Contents 1 Government 2 Taxation and revenue 3 Tasks and services 4 Statistics 5 History 6 Identification and heraldry 7 Capital region 8 Mergers and reform 9 Municipalities by regions 10 Map 11 See also 12 References 13 External links


Government[edit] Municipalities have council-manager government, i.e. they are governed by an elected council (kunnanvaltuusto, kommunfullmäktige), which is legally autonomous and answers only to the voters. The size of the council is proportional to the population, the extremes being 9 in Sottunga and 85 in Helsinki. A subsection of the council, the municipal executive board (kunnanhallitus), controls the municipal government and monitors the implementation of decisions of the council. Its decisions must be approved by the council. Unlike national cabinets, its composition is derived from the composition of the council, not along government-opposition lines. Furthermore, individual decisions are prepared in specialized municipal boards (lautakunta) for a council meeting; these include e.g. zoning, social assistance, and education boards. Council, executive board, and municipal board memberships are elected positions of responsibility, not a full-time job. Municipal managers (kaupunginjohtaja, stadsdirektör for cities, kunnanjohtaja, kommunsdirektör for other municipalities) are civil servants named by the council. The city manager of Helsinki is called ylipormestari/överborgmästare "Lord Mayor" for historical reasons. There were previously no mayors in Finland, but after a change in law, Tampere was first city to elect a mayor (pormestari/borgmästare) in 2007. The mayor is not, however, currently elected directly, but by the municipal council. The mayor acts as municipal manager and as a speaker of municipal council. Although municipalities do not have police or legislative powers, local ordinances concerning traffic can be set, and municipal parking inspectors can give parking tickets. Municipalities are legal persons and can appear in an administrative court. Likewise, the state of Finland is a separate legal person. Excluding judicial review of formal compliance to administrative law, municipalities are independent and not a part of a local state hierarchy. Municipalities cooperate in regions of Finland. State agencies have jurisdictions spanning one or more regions: each region is served by an ely-keskus (elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskus) on matters of employment, the economy, transport and environment, while law and environmental enforcement is handled by the local aluehallintovirasto, governing multi-region jurisdictions termed alue.


Taxation and revenue[edit] See also: Taxation in Finland Residents pay a municipal tax that is a form of income tax, which is the mainstay of the income of a municipality (42% of income). Municipal tax is nominally a flat tax that is levied from a broader population (including lower income levels) than progressive state income tax, which is collected only from medium to high income earners. However, in practice even the municipal tax is progressive due to generous deductions granted to the lowest income levels. The pre-deduction base tax varies from 16% in affluent Kauniainen to 20% or more in a number of small rural municipalities. Next to the municipal tax, municipalities receive funding from the state budget (valtionapu, 19% of income). This funding is means-tested to municipality wealth and serves to balance the differences in municipal tax revenue.[1] Besides taxes, sales revenue, fees and profit of operations also form a substantial share of municipal income (21%).[1] Additionally, municipalities levy a property tax, amounting to 3.6% of income, which is comparatively low: the annual fee is 0.32-0.75% of net present value for permanent residences and 0.50-1.00% for leisure properties like summer cottages as well as undeveloped plots. Municipalities receive a share of corporate tax revenue (yhteisövero) from companies having a place of business in the municipality (3.8% of income). Some municipal functions receive direct funding both from the municipality and the state, e.g. AMK vocational colleges.


Tasks and services[edit] Finland has an extensive welfare state, and municipalities are responsible for much of the services to that end. Tasks of the municipalities are as follows:[2] Healthcare Preventative, basic and specialized healthcare Dental healthcare Social services Children's daycare Elderly care Disabled care Social welfare service Subsistency security Child protection Education (see Education in Finland) and culture Peruskoulu (primary education, grades 1–9) Lukio (gymnasiums) Ammattioppilaitos (secondary vocational schools) Ammattikorkeakoulu (tertiary vocational schools) Kansanopisto (folk high school) Public libraries Youth centres Public exercise facilities (public tracks, etc.) Infrastructure and land use Zoning Public transport Maintenance of local streets Water Energy Waste collection Environment Economic development Promotion of the local economy and employment Law enforcement Food safety inspection Animal welfare inspection Environmental protection inspection Parking enforcement Public transport payment enforcement Although municipalities are responsible for their own finances, there is much highly specific legislation and regulation that requires the services to be provided up to a standard. Thus, although municipalities have the power to voluntarily spend tax-generated income, they are required to first allocate funds to legally prescribed services. Municipalities may provide some of these services through corporations that they own or from private companies that they regulate. For example, Helsinki Regional Transport Authority (HSL) provides public transport services in the capital area.


