Contents 1 Etymology and names 2 History 2.1 Moldavian period 2.2 Imperial period 2.2.1 Pogroms and pre-revolution 2.3 Romanian period 2.4 World War II 2.5 Soviet period 2.6 After independence 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Law and government 4.1 Municipality 4.1.1 Cities/towns 4.1.2 Communes 4.2 Administration 4.3 Local government 5 Economy 6 Demographics 6.1 Ethnic composition 6.2 Languages 6.3 Religion 7 Cityscape 7.1 Architecture 8 Culture and education 8.1 Events and festivals 8.2 In popular culture 9 Media 10 Politics 10.1 Elections 11 Transport 11.1 Airport 11.2 Road 11.3 Rail 11.4 Public transport 11.4.1 Trolleybuses 11.4.2 Buses 11.4.3 Minibuses 11.5 Traffic 12 Sport 13 Personalities 13.1 Natives 13.2 Residents 14 International relations 14.1 Twin towns – sister cities 15 Notes and references 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology and names[edit] The origin of the city's name is unclear, but in one version, the name comes from the archaic Romanian word chișla (meaning "spring", "source of water") and nouă ("new"), because it was built around a small spring, at the corner of Pușkin and Albișoara streets.[6] The other version, formulated by Ștefan Ciobanu, Romanian historian and academician, holds that the name was formed the same way as the name of Chișineu (alternative spelling: Chișinău) in Western Romania, near the border with Hungary. Its Hungarian name is Kisjenő, from which the Romanian name originates.[7] Kisjenő comes from kis "small" and the "Jenő", one of the seven Hungarian tribes that entered the Carpathian Basin in 896. At least 24 other settlements are named after the "Jenő" tribe.[8][9] Chișinău is known in Russian as Кишинёв (Kishinyov [kʲiʂɨˈnʲɔf]]). It is written Kişinöv in the Latin Gagauz alphabet. It was also written as "Chișineu" in pre-20th-century Romanian[10] and as "Кишинэу" in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet. Historically, the English language name for the city, "Kishinev", was based on the modified Russian one because it entered the English language via Russian at the time Chișinău was part of the Russian Empire (e.g. Kishinev pogrom). Therefore, it remains a common English name in some historical contexts. Otherwise, the Romanian-based "Chișinău" has been steadily gaining wider currency, especially in written language. The city is also historically referred to as German: Kischinau, Polish: Kiszyniów, Ukrainian: Кишинів, or Yiddish: קעשענעװ‎, translit. Keshenev.

