Contents 1 History 2 Astronomy 3 Mount Wilson Electronics Reservation 4 Television on Mount Wilson 5 Observatory salvaged 6 See also 7 References 8 External links and sources

History[edit] Pack train to Wilson Peak, Sierra Madre Trail, ca.1900. Photo by George Wharton James. The native inhabitants of the San Gabriels probably belonged to various tribes of the Tongva people who lived in the low-lying valleys. Granite outcroppings along the Angeles Crest show signs of meal preparations with metate pots ground into rock surfaces. The first recorded exploration of the mountain was performed by Benjamin Davis Wilson, also known as "Don Benito". Wilson, who was the grandfather of George S. Patton, was the owner of Rancho San Pascual in about 1852 and ran a winery at his home, "Lake Vineyard", which was in the area of today's San Marino. Wilson hoped to find a suitable wood for his casks but was disappointed by the poor quality of trees on the mountain. He built a trail, following an established Indian route, which became known as the Mount Wilson Trail. In turn Wilson's trail became the predecessor of the Mount Wilson Toll Road. He was surprised to find line shacks at the summit, probably left by Spaniards who were known to track down destructive grizzly bears. He built a three-room cabin along the trail called "Halfway House." Despite Wilson's inability to find adequate wood, the hike became a popular pastime for locals who would make a weekend trip to the summit. These hikers built signal fires on the summit to let people below know that the party had arrived safely.

Astronomy[edit] Main article: Mount Wilson Observatory Mount Wilson aerial photo, showing Radio Ridge antenna farm and the Observatory. Photo by Doc Searls. In 1889 Professor William Pickering of Harvard University, along with lens grinder Alvan Clark, prepared an experiment with 4-and-13-inch (102 and 330 mm) telescopes at Mount Wilson. University students would operate the telescopes for nighttime viewing, but more often than not they would log in "bad weather, no visibility" and head to town to relieve their boredom. The small observatory was abandoned with plans to build a larger one at a later date.[3] In 1891, Thaddeus S. C. Lowe incorporated the Pasadena & Mount Wilson Railroad with the plan of building a scenic mountain railroad to the summit of Mt. Wilson. At the same time land and easement disputes between camp owners Steils and Strain were going on over the public and private use of the Mount Wilson Trail. The courts ruled that the trail was a public thoroughfare and that any blockading would be illegal. At the foot of the mountain, a local contractor Thomas Banbury built a 10-mile (15 km) roadway to be named "The New Mount Wilson Trail," now the Mount Wilson Toll Road. Passage fare was 25¢ round trip for hikers (equivalent to $7 in 2017) and 50¢ for horseback.[3] In 1892, Charles William Eliot, president of Harvard University, planned to have two 40-inch (102 cm) lenses shipped from Alvan Clark & Sons in Corning, New York to the newly named Mount Harvard, directly adjacent to Mt. Wilson. The money was to be put up by Mr. Spence of the University of Southern California. Walter Raymond, of Raymond & Whitcomb Travel Agency, Boston, and owner of the Raymond Hotel, Pasadena, offered to pay for rail from New York. Lowe offered to take the lenses up via his yet-to-be-built Mt. Wilson Railway. Spence died suddenly and left no word of the money for the project. The lenses ended up at Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin, and Lowe's railway ended up going to Oak Mountain (Mount Lowe).[3] By 1901 The Mount Wilson Toll Road Co. had purchased Henninger Flats, Strain's Camp, Martin's Camp, and 640 acres (2.6 km2) of the summit.[3] In 1903 George Ellery Hale visited Mt. Wilson and was impressed by the perfect conditions for which to set up the observatory, which would become the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory in 1904. In 1905 40 acres (160,000 m2) were leased for 99 years by the Carnegie Institution for Science in order to construct telescopes and construction began on a new Mt. Wilson Hotel. In 1908 a 60-inch (1524 mm) telescope was completed at the summit, and in 1910 the 150-foot (46 m) Solar Tower was erected. In 1913 the hotel burned down and was replaced by a second hotel that lasted until its demolition in 1966. The Toll Road opened to automobiles in 1912 and lasted until 1936.[3] In 1917, the 100-inch Hooker Telescope was completed and saw first light and would be the world's largest telescope until the opening of the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory in 1948.[3] In 1919, American astronomer Edwin Hubble arrived at Mt. Wilson and, throughout the 1920s, made many astronomical discoveries using the Hooker Telescope. Among his contributions are the observational proof that many nebulous objects are actually galaxies beyond our own Milky Way galaxy, the classification of galaxies according to the Hubble sequence, and the development of Hubble's law relating a galaxy's observed red shift to its distance away. These contributions led to an understanding that the universe is not static, but expanding. This concept is the basis of the Big Bang theory of cosmology. In 1926 Albert Abraham Michelson made what was the most precise calculation of the speed of light at the time by measuring the round-trip travel time of light between Mount Wilson and Mount San Antonio 22 miles (35 km) away.[3]