Statistics[edit] Municipalities of Finland in 2016 by language: Beige: unilingually Finnish Dark blue: unilingually Swedish Turquoise: bilingual, majority language Finnish, minority language Swedish Light blue: bilingual, majority language Swedish, minority language Finnish Wine: majority language Finnish and a Sami language as a minority language As of 2017[update], there are 311 municipalities in Finland, of which 106 are cities. As of 2017[update], 16 municipalities are unilingually Swedish (all in the autonomous Åland region). 33 municipalities are bilingual: 15 with Swedish as the majority language (all but four in Ostrobothnia) and 18 with Finnish as the majority language (all but five in Uusimaa region). Four municipalities in northern Lapland (Utsjoki, Inari, Sodankylä and Enontekiö) have two or all of the three Sami languages spoken in Finland as an official language. Although there are exceptions, the line between a city and a small town or rural municipality can be drawn at the city of Hamina with 20,554 inhabitants. In the population ranking, above Hamina there are only cities (and their surrounding areas). However, there are many cities with much smaller populations than Hamina. Finland's smallest city, Kaskinen, dates back to 1785 but had a population of only 1,276 (31 August 2017).[3] The areas of the municipalities vary, as the population is the primary criterion for forming a municipality. The largest are found in Lapland, of which the largest is Inari at 17,333.65 km2 (6,692.56 sq mi) (130 km square). The smallest municipalities are very small towns. Kaskinen is an independent town with a land area of only 10.49 km2 (4.05 sq mi). Kauniainen, which was originally a corporation in Espoo, is only 6.00 km2 (2.32 sq mi).[4]


History[edit] Municipalities were originally parishes. The old word for a municipality is pitäjä, 'keeper', because when the system was instituted, one municipality kept one minister. Municipalities were divided into villages, which consisted of individual properties. Borders between properties and thus municipalities were defined by oral agreements passed down from generation to generation; usually along straight lines between defined markers such as boulders. Medieval documentation survives only from legal disputes concerning borders. Furthermore, the secular government divided the properties to taxable units (villages and secular municipalities) according to its own convenience; thus, they not necessarily convergent with parishes. Furthermore, cities were chartered separately. Up to 1734, the law was different in cities than in rural municipalities. In 1865, the modern municipalities were established as secular entities separate from the parishes. The reform was inspired by the Swedish municipal reforms of 1862. Up to 1964, cities financed their own police and registry services. Until 1977 municipalities were divided into cities (kaupunki, stad), market towns (kauppala, köping) and rural municipalities (maalaiskunta, landskommun). The market town category was abolished and these were renamed as cities. The rest of the municipalities were classified as 'other municipalities'. All municipalities called maalaiskunta were eventually either merged to their parent cities or changed their names. From 1995 onwards only 'municipality' is recognized by law and any municipality is allowed to call itself a city.


Identification and heraldry[edit] The coat of arms of Vantaa, incorporating heraldic elements of the region of Uusimaa, such as azure color and argent Not all municipalities have an obvious urban center; indeed, rural municipalities are often composed of distributed rural villages. Although the church village (kirkonkylä, abbreviated kk) is the historical center, the largest or administrative center may be in another village. For example, Askola has a church village (Askolan kirkonkylä), but its administrative center is in Monninkylä. Often, the church village has the same name as the municipality, as with Askola. However, this is not necessarily so, e.g. Enontekiö is governed from Hetta; these villages are often erroneously labeled in maps. This is expected as the name of the municipality refers to the entire parish, not just a single center like a church village. Villages have no administrative role, although some have voluntary village associations (kyläyhdistys) and other non-governmental public life. Although related, urban areas in Finland (taajama) are not local administrative units. A catalog is independently compiled each year by Statistics Finland, a state agency, and used primarily for traffic-related purposes (signage, speed limits, and highway planning). There are 745 officially recognized urban areas in Finland, 49 of which have more than 10,000 inhabitants and six more than 100,000. Each municipality has a distinct coat of arms. They are posted on the municipal borders and shown in official documents representing the municipality. The coats of arms for many municipalities have been designed in the modern era, many of them by Gustaf von Numers. In addition, municipalities like Vantaa since 2015 and Helsinki since 2017 have a logo distinct from their coat of arms.