History[edit] Main articles: History of Chișinău and Timeline of Chișinău This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Moldavian period[edit] Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia (which, starting with the 16th century fell under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire). At the beginning of the 19th century Chișinău was a small town of 7,000 inhabitants. In 1812, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812), the eastern half of Moldavia was ceded to the Russian Empire and Chișinău became the capital of the newly annexed oblast of Bessarabia. Imperial period[edit] Chișinău, 1889 By 1834, an imperial townscape with broad and long roads had emerged as a result of a generous development plan, which divided Chișinău roughly into two areas: the old part of the town, with its irregular building structures, and a newer city center and station. Between 26 May 1830 and 13 October 1836 the architect Avraam Melnikov established the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului with a magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the building of the Triumphal arch, planned by the architect Luca Zaushkevich, was completed. Following this the construction of numerous buildings and landmarks began. On 28 August 1871, Chișinău was linked by rail with Tiraspol, and in 1873 with Cornești. Chișinău-Ungheni-Iași railway was opened on 1 June 1875 in preparation for the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). The town played an important part in the war between Russia and Ottoman Empire, as the main staging area of the Russian invasion. During the Belle Époque, the mayor of the city was Carol Schmidt, considered one of Chisinau's best mayors. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862, and to 125,787 by 1900.[11] Pogroms and pre-revolution[edit] Main article: Kishinev pogrom In the late 19th century, especially due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chișinău. By the year 1900, 43% of the population of Chișinău was Jewish — one of the highest numbers in Europe.[citation needed] A large anti-Semitic riot took place in the town on 6–7 April 1903, which would later be known as the Kishinev pogrom. The rioting continued for three days, resulting in 47 Jews dead, 92 severely wounded, and 500 suffering minor injuries. In addition, several hundred houses and many businesses were plundered and destroyed. The pogroms are largely believed to have been incited by anti-Jewish propaganda in the only official newspaper of the time, Bessarabetz (Бессарабецъ). Mayor Schmidt disapproved of the incident and resigned later in 1903. The reactions to this incident included a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on behalf of the American people by the US President Theodore Roosevelt in July 1905.[12] On 22 August 1905 another violent event occurred: The police opened fire on an estimated 3,000 demonstrating agricultural workers. Only a few months later, 19–20 October 1905, a further protest occurred, helping to force the hand of Nicholas II in bringing about the October Manifesto. However, these demonstrations suddenly turned into another anti-Jewish pogrom, resulting in 19 deaths.[12] Romanian period[edit] Stephen the Great Monument Following the Russian October Revolution, Bessarabia declared independence from the crumbling empire, as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, before joining the Kingdom of Romania. Romania granted important subsidies to its province and initiated large scale investment programs in the infrastructure of the main cities in Basarabia and Northern Bucovina, expanded the railroad infrastructure and started an extensive program to eradicate illiteracy. Only with the advent of modern technology and industrialization, it slowly rose into prominence.[citation needed] As of 1919, Chișinău had an estimated population of 133,000.[13] Between 1918 and 1940 the center of the city undertook large renovation work. In 1927 the Stephen the Great Monument, by the sculptor Alexandru Plămădeală, was erected. World War II[edit] Eternity – a memorial complex dedicated to the soldiers who fell in World War II and the military conflict in Transnistria State Art Museum, during the Cold War period Chișinău at night in 1980 Dacia Boulevard in Botanica District In the chaos of the Second World War Chișinău was almost completely destroyed.[citation needed].A devastating earthquake occurred on 10 November 1940. The epicenter of the quake, which measured 7.3 on the Richter scale, was in eastern Romania and subsequently led to substantial destruction. After scarcely one year, the assault on the newly created Moldavian SSR by the German and Romanian armies began. Beginning with June 1941 the city came under bombardment by Nazi air raids. However, Romanian sources assign most of the responsibility for the damage to Soviet NKVD destruction battalions, that operated in Chișinău until 17 July 1941, when it was captured by invading Axis forces.[14] Following the German occupation, the city suffered from the Nazi extermination policy of its Jewish inhabitants, who were transported on trucks to the outskirts of the city and then summarily shot in partially dug pits. The number of Jews murdered during the initial occupation of the city is estimated at approximately 10,000 people.[15] As the war drew to a conclusion, the city was once more pulled into heavy fighting as German and Romanian troops retreated. Chișinău was taken by the Red Army on 24 August 1944 as a result of the Jassy-Kishinev Operation. After the war, Bessarabia was fully integrated into the Soviet Union. Most of Bessarabia became the Moldavian SSR with Chișinău as its capital; around 30% of Bessarabia became parts of the Ukrainian SSR. Soviet period[edit] In the years 1947 to 1949 the architect Alexey Shchusev developed a plan with the aid of a team of architects for the gradual reconstruction of the city.[citation needed] There was rapid population growth in the 1950s, to which the Soviet administration responded by constructing large-scale housing and palaces in the style of Stalinist architecture. This process continued under Nikita Khrushchev, who called for construction under the slogan "good, cheaper and built faster". The new architectural style brought about dramatic change and generated the style that dominates today, with large blocks of flats arranged in considerable settlements.[citation needed] The period of the most significant redevelopment of the city extended from 1971, when the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union adopted a decision "On the measures for further development of the city of Kishinev", which secured more than one billion rubles in investment from the state budget,[16] which continued until the independence of Moldova in 1991. Currently, the share of dwellings built during the Soviet period (1951-1990) represents 74,3% of total households.[17] On 4 March 1977 the city was again jolted by a terrible earthquake. Several people were killed and panic broke out. After independence[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012) Many streets of Chișinău are named after historic persons, places or events. Independence from the Soviet Union was followed by a large-scale renaming of streets and localities from a Communist theme into a national one.[citation needed]

