010Articles with hCardsArticles needing additional references from December 2016All articles needing additional referencesArticles with Encyclopædia Britannica linksFind a Grave template with ID same as WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiersWikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers

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LivingstonFrankie LaineSteve AllenPat BrownGovernor Of CaliforniaJack BennyForest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale)Glendale, CaliforniaL-O-V-E (album)ElectrolaMosaic RecordsCompact DiscLP RecordITunesAmazon MusicNatalie ColeUnforgettable (Nat King Cole Song)Alabama Music Hall Of FameAlabama Jazz Hall Of FameGrammy Lifetime Achievement AwardDown BeatRock And Roll Hall Of FameLatin Songwriters Hall Of FameLatin Music (genre)The Christmas SongNat King Cole DiscographyThe King Cole Trio (album)The King Cole Trio (album)The King Cole Trio (album)The King Cole Trio (album)Nat King Cole At The PianoKing Cole For KidsPenthouse SerenadeTop PopsHarvest Of HitsUnforgettable (Nat King Cole Album)Penthouse SerenadeNat King Cole Sings For Two In LoveThe Piano Style Of Nat King ColeAfter Midnight (Nat King Cole Album)Just One Of Those Things (album)Love Is The ThingCole EspañolSt. Louis Blues (album)The Very Thought Of You (Nat King Cole Album)To Whom It May Concern (Nat King Cole Album)Welcome To The Club (Nat King Cole Album)A Mis AmigosTell Me All About YourselfEvery Time I Feel The SpiritWild Is LoveThe Magic Of Christmas (Nat King Cole Album)The Nat King Cole StoryThe Touch Of Your Lips (album)Nat King Cole Sings/George Shearing PlaysRamblin' Rose (album)Dear Lonely HeartsMore Cole EspañolThose Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days Of SummerWhere Did Everyone Go?Nat King Cole Sings My Fair LadyLet's Face The Music!I Don't Want To Be Hurt AnymoreL-O-V-E (album)Citizen KanePin Up Girl (film)Stars On Parade (1944 Film)Swing In The SaddleBreakfast In HollywoodKiller Diller (1948 Film)Make Believe BallroomThe Blue GardeniaSmall Town Girl (1953 Film)Kiss Me DeadlyRhythm And Blues RevueRock 'n' Roll RevueThe Scarlet HourBasin Street RevueIstanbul (film)China Gate (1957 Film)St. Louis Blues (1958 Film)W. 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HandyCat BallouThe Ed Sullivan ShowTexaco Star TheatreThe Jackie Gleason ShowThe Red Skelton ShowWhat's My Line?The Colgate Comedy HourFord Star JubileeThe Dinah Shore Chevy ShowThe Steve Allen ShowThis Is Your LifeThe Garry Moore ShowBBCThe Danny Kaye ShowThe Jack Benny Program (television Series)Book:Nat King ColePortal:MusicPortal:BiographyList Of African-American FirstsList Of FreemasonsWayback MachineWikipedia:Link RotInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780313341120International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780870675935International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781439634646International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781600377822Internet ArchiveMaria ColeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0688021535Billboard (magazine)John GillilandPop ChroniclesUniversity Of North Texas LibrariesSt. Martin's PressWayback MachineBillboard BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8230-7672-5The Birmingham NewsWikipedia:Link RotOxford University PressUniversity Of Chicago PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0226511758Billboard (magazine)Billboard (magazine)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-374-21912-5Wikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsEncyclopædia BritannicaFind A GraveIMDbAllMusicDiscogsNPRRock And Roll Hall Of FamePop ChroniclesTemplate:Nat King ColeTemplate Talk:Nat King ColeStudio AlbumThe King Cole Trio (album)Nat King Cole At The PianoKing Cole For KidsPenthouse SerenadeNat King Cole Sings For Two In LoveThe Piano Style Of Nat King ColeAfter Midnight (Nat King Cole Album)Just One Of Those Things (album)Love Is The ThingCole EspañolSt. Louis Blues (album)The Very Thought Of You (Nat King Cole Album)To Whom It May Concern (Nat King Cole Album)Welcome To The Club (Nat King Cole Album)A Mis AmigosTell Me All About YourselfEvery Time I Feel The SpiritWild Is LoveThe Magic Of Christmas (Nat King Cole Album)The Nat King Cole StoryThe Touch Of Your Lips (album)Nat King Cole Sings/George Shearing PlaysRamblin' Rose (album)Dear Lonely HeartsMore Cole EspañolThose Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days Of Summer (album)Where Did Everyone Go?Nat King Cole Sings My Fair LadyLet's Face The Music!I Don't Want To Be Hurt AnymoreL-O-V-E (album)Top PopsHarvest Of HitsUnforgettable (Nat King Cole Album)10th Anniversary Album (Nat King Cole Album)Ballads Of The DayThis Is Nat King ColeThe Beautiful BalladsFor Sentimental Reasons (Nat King Cole Album)Love Songs (Nat King Cole Album)All For You: A Dedication To The Nat King Cole TrioDear Mr. ColeInspiration: A Tribute To Nat King ColeThe Nat King Cole SongbookP.S. Mr. ColeA Tribute To The Great Nat "King" ColeWith Respect To NatYou're Lookin' At Me (A Collection Of Nat King Cole Songs)Mona Lisa (Nat King Cole Song)Night Lights (Nat King Cole Song)To The Ends Of The Earth (Nat King Cole Song)Unforgettable (Nat King Cole Song)The Christmas SongNat King Cole DiscographyMaria ColeCarole ColeNatalie ColeTemplate:Natalie ColeTemplate Talk:Natalie ColeNatalie ColeInseparable (album)Natalie (Natalie Cole Album)Unpredictable (Natalie Cole Album)Thankful (Natalie Cole Album)I Love You SoWe're The Best Of FriendsDon't Look Back (Natalie Cole Album)Happy LoveUnforgettable – A Musical Tribute To Nat King ColeI'm Ready (Natalie Cole Album)Dangerous (Natalie Cole Album)Everlasting (Natalie Cole Album)Good To Be BackUnforgettable... 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