Contents 1 History 2 Countries 2.1 South-Eastern Europe 2.2 Former Soviet Union 3 Structure and Organization 4 See also 5 References

History[edit] In 1788 the Russian Empire under Empress Catherine II established the first muftiate in Russia named “The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly” governed by a supreme mufti who oversaw the appointment of imams and the management of mosques across the empire.[2] The mufti was initially appointed by the emperor, but with a decree signed by Emperor Alexander I in 1817, it was determined that the mufti should be elected by the Muslim community with imperial approval. Most of the muftis, their assistants and ordinary mullahs were elected from the Kazan Tatars.[3][4] The mufti's duties included overseeing the Muslim clergy, clerical appointments, the construction of mosques, marriages and divorces, inheritances, property disputes, endowments (waqf), cases of disobedience to parents by children, the correctness of the execution of Muslim worship, and birth registrations. With the creation of the Soviet Union the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly was replaced with the Central Spiritual Board of Muslims.[5][6] After 1944 the management of spiritual affairs of the Muslim population in Russia was carried out by four independent spiritual boards: The Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (Tashkent), The Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Caucasus (Baku), The Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Northern Caucasus (Buynaksks), and The Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the European Part of the USSR and Siberia (Ufa).[7] The breakup of the four spiritual boards came with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Today, each of the former Soviet Republics with significant Muslim populations have their own independent Spiritual Boards. [8] Attempts have been made to unite all the Islamic religious organizations in Russia into one single umbrella organization without success. In the 19th century the Austrian Habsburgs and Russians expanded into southeastern Europe, carving territory out of the Ottoman Empire and helping establish newly independent countries. The Muslim population in these countries were organized under muftiates in a similar fashion to those in Russia.[9] Today, the majority of muftiates in south-eastern Europe are independent from government control.

Countries[edit] South-Eastern Europe[edit] Countries in southern-eastern Europe who inherited large Muslim populations after gaining their independence from the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries include: Albania, Bosnia-and-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Many of these muftiates were established by these countries following their independence from the Ottoman Empire.[10] Former Soviet Union[edit] Former republics of the Soviet Union that retained muftiates or "spiritual boards" after the breakup of the USSR: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Four spiritual directorates presided over the territory of the Soviet Union until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. The newly independent countries established their own independent muftiates or "spiritual boards" based on the remnants of the Soviet system.[11]

Structure and Organization[edit] At the top of the structure of a grand muftiate is a grand mufti and his council, followed by muftis and their councils. Independent muftiates are governed by a mufti and a council. In Russia (as was during the Soviet Union) a muftiate is further divided into qadiyats which are led by qadis. Directly subordinate to qadiyats are muhtasibats which are headed by a muhtasib (originally an Ottoman official charged with supervising proper weights and measures in markets and the proper conduct of certain rituals).[12][13] In some muftiates the qadis rank below a muhtasib. Each mahalla or congregation is managed by an elected body called a mutavalliat composed of members of the congregation. The level of governance differs from country to country and even from muftiate to muftiate. In some countries muftis are elected by adherents while in others they are appointed to the post by the council of muftis or appointed by the government.[14]

See also[edit] List of Islamic Muftiates Grand Mufti Mufti Qadiyat Muhtasibat Mahallah

References[edit] ^ Robert Geraci (2001). "Window on the East: national and imperial identities in late tsarist Russia". ISBN 9780801434228.  ^ Maureen Perrie, Dominic Lieven (Aug 17, 2006). "The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume 2, Imperial Russia, 1689-1917". ISBN 9780521815291.  |first2= missing |last2= in Authors list (help) ^ David Westerlund; Ingvar Svanberg (1999). "Islam Outside the Arab World. Widening the European Discourse on Islam". ISBN 9780700711246.  ^ Nathalie Clayer; Eric Germain (2008). "Islam in Inter-war Europe". ISBN 9780231701006.  ^ Yaacov Ro’i (2000). "Islam and the Soviet Union: From the Second World War to Gorbachev". ISBN 9780231119542.  ^ Creating Enemies of the State: Religious Persecution in Uzbekistn ^ The Politicization of Islam in Postsoviet Central Asia ^ Daniel Brower; Edward Azzerinini (1997). "Russia's Orient: Imperial Borderlands and Peoples, 1700 - 1917". ISBN 9780253211132.  ^ Samir Amghar; Amel Ioubekeur (2007). "European Islam: Challenges for Public Policy and Society". ISBN 9789290797104.  ^ H.T. Norris (1993). "Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world". ISBN 9780872499775.  ^ Robert Geraci (2001). "Window on the East: national and imperial identities in late tsarist Russia". ISBN 9780801434228.  ^ Shoshana Keller (2001). "To Moscow, Not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign Against Islam in Central Asia, 1917". ISBN 9780275972387.  ^ Katarzyna Gorak-Sosnowska (2011). "Muslim in Poland and Eastern Europe. Widening the European Discourse on Islam". ISBN 9788390322957.  ^ v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country Retrieved from "" Categories: Islamic legal occupationsReligious leadership rolesAdministrative territorial entities by typeHidden categories: CS1 errors: missing author or editorLang and lang-xx template errorsArticles containing Albanian-language textArticles containing Bulgarian-language textArticles containing Kazakh-language textArticles containing Russian-language textArticles containing Tatar-language textArticles containing Romanian-language textArticles containing Ukrainian-language text

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