Geography[edit] Chișinău is located on the river Bâc, a tributary of the Dniester, at 47°0′N 28°55′E / 47.000°N 28.917°E / 47.000; 28.917, with an area of 120 square kilometres (46 sq mi). The municipality comprises 635 square kilometres (245 sq mi). The city lies in central Moldova and is surrounded by a relatively level landscape with very fertile ground. Climate[edit] Botanical garden Chișinău has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa characterized by warm summers and cool, windy winters. Winter minimum temperatures are often below 0 °C (32 °F), although they rarely drop below −10 °C (14 °F). In summer, the average maximum temperature is approximately 25 °C (77 °F), however, temperatures occasionally reach 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F) in mid-summer in downtown. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is relatively low, there are infrequent yet heavy storms. Spring and autumn temperatures vary between 16 to 24 °C (61 to 75 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be lower than in summer but with more frequent yet milder periods of rain. Climate data for Chișinău (1981–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 15.5 (59.9) 20.7 (69.3) 25.7 (78.3) 31.6 (88.9) 35.9 (96.6) 37.5 (99.5) 39.4 (102.9) 39.2 (102.6) 37.3 (99.1) 32.6 (90.7) 23.6 (74.5) 18.3 (64.9) 39.4 (102.9) Average high °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 2.6 (36.7) 8.1 (46.6) 15.6 (60.1) 21.9 (71.4) 25.2 (77.4) 27.5 (81.5) 27.2 (81) 21.5 (70.7) 15.2 (59.4) 7.4 (45.3) 2.2 (36) 14.6 (58.3) Daily mean °C (°F) −1.9 (28.6) −0.8 (30.6) 3.7 (38.7) 10.4 (50.7) 16.5 (61.7) 19.9 (67.8) 22.1 (71.8) 21.7 (71.1) 16.3 (61.3) 10.5 (50.9) 4.1 (39.4) −0.6 (30.9) 10.2 (50.4) Average low °C (°F) −4.3 (24.3) −3.6 (25.5) 0.2 (32.4) 6.0 (42.8) 11.6 (52.9) 15.2 (59.4) 17.3 (63.1) 16.9 (62.4) 12.0 (53.6) 6.8 (44.2) 1.5 (34.7) −3.0 (26.6) 6.4 (43.5) Record low °C (°F) −28.4 (−19.1) −28.9 (−20) −21.1 (−6) −6.6 (20.1) −1.1 (30) 3.6 (38.5) 7.8 (46) 5.5 (41.9) −2.4 (27.7) −10.8 (12.6) −21.6 (−6.9) −22.4 (−8.3) −28.9 (−20) Average precipitation mm (inches) 36 (1.42) 31 (1.22) 34 (1.34) 40 (1.57) 48 (1.89) 66 (2.6) 64 (2.52) 56 (2.2) 51 (2.01) 37 (1.46) 38 (1.5) 41 (1.61) 542 (21.34) Average rainy days 8 7 11 13 14 14 12 10 10 11 12 10 132 Average snowy days 13 13 8 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.4 5 11 51 Average relative humidity (%) 82 78 71 63 60 63 62 60 66 73 81 83 70 Mean monthly sunshine hours 75 80 125 187 254 283 299 295 226 169 75 58 2,126 Source #1:[18] Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[19]

Law and government[edit] Chișinău City Hall. Municipality[edit] Moldova is administratively subdivided into 3 municipalities, 32 districts, and 2 autonomous units. With a population of 662,836 inhabitants (as of 2014), the Municipality of Chișinău (which includes the nearby communities) is the largest of these municipalities.[20] Besides the city itself, the municipality comprises 34 other suburban localities: 6 towns (containing further 2 villages within), and 12 communes (containing further 14 villages within). The population, as of 2014 census,[5] is shown in brackets: Cities/towns[edit] Chișinău (532,513) Codru (15,934) Cricova (10,669) Durlești (17,210) Sîngera (9,966) Dobrogea Revaca Vadul lui Vodă (5,295) Vatra (3,457) Communes[edit] Băcioi (10,175) Brăila Frumușica Străisteni Bubuieci (8,047) Bîc Humulești Budești (4,928) Văduleni Ciorescu (5,961) Făurești Goian Colonița (3,367) Condrița (595) Cruzești (1,815) Ceroborta Ghidighici (5,051) Grătiești (6,183) Hulboaca Stăuceni (8,694) Goianul Nou Tohatin (2,596) Buneți Cheltuitori Trușeni (10,380) Dumbrava Administration[edit] Administrative sectors of Chișinău: 1-Centru, 2-Buiucani, 3-Rîșcani, 4-Botanica, 5-Ciocana. Chișinău is governed by the City Council and the City Mayor (Romanian: Primar), both elected once every four years. The current mayor is Dorin Chirtoacă. His predecessor was Serafim Urechean. Under the Moldovan constitution, Urechean — elected to parliament in 2005 — was unable to hold an additional post to that of an MP. The Democratic Moldova Bloc leader subsequently accepted his mandate and in April resigned from his former position. During his 11-year term, Urechean committed himself to the restoration of the church tower of the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului and improvements in public transport. The current mayor, Dorin Chirtoacă from the Liberal party, took office after elections in June 2007. Chirtoacă won reelections in June 2011, and June 2015. Local government[edit] The municipality in its totality elects a mayor and a local council, which then name five pretors, one for each sector. They deal more locally with administrative matters. Each sector claims a part of the city and several suburbs:[21] Centru Codru Buiucani Durlești Vatra Condrița Ghidighici Trușeni Dumbrava Rîșcani Cricova Ciorescu Făurești Goian Grătiești Hulboaca Stăuceni Goianul Nou Botanica Sîngera Dobrogea Revaca Băcioi Brăila Frumușica Străisteni Ciocana Vadul lui Vodă Bubuieci Bîc Humulești Budești, Văduleni Colonița Cruzești Ceroborta Tohatin Buneți Cheltuitori