Mount Wilson Electronics Reservation[edit] Antennas on Mount Wilson, covered in ice after heavy snowfall The first television antenna on Mount Wilson was erected in 1947 for pioneer station KTLA channel 5. At about the same time, the first FM station broadcast from Mount Wilson, which was the old KFI-FM on 105.9 FM (signed off in 1950). The mountain became so popular as a site for transmitters that, in 1963, the Metromedia company bought 720 acres (2.9 km2) from the Mount Wilson Hotel Company. Metromedia built Skyline Park, which consisted of a pavilion, a children's zoo and landscaped walks.[4] The park closed in 1976 after operating at a loss for almost a decade. The property is now the home of numerous transmitters serving the Los Angeles metropolitan area and includes radio, television and microwave relay facilities. The tallest of which, according to the FCC database, is the guyed mast built for KCBS-TV, now owned by Richland Towers, which stands at a height of 972 feet (296.3 m),[5][6] built in 1986.

Television on Mount Wilson[edit] The following television stations transmit from Mount Wilson: Callsign Virtual Channel Transmit Channel Affiliation KCBS 2 43 CBS KNBC 4 36 NBC KTLA 5 31 The CW KABC 7 7 ABC KFLA-LD 8 8 TVC+Latino KCAL 9 9 Ind. KTTV 11 11 Fox KCOP 13 13 MyNetworkTV KNLA-CD 20 50 HSN KNET-CD 25 25 HSN KVHD-LD 26 40 Religious Ind. KCET 28 28 Public Ind. KSGA-LD 29 30 Multilingual Ind. KSMV-LD 31 23 Multilingual Ind. KMEX 34 34 Univision KTAV-LD 35 46 Almavision KTBN 40 33 TBN KXLA 44 51 Multilingual Ind. KFTR 46 29 UniMas KOCE 50 48 PBS KAZA 54 47 Azteca America KDOC 56 32 Ind. KJLA 57 49 LATV KLCS 58 41 PBS Most of the stations in the Los Angeles DMA not listed in the above table transmit from Mt. Harvard, an adjacent peak. These stations are (listed by virtual channel followed by physical channel): KSCI channel 18/18 (Multilingual Ind.), KWHY channel 22/42 (MundoFox), KHTV-CD channel 27/27 (HSN), KPXN channel 30/38 (ION), KVEA channel 52/39 (Telemundo), KRCA channel 62/35 (Estrella TV), KBEH channel 63/24 (CNN Latino), and analog KSFV-CA channel 6 (Spanish Religious).

Observatory salvaged[edit] In 1984 the Carnegie Institution for Science began the process of shutting down the observatories on Mount Wilson, opting to concentrate on newer sites in Chile. In 1986 the Mt. Wilson Institute was formed and plans to reopen the observatories were made so that by 2000 all the telescopes were back in operation.[citation needed] Construction began in 1996 for six 1-meter telescopes by the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Georgia State University. This was the largest optical interferometric array at the time. Ground was broken for the telescopes in 1999 and the facility became operational in 2001.[7] The view of Los Angeles from Mount Wilson.