Capital region[edit] Distinctively, the capital area, or Greater Helsinki, has no special arrangements. The area consists of four entirely independent cities that form a continuous conurbation. Greater Helsinki has grown in population and area relatively quickly: the nearby municipalities, considered rural only 50 years ago, have become suburbs, and the growth is projected to continue. A state-imposed merger of Helsinki and a part of Sipoo, a rural, 40% Swedish-speaking municipality adjacent to Greater Helsinki, was recently approved by the government, counter to the opinion of the Sipoo municipal council. This area will effectively become a new (and Finnish-speaking) suburb with multiple times the inhabitants than there are in Sipoo.


Mergers and reform[edit] There is currently a heated political debate in Finland about reforming the municipality system. Essentially, a large number of small municipalities is seen as detrimental to the provision of public services, having originated during Finland's agrarian years. As a result, there have been suggestions of state-imposed mergers. A committee led by the former Minister for Regional and Municipal Affairs, Hannes Manninen, suggested creating a two-tier system of municipalities with different powers, while the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (Kuntaliitto) favoured a system where municipalities would be units of at least 20,000–30,000 inhabitants, cf. the current median at 4,700. The motion was inspired by a similar reform in Denmark (see Municipalities of Denmark). The former government (Vanhanen II), however, planned to not impose mergers. Recently, a large number of voluntary mergers have been agreed on.[5] Ten mergers were completed in 2005, one in 2006, 14 in 2007 and one in 2008. In 2009, there were even more, many of which consolidated more than two municipalities. Several cities merged with surrounding rural municipalities in Hämeenlinna, Salo, Kouvola, Seinäjoki, Naantali, Kauhava, Lohja, Raseborg, Jyväskylä and Oulu in 2009. In total, there were 32 mergers, involving 99 municipalities, that reduced the number of municipalities by 67. The year 2009 also marked the end of the last maalaiskunta, a municipality surrounding a city but sharing the name, in Jyväskylä. There were four mergers in 2010, six in 2011, ten in 2013, three in 2015, four in 2016 and two in 2017. In the period 2005-2017, the number of municipalities was voluntarily reduced from 444 to 311. In 2012, Katainen's government published an extensive plan aiming at merging municipalities to reach a target of population 20,000 per municipality. Commuter belts have also been proposed as a target by a government committee, such that municipalities where more than 35% of workforce commutes would be subject to a merger.[6] The Sipilä cabinet, from 2015, has been preparing a significant reform of health and social services (sote-uudistus), aimed at increasing choice between municipal and private healthcare, and assigning some healthcare responsibilities into larger units than a municipality.


Municipalities by regions[edit] Municipalities of Central Finland Municipalities of Finland Proper Municipalities of Kainuu Municipalities of Kymenlaakso Municipalities of Lapland Municipalities of North Karelia Municipalities of South Karelia Municipalities of Ostrobothnia Municipalities of Central Ostrobothnia Municipalities of Northern Ostrobothnia Municipalities of Southern Ostrobothnia Municipalities of Pirkanmaa Municipalities of Satakunta Municipalities of Northern Savonia Municipalities of Southern Savonia Municipalities of Tavastia Proper Municipalities of Päijänne Tavastia Municipalities of Uusimaa Municipalities of Åland


Map[edit]


See also[edit] List of Finnish municipalities List of Finnish municipalities by population List of Finnish municipalities by area List of cities and towns in Finland List of former municipalities of Finland


References[edit] ^ a b http://slideplayer.fi/slide/11859268/ ^ Tony Hagerlund verkkoviestintäpäällikkö. "Diaesitykset ja perustiedot kunnista". Kunnat.net. Retrieved 2013-08-02.  ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, elokuu 2017" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Kuntaliitto. Ajankohtaiset kuntaliitokset, 2007. http://www.kunnat.net/k_peruslistasivu.asp?path=1;29;348;4827;50631 ^ "Jopa 280 kunnan on käynnistettävä liitosselvitys". Turun Sanomat (in Finnish). TS-Group. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 


