Contents 1 History 2 Varieties 3 See also 4 References

History[edit] Mustard Plant and Butterflies, early or middle Ming dynasty c. 1368–1550 (LACMA) Flower of Mustard Plant Although some varieties of mustard plants were well-established crops in Hellenistic and Roman times, Zohary and Hopf note, "There are almost no archeological records available for any of these crops." Wild forms of mustard and its relatives, the radish and turnip, can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However, Zohary and Hopf conclude: "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations."[1] Encyclopædia Britannica states that mustard was grown by the Indus Civilization of 2500-1700 BCE.[2] According to the Saskatchewan Mustard Development Commission, "Some of the earliest known documentation of mustard's use dates back to Sumerian and Sanskrit texts from 3000 BC".[3]

Varieties[edit] Wild white mustard (Sinapis alba) Mild white mustard (Sinapis hirta) grows wild in North Africa, the Middle East, and Mediterranean Europe, and has spread farther by long cultivation; oriental mustard (Brassica juncea), originally from the foothills of the Himalaya, is grown commercially in India, Canada, the UK, Denmark, and the US; black mustard (Brassica nigra) is grown in Argentina, Chile, the US and some European countries. Canada and Nepal are the world's major producers of mustard seed, between them accounting for around 57% of world production in 2010.[4] White mustard (Sinapis alba) is commonly used as a cover crop in Europe (between UK and Ukraine). A large number of varieties exist, e.g. in Germany, Netherlands, mainly differing in lateness of flowering and resistance against white beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii). Farmers prefer late flowering varieties, which do not produce seeds, they may become weeds in the subsequent year. Early vigour is important to cover the soil quickly and suppress weeds and protect the soil against erosion. In rotations with sugar beets, suppression of the white beet-cyst nematode is an important trait. Resistant white mustard varieties decline nematode populations by 70-90%. Recent research has studied varieties of mustards with high oil contents for use in the production of biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel similar to diesel fuel. The biodiesel made from mustard oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. The leftover meal after pressing out the oil has also been found to be an effective pesticide.[5] A genetic relationship between many species of mustard, along with turnips, cabbage, and their respective derivatives, has been observed and is described as the triangle of U. Black mustard seeds (about 2–3 mm in diameter)

See also[edit] Green manure List of mustard brands

References[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brassica. ^ Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria; Weiss, Ehud (2012). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin (Fourth ed.). Oxford: University Press. p. 139.  ^ "Indus civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 16 March 2016 <>. ^ "What is Mustard?". Saskatchewan Mustard Development Commission. Mustard Consumer Website. SMDC 2011. Web. 16 March 2016 <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-25. Retrieved 2016-03-16. >. ^ "FAOSTAT Countries by Commodity". UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2012-05-08.  ^ v t e Brassica Brassica carinata Brassica elongata Brassica fruticulosa Brassica hilarionis Brassica juncea Brassica napus Brassica nigra Brassica oleracea Brassica rapa Brassica tournefortii Bomdong Canola Chinese cabbage Bok choy Napa cabbage Choy sum Collard greens Kohlrabi Mustard plant Rapeseed Rapini Rutabaga Spring greens Tatsoi Triangle of U Turnip Brassicaceae (Cruciferous vegetables): Brassica Raphanus Cruciferous Biochemistry genera (list) v t e TRP channel modulators TRPA Activators 4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin (garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate (mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene (cannabis) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) CR gas (dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas (2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin (turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine (Lindera spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool (Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate (wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine (tobacco) Oleocanthal (olive oil) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide (onion) Umbellulone (Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2 Blockers Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine (tobacco) Ruthenium red TRPC Activators Adhyperforin (St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin (St John's wort) Substance P Blockers DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid TRPM Activators ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium (intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol (eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol (mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23 Blockers Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine (tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO TRPML Activators MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22 TRPP Activators Triptolide (Tripterygium wilfordii) Blockers Ruthenium red TRPV Activators 2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin (garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor (camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol (cannabis) Cannabidivarin (cannabis) Capsaicin (chili pepper) Carvacrol (oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol (basil, clove) Evodiamine (Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin (chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Incensole (incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol (mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide (PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper) Paclitaxel (Pacific yew) Paracetamol (acetaminophen) Phorbol esters (e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine (black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin (RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin (cannabis) Thymol (thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin (vanilla) Zucapsaicin Blockers α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol (cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol (cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators Retrieved from "" Categories: BrassicaEdible nuts and seedsLeaf vegetablesMedicinal plantsPlant common names

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