Economy[edit] Historically, the city was home to fourteen factories in 1919.[13] Chișinău is the financial and business capital of Moldova. Its GDP comprises about 60% of national economy[22] reached in 2012 the amount of 52 billion lei (US $4 billion). Thus, the GDP per capita of Chișinău stood at 227% of the Moldova's average. Chișinău has the largest and most developed mass media sector in Moldova, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to major newspapers. All national and international banks (15) have their headquarters located in Chișinău. Notable sites around Chișinău include the cinema Patria, the new malls Malldova, Megapolis Mall and best-known retailers, such as N1, Fidesco, Green Hills, Fourchette and Metro. While many locals continue to shop at the bazaars, many upper class residents and tourists shop at the retail stores and at Malldova. Elăt, an older mall in the Botanica district, and Sun City, in the center, are more popular with locals. Several amusement parks exist around the city. A Soviet era one is in the Botanica district, along the three lakes of a major park, which reaches the outskirts of the city center. Another, the modern Aventura Park, is located farther from the center. A circus, which used to be in a grand building in the Rîșcani sector, has been inactive for several years due to a poorly funded renovation project.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit] City of Chișinău Year Pop. ±% 1812[23] 7,000 —     1818[23] 10,966 +56.7% 1835[23] 34,079 +210.8% 1847[23] 43,965 +29.0% 1851 58,849 +33.9% 1865 94,047 +59.8% 1897(c)[24] 108,483 +15.3% 1912 121,000 +11.5% 1930(c)[24] 114,896 −5.0% 1950 134,000 +16.6% 1963 253,500 +89.2% 1980 519,200 +104.8% 1991 676,700 +30.3% 2004(c)[25] 589,446 −12.9% 2014(c)[3] 532,513 −9.7% 2017(e)[26] 685,900 +28.8% c-census; e-estimate Municipality of Chișinău Year Pop. ±% 1959 258,910 —     1970 415,956 +60.7% 1979 589,140 +41.6% 1989 770,948 +30.9% 2004 712,218 −7.6% 2014 662,836 −6.9% Source: Censuses[3] According to the results of the last Moldovan census, conducted in May 2014, 532,513 inhabitants live within the Chișinău city limits. This represents a 9.7% drop in the number of residents as opposed to the results of the 2004 Census. Natural statistics (2015):[27] Births: 6845 (9.8 per 1,000) Deaths: 6,433 (7.7 per 1,000) Net Growth rate: 412 (2.1 per 1,000) Population by sector: Sector Population (2004 cen.)[27] Population (2015 est.)[27] Botanica 156,633 220,000 Buiucani 107,744 160,100 Centru 90,494 110,300 Ciocana 101,834 152,000 Rîșcani 132,740 162,493 Ethnic composition[edit] Ethnic group1 Population  % of total* Moldovans2 304,816 67.17% Romanians2 65,573 14.45% Russians 42,157 9.29% Ukrainians 26,955 5.94% Bulgarians 4,810 1.06% Gagauz 3,085 0.68% Others 6,398 1.41% Footnotes: 1Source: 2014 census results 2Since the independence of Moldova, there is an ongoing controversy over whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group. These percentages are for the 469,402 reviewed citizens in the 2014 census that answered the ethnicity question. An additional estimated 193,434 inhabitants of the Municipality of Chișinău weren't reviewed. Languages[edit] The following table details the population in the Municipality of Chișinău, by native language, as reported in the 2014 Census. Maternal language1  % of total population Romanian2 43.4% Moldovan2 33.0% Russian 20.8% Ukrainian 1.7% Bulgarian 0.4% Gagauz 0.3% Others 0.4% Footnotes: 1Source: 2014 census results 2In Moldova, Romanian and Moldovan languages designate the same language. Religion[edit] Chișinău is the seat of the Moldovan Orthodox Church, as well as of the Metropolis of Bessarabia. The city has multiple churches and synagogues.[13] Christians –90.0% Orthodox Christians –88.4% Protestant –1.2% Baptists – 0.6% Evangelicals –0.4% Pentecostals –0.2% Seventh-day Adventists 0.1% Roman Catholics –0.4% Other – 1.0 % No religion –1.4% Atheists –1.5% Undeclared –6.1%