External links[edit] Media related to Municipalities in Finland at Wikimedia Commons v t e Articles on third-level administrative divisions of countries Bangladesh Belgium Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Chile China Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Ethiopia Finland France Germany Greece Guinea Haiti India Indonesia distrik kecamatan Iran Iraq Israel mo'atzot mekomio iriyot mo'atzot azoriot Italy Ivory Coast Japan Kenya Liberia Lebanon Lithuania Luxembourg Mali Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Niger Panama Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Portugal Russia Senegal Sierra Leone Slovakia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Togo Ukraine United States Vietnam Zimbabwe List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Municipalities_of_Finland&oldid=821213935" Categories: Lists of municipalitiesMunicipalities of FinlandSubdivisions of FinlandLists of subdivisions of FinlandCountry subdivisions in EuropeThird-level administrative country subdivisionsFinland geography-related listsLists of populated places in FinlandHidden categories: CS1 Finnish-language sources (fi)Articles containing Finnish-language textArticles containing Swedish-language textArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2017All articles containing potentially dated statements


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةČeštinaDeutschEestiEsperantoEuskaraFrançaisItalianoLatina日本語Norsk nynorskRomânăРусскийScotsShqipSuomiSvenskaTürkçe中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 19 January 2018, at 01:55. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.408","walltime":"0.497","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2584,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":59938,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1839,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 403.401 1 -total"," 31.58% 127.389 2 Template:Lang-fi"," 14.33% 57.802 1 Template:Reflist"," 11.98% 48.343 3 Template:Convert"," 10.99% 44.329 4 Template:Cite_web"," 7.17% 28.940 20 Template:Lang"," 7.16% 28.882 1 Template:Politics_of_Finland"," 7.07% 28.523 1 Template:Commonscat-inline"," 6.58% 26.547 1 Template:Sidebar_with_collapsible_lists"," 6.25% 25.217 1 Template:Sister-inline"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.222","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":11756751,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1239","timestamp":"20180218103936","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":590,"wgHostname":"mw1239"});});


