Contents 1 History 2 Position in hierarchy 3 Administration 4 Current PRC municipalities 5 Former ROC and PRC municipalities 6 See also 7 References 8 External links


History[edit] The first municipalities were the 11 cities of Nanjing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Chongqing, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Hankou (now part of Wuhan), Shenyang, and Harbin when the ROC government ruled China. They were established in 1927 soon after they were designated as "cities" during the 1920s. Nominally, Dalian was a municipality as well, although it was under Japanese control. These cities were first called special municipalities/cities (特别市; 特別市; tèbiéshì), but were later renamed Yuan-controlled municipalities (院辖市; 院轄市; yuànxiáshì), then direct-controlled municipalities (直辖市; 直轄市; zhíxiáshì) by the Central Government. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Anshan, Benxi, and Fushun were also made municipalities, while Qingdao, Dalian, and Harbin were reduced to provincial municipalities.[2] Hankou was merged into Wuhan. Hence, there remained 12 municipalities, until Dalian was elevated in 1950. In November 1952, Nanjing was reduced to a provincial municipality.[3] In July 1953, Harbin was restored to municipality status, along with Changchun.[4] Except Beijing and Tianjin, which were under central control, all other municipalities were governed by the greater administrative areas. In June 1954, 11 of the 14 municipalities were reduced to sub-provincial cities; many of them became capitals of the provinces they were in. Only Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin remained municipalities, until Chongqing was restored as a municipality in 1997 with a much enlarged area. Tianjin was also temporarily reverted to sub-provincial city status between 1958-1967.


Position in hierarchy[edit] Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in the PRC. Some cities of lower levels may also refer to themselves as municipalities in the English language. Three levels of cities in the People's Republic of China: Municipalities (直辖市; 直轄市; zhíxiáshì); Prefecture-level cities (地级市; 地級市; dìjíshì), including sub-provincial cities; and, County-level cities (县级市; 縣級市; xiànjíshì), including sub-prefecture-level cities.


Administration[edit] In municipalities, the highest ranking government official is the Mayor. The mayor is also a delegate in the National People's Congress (the legislature)[5] and Deputy Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee. However, the highest administrative authority in the municipality belongs to the Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee or Party Secretary.


Current PRC municipalities[edit] ISO[6] Division name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Abbr. Population[7] Area (km²) Divisions City seat Origin Province (split date) Origin Prefecture Origin County CN-11 Beijing 北京市 Běijīng Shì 京 jīng 19,612,368 16,801 List (16 districts) Dongcheng Tongzhou Hebei (Oct. 1949) Shuntian Daxing CN-12 Tianjin 天津市 Tiānjīn Shì 津 jīn 12,938,224 11,760 List (16 districts) Heping Hebei (Jan. 1967) Tianjin Tianjin CN-31 Shanghai 上海市 Shànghǎi Shì 沪 hù 23,019,148 6,340 List (16 districts) Huangpu Jiangsu (Mar. 1927) Songjiang Shanghai CN-50 Chongqing 重庆市 Chóngqìng Shì 渝 yú 28,846,170 (City Core 16,240,026) 82,300 (City Core 6,268) List (26 districts, 8 counties, & 4 autonomous counties) (City Core: 19 districts) Yuzhong Sichuan (May 1997) Chongqing Ba