Cityscape[edit] Panorama of Chișinău Architecture[edit] See also: Wooden church of Hirișeni Apartment buildings in Chișinău Chișinău's growth plan was developed in the 19th century. In 1836 the construction of the Kishinev Cathedral and its belfry was finished. The belfry was demolished in Soviet times and was rebuilt in 1997. Chișinău also displays a tremendous number of orthodox churches and 19th century buildings around the city such as Ciuflea Monastery or the Transfiguration Church. Much of the city is made from limestone dug from Cricova[when?], leaving a famous wine cellar there. Many modern-style buildings have been built in the city since 1991. There are many office and shopping complexes that are modern, renovated or newly built, including Kentford, SkyTower, and Union Fenosa headquarters. However, the old Soviet-style clusters of living blocks are still an extensive feature of the cityscape.

Culture and education[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2011) See also: List of public schools in Chișinău and List of universities in Moldova National Museum of History of Moldova National Opera and Ballet Theatre The city is home to 12 public and 11 private universities, the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, a number of institutions offering high school and 1–2 years of college education. In Chișinău there are several museums. The three national museums are The National Museum of Ethnography & Natural History, the National Museum of Arts and the National Museum of Archaeology & History. Events and festivals[edit] Chișinău, as well as Moldova as a whole, still show signs of ethnic culture. Signs that say "Patria Mea" (English: My homeland) can be found all over the capital. While few people still wear traditional Moldavian attire, large public events often draw in such original costumes. Moldova National Wine Day and Wine Festival take place every year in the first weekend of October, in Chișinău. The events celebrate the autumn harvest and recognizes the country's long history of winemaking, which dates back some 500 years.[28][29] In popular culture[edit] The city is the main setting of the 2016 Netflix film Spectral, which takes place in the near future during the fictional Moldovan War.

Media[edit] The majority of Moldova's media industry is based in Chișinău. There are almost 30 FM-radio stations and 10 TV-channels activating in Chișinău. The first radio station in Chișinău, Radio Basarabia, was launched by the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company on 8 October 1939, when the religious service was broadcast on air from the Nativity Cathedral. The first TV station in the city, Moldova 1, was launched on 30 April 1958, while Nicolae Lupan was serving as the redactor-in-chief of TeleRadio-Moldova.[30] The state national broadcaster in the country is the state-owned Moldova 1, which has its head office in the city. The broadcasts of TeleradioMoldova have been criticized by the Independent Journalism Center as showing 'bias' towards the authorities.[31] Other TV channels based in Chișinău are Pro TV Chișinău, PRIME, Jurnal TV, Publika TV, CTC, DTV, Euro TV, TV8, etc. In addition to television, most Moldovan radio and newspaper companies have their headquarters in the city. Broadcasters include the national radio Vocea Basarabiei, Prime FM, BBC Moldova, Radio Europa Libera, Kiss FM Chișinău, Pro FM Chișinău, Radio 21, Fresh FM, Radio Nova, Russkoye Radio, Hit FM Moldova, and many others. The biggest broadcasters are SunTV, StarNet (IPTV), Moldtelecom (IPTV), Satellit and Zebra TV. In 2007 SunTV and Zebra launched digital TV cable networks.