Municipalities_of_Finland - Photos and All Basic Informations

Municipalities_of_Finland More Links

Administrative Divisions Of FinlandRegions Of FinlandSub-regions Of FinlandList Of Finnish MunicipalitiesNUTS:FIISO 3166-2:FITemplate:Subdivisions Of FinlandTemplate Talk:Subdivisions Of FinlandFinlandPolitics Of FinlandConstitution Of FinlandFinnish Declaration Of IndependenceHuman Rights In FinlandLaw Enforcement In FinlandFinnish Defence ForcesPresident Of FinlandList Of Presidents Of FinlandSauli NiinistöPrime Minister Of FinlandList Of Prime Ministers Of FinlandJuha SipiläFinnish GovernmentList Of Finnish MinistriesParliament Of FinlandSpeaker Of The Parliament Of FinlandMaria LohelaJudicial System Of FinlandJudicial System Of FinlandSupreme Court Of FinlandJudicial System Of FinlandJudicial System Of FinlandJudicial System Of FinlandSupreme Administrative Court Of FinlandJudicial System Of FinlandProsecutor General Of FinlandMatti KuusimäkiChancellor Of Justice (Finland)Jaakko JonkkaElections In FinlandFinnish Parliamentary Election, 2007Finnish Parliamentary Election, 2011Finnish Parliamentary Election, 2015Finnish Presidential Election, 2006Finnish Presidential Election, 2012Finnish Presidential Election, 2018European Parliament Election, 2004 (Finland)European Parliament Election, 2009 (Finland)European Parliament Election, 2014 (Finland)List Of Political Parties In FinlandBlue ReformCentre Party (Finland)Christian Democrats (Finland)Finns PartyGreen LeagueLeft Alliance (Finland)National Coalition PartySocial Democratic Party Of FinlandSwedish People's Party Of FinlandAdministrative Divisions Of FinlandRegions Of FinlandSub-regions Of FinlandForeign Relations Of FinlandList Of Ambassadors Of FinlandOutline Of Political ScienceTemplate:Politics Of FinlandTemplate Talk:Politics Of FinlandFinnish LanguageSwedish LanguageFinlandFinnish LanguageSwedish LanguageIncome TaxPublic ServicesCouncil-manager GovernmentSottungaHelsinkiCivil ServantTampereSpeaker (politics)Legal PersonAdministrative CourtRegions Of FinlandTaxation In FinlandIncome TaxFlat TaxProgressive TaxKauniainenAmmattikorkeakouluWelfare StateEducation In FinlandAmmattikorkeakouluFolk High SchoolHelsinki Regional Transport AuthorityEnlargeFinnish LanguageSwedish LanguageSami LanguagesCityFinland-SwedishÅlandFinland-SwedishOstrobothnia (region)Finnish LanguageUusimaaLapland (Finland)UtsjokiInari, FinlandSodankyläEnontekiöSami LanguagesHaminaKaskinenInari, FinlandKaskinenKauniainenCorporationEspooParishRoyal CharterSwedish Municipal Reforms Of 1862MaalaiskuntaMaalaiskuntaEnlargeVantaaUusimaaArgentAskolaEnontekiöHettaUrban Areas In FinlandStatistics FinlandCoat Of ArmsGustaf Von NumersVantaaHelsinkiLogoGreater HelsinkiConurbationSuburbsSipooHannes ManninenDenmarkMunicipalities Of DenmarkMatti Vanhanen's Second CabinetHämeenlinnaSalo, FinlandKouvolaSeinäjokiNaantaliKauhavaLohjaRaseborgJyväskyläOuluMaalaiskuntaJyväskyläJyrki Katainen's CabinetCommuter BeltSipilä CabinetMunicipalities Of Central FinlandMunicipalities Of Finland ProperMunicipalities Of KainuuMunicipalities Of KymenlaaksoMunicipalities Of LaplandMunicipalities Of North KareliaMunicipalities Of South KareliaMunicipalities Of OstrobothniaMunicipalities Of Central OstrobothniaMunicipalities Of Northern OstrobothniaMunicipalities Of Southern OstrobothniaMunicipalities Of PirkanmaaMunicipalities Of SatakuntaMunicipalities Of Northern SavoniaMunicipalities Of Southern SavoniaMunicipalities Of Tavastia ProperMunicipalities Of Päijänne TavastiaMunicipalities Of UusimaaMunicipalities Of ÅlandEdit Section: See AlsoList Of Finnish MunicipalitiesList Of Finnish Municipalities By PopulationList Of Finnish Municipalities By AreaList Of Cities And Towns In FinlandList Of Former Municipalities Of FinlandCommons:Category:Municipalities In FinlandTemplate:Articles On Third-level Administrative Divisions Of CountriesTemplate Talk:Articles On Third-level Administrative Divisions Of CountriesAdministrative DivisionList Of Sovereign StatesUpazilas Of BangladeshArrondissements Of BelgiumMunicipalities Of BoliviaMunicipalities Of Bosnia And HerzegovinaDepartments Of Burkina FasoCommunes Of CambodiaCommunes Of CameroonCommunes Of ChileCounties Of The People's Republic Of ChinaList Of Districts Of Costa RicaDepartments Of Ivory CoastList Of Municipalities Of The Dominican RepublicSucos Of East TimorParishes Of EcuadorDistricts Of EthiopiaArrondissements Of FranceMunicipalities Of GermanyMunicipalities And Communities Of GreeceSub-prefectures Of GuineaList Of Communes Of HaitiTehsils Of IndiaList Of Districts Of IndonesiaList Of Subdistricts Of IndonesiaBakhshSubdistricts Of IraqLocal Council (Israel)City Council (Israel)Regional Council (Israel)ComuneDepartments Of Ivory CoastMunicipalities Of JapanLocations Of KenyaClans Of LiberiaMunicipalities Of LebanonElderships Of LithuaniaCommunes Of LuxembourgArrondissements Of MaliList Of Municipalities, Communes, And Arrondissements Of MoroccoPostos Of MozambiqueTownships Of MyanmarList Of Districts Of NepalCommunes Of NigerCorregimientos Of PanamaDistricts And LLGs Of Papua New GuineaDistricts Of PeruBarangayList Of Parishes Of PortugalCategory:Third-level Administrative Divisions Of RussiaArrondissements Of SenegalChiefdoms Of Sierra LeoneList Of Municipalities And Towns In SlovakiaMunicipalities Of South AfricaMunicipalities Of SpainDivisional Secretariats Of Sri LankaMunicipalities Of SwitzerlandMunicipalities Of TaiwanJamoats Of TajikistanTambonCantons Of TogoPopulated Places In UkraineMinor Civil DivisionCommune-level Subdivisions (Vietnam)Wards Of ZimbabweList Of Administrative Divisions By CountryHelp:CategoryCategory:Lists Of MunicipalitiesCategory:Municipalities Of FinlandCategory:Subdivisions Of FinlandCategory:Lists Of Subdivisions Of FinlandCategory:Country Subdivisions In EuropeCategory:Third-level Administrative Country SubdivisionsCategory:Finland Geography-related ListsCategory:Lists Of Populated Places In FinlandCategory:CS1 Finnish-language Sources (fi)Category:Articles Containing Finnish-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Swedish-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2017Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link