Former ROC and PRC municipalities[edit] Name Simplified Chinese Pinyin Abbr. City seat Administration period Original province Original prefecture Original county Jingdu 京都市 Jīngdū Shì 京 jīng Dongcheng 1921–1927 Zhili (present province: Hebei) Shuntian Daxing Jingu 津沽市 Jīngū Shì 津 jīn Heping 1921–1927 Zhili (present province: Hebei) Tianjin Tianjin Songhu 淞沪市 Sōnghù Shì 沪 hù Huangpu 1921–1927 Jiangsu Songjiang Shanghai Qingdao 青岛市 Qīngdǎo Shì 青 qīng Shinan 1921–1927, 1929–1949 Shandong Jiaozhou Jiao Harbin 哈尔滨市 Hāerbīn Shì 哈 hā Nangang 1921–1927, 1947–1949, 1953–1954 Songjiang (present province: Heilongjiang) Binzhou Bin Hankou 汉口市 Hànkǒu Shì 汉 hàn Jiang'an 1921–1927, 1929–1931, 1947–1949 Hubei Hanyang Hanyang Wuxi 无锡市 Wúxī Shì 锡 xī Binhu 1921–1927 Jiangsu Changzhou Wuxi Hangzhou 杭州市 Hángzhōu Shì 杭 háng Gongshu 1921–1927 Zhejiang Hangzhou Yuhang Ningbo 宁波市 Níngbō Shì 甬 yǒng Yinzhou 1921–1927 Zhejiang Ningbo Yin Anqing 安庆市 Ānqìng Shì 安 ān Daguan 1921–1927 Anhui Anqing Huaining Nanchang 南昌市 Nánchāng Shì 洪 hóng Donghu 1921–1927 Jiangxi Nanchang Nanchang Wuchang 武昌市 Wǔchāng Shì 武 wǔ Wuchang 1921–1927 Hubei Wuchang Jiangxia Guangzhou 广州市 Guǎngzhōu Shì 穗 suì Yuexiu 1921–1927, 1930, 1947–1954 Guangdong Guangzhou Panyu Nanhai Wuzhou 梧州市 Wúzhōu Shì 梧 wú Changzhou 1921–1927 Guangxi Wuzhou Cangwu Nanjing 南京市 Nánjīng Shì 宁 níng Xuanwu 1927–1952 Jiangsu Jiangning Jiangning Xi'an 西安市 Xī'ān Shì 鎬 hào Weiyang 1927–1954 Shaanxi Xi'an Chang'an Wuhan 武汉市 Wǔhàn Shì 汉 hàn Jiang'an 1927–1929, 1949 Hubei Hanyang Wuchang Hanyang Jiangxia Beiping 北平市 Jīngdū Shì 平 píng Dongcheng 1928–1949 Zhili (present province: Hebei) Shuntian Daxing Dalian 大连市 Dàlián Shì 连 lián Xigang 1947–1949 Andong/Liaodong (present province: Liaoning) Jinzhou Ninghai Shenyang 沈阳市 Shěnyáng Shì 沈 shěn Shenhe 1947–1954 Liaoxi (present province: Liaoning) Fengtian Fengtian Anshan 鞍山市 Ānshān Shì 鞍 ān Tiedong 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong (present province: Liaoning) Liaoyang Haicheng Liaoyang Benxi 本溪市 Běnxī Shì 本 běn Pingshan 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong (present province: Liaoning) Fengtian Benxi Fushun 抚顺市 Fǔshùn Shì 抚 fǔ Xinfu 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong (present province: Liaoning) Fengtian Fushun Lüda 旅大市 Lǚdà Shì 旅 lǚ Xigang 1950–1954 Lüda (present province: Liaoning) Jinzhou Ninghai Changchun 长春市 Chángchūn Shì 春 chūn Nanguan 1953–1954 Jilin Changchun Changchun


See also[edit] Independent city Imperial immediacy


References[edit] ^ "Local Governments". Chinese Government's Official Web Portal. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ [1] Archived March 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [2] Archived March 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived June 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Chongqing Mayor: Government Must Place Service Above Anything Else". Xinhua News Agency. March 3, 2003. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2011.  ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China) ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 


External links[edit] Media related to Municipalities in China at Wikimedia Commons v t e Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China Provinces Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang Autonomous regions Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang Municipalities Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin Special administrative regions Hong Kong Macau Other Taiwan¹ Note: Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of China but administered by the Republic of China (see Political status of Taiwan). v t e Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries Sovereign states Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan1 Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China province municipality autonomous region SAR Cyprus Egypt1 Georgia1 India Indonesia1 Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan1 North Korea province special city South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestine Philippines Qatar Russia1 Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste (East Timor) Turkey1 Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen1 States with limited recognition Northern Cyprus Taiwan 1 Country spanning more than one continent (transcontinental country). List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Direct-controlled_municipalities_of_China&oldid=825373178" Categories: Municipalities of ChinaLists of administrative divisions of ChinaLists of subdivisions of ChinaAdministrative divisions of ChinaSubdivisions of ChinaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksArticles needing additional references from January 2015All articles needing additional referencesPages using deprecated image syntaxArticles containing simplified Chinese-language textArticles containing traditional Chinese-language textArticles containing Chinese-language text


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