Politics[edit] Presidential palace in Chisinau. Parliament elections results Year AEI PCRM 2010 54.22% 234,156 40.19% 173,570 July 2009 56.20% 215,443 41.23% 158,034 April 2009 47.99% 176,742 42.43% 153,227 Electoral and political Chișinău given a higher priority for the center-right parties, in principle AEI. PCRM the main opposition party, has a large percentage in the city, but its support base in the city is dwindling. Elections[edit] e • d  Summary of 28 November 2010 Parliament of Moldova election results in Chișinău Municipality Parties and coalitions Votes % +/− Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 173,570 40.19 −1.04 Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova 122,845 28.44 +11.55 Liberal Party 69,266 16.04 −7.10 Democratic Party of Moldova 35,369 8,19 -2.36 Party Alliance Our Moldova 6,676 1.15 −4.47 Other Party (<1.0%) 24,259 5.59 +3.02 Total (turnout 67.59%) 433,974 100.00

Transport[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Chișinău International Airport Chișinău Railway Station, exterior Trolleybus on the street Airport[edit] Chișinău International Airport offers connections to major destinations, within Europe and Asia. The Air Moldova and Fly-One flight operators has their head offices, as well as Wizz-Air has its hub on the grounds of Chișinău International Airport.[32] Road[edit] The most popular form of internal transport in Moldova is generally the bus.[citation needed] Although the city has just three main terminals, buses generally serve as the means of transport between cities in and outside of Moldova. Popular destinations include Tiraspol, Odessa (Ukraine), Iași and Bucharest (Romania). Rail[edit] The second most popular form of domestic transportation within Moldova is via railways. The total length of the network managed by Moldovan Railway CFM (as of 2009[update]) is 1,232 kilometers (766 miles). The entire network is single track and is not electrified. The central hub of all railways is Chișinău Central Railway Station. There is another smaller railway station - Revaca located on the city's ends. Chișinău Railway Station has an international railway terminal with connections to Bucharest, Kiev, Minsk, Odessa, Moscow, Samara, Varna and St. Petersburg. Due to the simmering conflict between Moldova and the unrecognised Transnistria republic the rail traffic towards Ukraine is occasionally stopped.[citation needed] Public transport[edit] Trolleybuses[edit] See also: Trolleybuses in Chișinău There is wide trolleybus network operating as common public transportation within city. From 1994, Chișinău saw the establishment of new trolleybus lines, as well as an increase in capacity of existing lines, to improve connections between the urban districts. The network comprises 22 trolleybus lines being 246 km (153 mi) in length. Trolleybuses run between 06:00 and 00:00. There are 320 units daily operating in Chișinău. However the requirements are as minimum as 600 units. Trolleybus ticket costs at about 2 lei (ca. $0.11). It is the cheapest method of transport within Chișinău municipality. Buses[edit] There are 29 lines of buses within Chișinău municipality. At each public transportation stops there is attached a schedule for buses and trolleybuses. There are approximately 330 public transportation stops within Chișinău municipality. There is a big lack of buses inside city limits, with only 115 buses operating within Chișinău.[33] Minibuses[edit] In Chișinău and its suburbs, privately operated minibuses known as "rutieras" generally follow the major bus and trolleybus routes and appear more frequently.[34] As of October 2017, there are 1100 units of minibuses operating within Chișinău. Minibuses services are priced the same as buses - 3 lei for a ticket (ca. $0.18).[35] Traffic[edit] Traffic jam in Chisinau The city traffic becomes more congested as each year passes. Nowadays there are about 300,000 cars in the city plus 100,000 transit transports coming to the city each day.[citation needed] The number of personal transports is expected to reach 550,000 (without transit) by 2025.[citation needed].

Sport[edit] FC Zimbru Stadium There are three professional football clubs in Chișinău, all playing in the Divizia Națională (national league): Zimbru, Dacia and Academia. Of the larger public multiuse stadiums in the city is the Stadionul Dinamo (Dinamo Stadium), which has a capacity of 2,692. The Zimbru Stadium, opened in May 2006 with a capacity of 10,500 sitting places, meets all the requirements for holding official international matches, and was the venue for all Moldova's Euro 2008 qualifying games. Currently there are discussions to build a new modern olympic stadium with capacity of circa 25,000 seats, that would meet all international requirements.

Personalities[edit] Natives[edit] Andrew Rayel, Stage name of Andrei Rata, Moldovan DJ Alexander Ulanovsky, the chief illegal "rezident" for Soviet Military Intelligence (GRU), prisoner in the Soviet gulag Olga Bancic, known for her role in the French Resistance during World War II Maria Cebotari, Romanian soprano and actress, one of Europe's greatest opera stars in the 1930s and 1940s William F. Friedman, American cryptologist Anatole Jakovsky, French art critic Avigdor Lieberman, Israeli politician Boris Mints - Russian billionaire Lewis Milestone, American motion picture director Sacha Moldovan, American expressionist and post-impressionist painter Ilya Oleynikov, comic actor and television personality Nina Pekerman, Israeli triathlete Maria Winetzkaja, American opera singer in the 1910s-1920s Sam Zemurray, American businessman who made his fortune in the banana trade Residents[edit] Gheorghe Botezatu American engineer, businessman and pioneer of helicopter flight Eugen Doga, composer Israel Gohberg, Soviet and Israeli mathematician Dovid Knut, poet and member of the French Resistance Sigmund Mogulesko, singer, actor, and composer SunStroke Project, Moldovan representative for both the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 and the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 Zlata Tkach, composer and music educator

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Moldova Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Chișinău is twinned with:[36] Grenoble, France (1977)[37] Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom (1982) Reggio Emilia, Italy (1989) Mannheim, Germany (1989)[38] Sacramento, California (1990) Odessa, Ukraine (1994) Bucharest, Romania (1999) Kiev, Ukraine (1999) Yerevan, Armenia (2000)[39][40] Minsk, Belarus (2000)[41] Tel Aviv, Israel (2000) Patras, Greece (2004) Ankara, Turkey (2004)[42] Iași, Romania (2008) Tbilisi, Georgia (2011) Alba Iulia, Romania (2011) Chernivtsi, Ukraine (2014)

Notes and references[edit] ^ Brezianu, Andrei; Spânu, Vlad (2010). The A to Z of Moldova. Scarecrow Press. p. 81. ISBN 9781461672036. Retrieved 26 December 2013.  ^ "Planul Urbanistic General al Municipiului Chișinău" (Press release). Chișinău City Hall. Retrieved 20 January 2013.  ^ a b c d "Principalele rezultate ale RPL 2014" (Press release). National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ "Populaţia şi procesele demografice". National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ a b "Population by commune, sex and age groups" (Press release). National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ (in Romanian) History of Chișinău Archived 22 July 2003 at the Wayback Machine. on, Retrieved on 12 October 2008 ^ (in Romanian) "Istoria Orașului I". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2010-06-11. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Transindex - Határon túli magyar helységnévszótár". Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ "Racz Anita" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ Zamfir C. Arbure (1 January 1898). "Basarabia in secolul XIX ..." C. Göbl – via Internet Archive.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition ^ a b "VIRTUAL KISHINEV - 1903 Pogrom". 1905-08-19. Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ a b c Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 12.  ^ Virgil Pâslariuc. "Cine a devastat Chișinăul în iulie 1941?" (in Romanian) ^ "Memories of the Holocaust: Kishinev (Chișinău) (1941–1944)", ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-11.  ^ "Energy consumption in households". Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ "" (in Russian). Погода и климат. May 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ "Kisinev Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ Moldovan Law 764-XV from 27 December 2001, Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no. 16/53, 29 December 2001 ^ Moldovan Law 431-XIII from 19 April 1995 Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no. 31-32/340, 9 June 1995 (in Romanian) ^ "CHIŞINĂU ÎN CIFRE : ANUAR STATISTIC" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ a b c d "Evoluţia demografică a oraşelor basarabene în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea". Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ a b "Jewish Population in Bessarabia and Transnistria - Geographical". Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ Statistics, National Bureau of (30 September 2009). "// Population Census 2004".  ^ "Populatia stabila pe orase si raioane, la 1 ianuarie, 2005-2017" [Permanent population in cities and districts on January 1, 2005-2017]. National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ a b c "Chisinau in cifre. Anuar statistic 2012" (PDF) (Press release). National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova.  ^ "Moldova's 'National Wine Day'". 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ "National Wine Day in Chisinau". Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-08.  ^ "Monitoring of programs on Radio Moldova and TV Moldova 1" (PDF). Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 2006-11-29. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Air Moldova :: Contacts". Retrieved 2016-12-17.  ^ ^ "Chisinau." Chisinau Infos. World Infos, n.d. Web. 9 November 2016. ^ "Numărul microbuzelor care circulă pe itinerarele din capitală s-a micșorat cu 600 de unități". Moldpres. 2017-09-25. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2017-10-06.  ^ "Orașe înfrățite (Twin cities of Chișinău) [via]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chișinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Retrieved 16 May 2013.  ^ "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim (in German). Retrieved 2013-07-26.  ^ listed on Yerevan Municipality Official Website as Kishinev. ^ "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 Retrieved 2013-11-04.  ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via]" (in Turkish). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 

Further reading[edit] Moldova portal Hamm, Michael F. (March 1998). "Kishinev: The character and development of a Tsarist Frontier Town". Nationalities Papers. 26 (1): 19–37. doi:10.1080/00905999808408548. 

External links[edit] Find more aboutChișinăuat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Official website Map of Chișinău Chişinău, Moldova at JewishGen v t e Cities, towns and communes of Chișinău Municipality, Moldova Cities/towns Chișinău Sîngera Durlești Vatra Codru Vadul lui Vodă Cricova Communes Băcioi Condrița Ghidighici Trușeni Bubuieci Budești Colonița Cruzești Tohatin Ciorescu Grătiești Stăuceni Villages of sub-city or sub-commune level Dobrogea Revaca Brăila Frumușica Străisteni Dumbrava Bîc Humulești Văduleni Ceroborta Buneți Cheltuitori Făurești Goian Hulboaca Goianul Nou Administrative sectors Botanica Buiucani Centru Ciocana Rîșcani v t e Cities and towns of Moldova Municipalities Chișinău (national capital) Tiraspol1 Bălți Bender (Tighina)2 Comrat Cahul Ceadîr-Lunga Edineț Hîncești Orhei Soroca Strășeni Ungheni Capitals of autonomous units Comrat3 Tiraspol1,3 District seats4 Anenii Noi Basarabeasca Briceni Cahul Cantemir Călărași Căușeni Cimișlia Criuleni Dondușeni Drochia Edineț Fălești Florești Glodeni Hîncești Ialoveni Leova Nisporeni Ocnița Orhei Rezina Rîșcani Sîngerei Soroca Strășeni Șoldănești Ștefan Vodă Taraclia Telenești Ungheni Other towns Biruința Bucovăț Căinari Camenca1 Ceadîr-Lunga Codru Cornești Costești Crasnoe1 Cricova Cupcini Dnestrovsc1 Dubăsari1 Durlești Frunză Ghindești Grigoriopol1 Iargara Lipcani Maiac1 Mărculești Otaci Rîbnița1 Sîngera Slobozia1 Tiraspolul Nou1 Tvardița Vadul lui Vodă Vatra Vulcănești 1 In Transnistria. 2 Controlled by the Transnistrian authorities. 3 Also a municipality. 4 The seat of Dubăsari District is the commune of Cocieri (not a city). v t e Administrative divisions of Moldova Districts Anenii Noi Basarabeasca Briceni Cahul Cantemir Călărași Căușeni Cimișlia Criuleni Dondușeni Drochia Dubăsari Edineț Fălești Florești Glodeni Hîncești Ialoveni Leova Nisporeni Ocnița Orhei Rezina Rîșcani Sîngerei Soroca Strășeni Șoldănești Ștefan Vodă Taraclia Telenești Ungheni Autonomous regions Găgăuzia Transnistria1 Municipalities Bălți Bender1 Cahul Ceadîr-Lunga Chișinău Comrat Edineț Hîncești Orhei Soroca Strășeni Tiraspol1 Ungheni 1 Currently controlled by the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. v t e Capitals of European states and territories Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Western Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK) Northern Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark) Central Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland Southern Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia Eastern Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3 1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union and Brussels and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126144648614428314870 LCCN: n80093608 GND: 4073461-4 BNF: cb11974196d (data) Retrieved from "șinău&oldid=826868325#Municipality" Categories: ChișinăuCapitals in EuropeCities and towns in Moldova1436 establishments in EuropeMunicipalities of MoldovaBessarabia GovernoratePopulated places established in the 1430sCities and towns in Chișinău MunicipalityCapitals of the counties of BessarabiaHolocaust locations in MoldovaHidden categories: Articles with Romanian-language external linksWebarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownCS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyCS1 Russian-language sources (ru)CS1 Romanian-language sources (ro)CS1 German-language sources (de)CS1 Turkish-language sources (tr)Use British English from November 2013Use dmy dates from February 2012Coordinates on WikidataArticles with hAudio microformatsArticles containing Russian-language textArticles containing German-language textArticles containing Polish-language textArticles containing Ukrainian-language textArticles containing Yiddish-language textArticles needing additional references from May 2015All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2015Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012Articles to be expanded from May 2012All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesPages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersArticles containing Romanian-language textAll articles with vague or ambiguous timeVague or ambiguous time from February 2016Articles to be expanded from April 2011Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2015Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

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