See also[edit] San Gabriel Mountains National Monument−related topics Palomar Observatory Sierra Madre, California — at the base of Mt. Wilson, with a trailhead to the peak.

References[edit] ^ a b "Wilson Peak". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved 2009-08-17.  ^ "Mount Wilson, California". Retrieved 2013-02-20.  ^ a b c d e f g "History of Mt. Wilson". Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ "The Story of Mt. Wilson, California Part 3 – Broadcasters Invade". Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ "Antenna Structure Registration 1012836". Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ "Antenna Structure Registration Search Results Within 15 Kilometers of 34-13-55.0 and 118-04-18.0". Retrieved 2010-12-04.  ^ Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Web site (, Retrieved 8-4-2011.

External links and sources[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mount Wilson (California) (category) List of Mount Wilson broadcasters Photos from Mount Wilson Webcam at Mount Wilson Observatory Hikers Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Mt. Wilson – California's Gold (147)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.  CHARA Array Retrieved from "" Categories: San Gabriel MountainsMountains of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaAngeles National ForestSan Gabriel Mountains National MonumentRadio masts and towers in the United StatesMountains of Southern CaliforniaHidden categories: Coordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2007

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Angeles Crest HighwaySummitNorth American Vertical Datum Of 1988Topographic ProminenceGeographic Coordinate SystemGeographic Coordinate SystemMount Wilson Is Located In The Los Angeles Metropolitan AreaLos Angeles County, CaliforniaUnited StatesMountain RangeSan Gabriel MountainsTopographic MapUnited States Geological SurveyNormal RouteSan Gabriel MountainsSan Gabriel Mountains National MonumentAngeles National ForestLos Angeles County, CaliforniaTopographical ProminenceSan Gabriel PeakMount Wilson ObservatorySolar Tower (astronomy)CHARA ArrayGeorgia State UniversityLos Angeles BasinOrange County, CaliforniaInland EmpireVentura County, CaliforniaSan Diego County, CaliforniaSanta Catalina Island, CaliforniaChannel Islands Of CaliforniaSan Clemente IslandSanta Barbara IslandSan Nicolas IslandSanta Cruz IslandSan Miguel IslandAntenna FarmGreater Los Angeles AreaEnlargeGeorge Wharton JamesTongva PeopleMetateBenjamin Davis WilsonGeorge S. PattonRancho San PascualRancho Huerta De CuatiSan Marino, CaliforniaMount Wilson Toll RoadMount Wilson ObservatoryEnlargeAntenna FarmDoc SearlsWilliam Henry PickeringHarvard UniversityAlvan ClarkThaddeus S. C. LowePasadena & Mount Wilson RailroadMount Wilson Toll RoadCharles William EliotAlvan Clark & SonsYerkes ObservatoryMount Lowe (California)Henninger FlatsGeorge Ellery HaleMount Wilson Solar ObservatoryHooker TelescopeHale TelescopePalomar ObservatoryEdwin HubbleHubble's LawBig BangAlbert Abraham MichelsonSpeed Of LightMount San AntonioEnlargeKTLAKPWRMetromediaLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaGuyed MastKCBS-TV/FM TowerTelevisionCallsignKCBS-TVCBSKNBCNBCKTLAThe CWKABC-TVAmerican Broadcasting CompanyKFLA-LDKCAL-TVIndependent Station (North America)KTTVFox TelevisionKCOPMyNetworkTVKNLA-CDHome Shopping NetworkKNET-CDHome Shopping NetworkKVHD-LDIndependent Station (North America)KCETIndependent Station (North America)KSGA-LDIndependent Station (North America)KSMV-LDIndependent Station (North America)KMEXUnivisionKTAV-LDAlmavisionKTBNTrinity Broadcasting NetworkKXLAIndependent Station (North America)KFTRUniMasKOCEPBSKAZA-TVAzteca AmericaKDOC-TVIndependent Station (North America)KJLALATVKLCSPBSDesignated Market AreaVirtual ChannelKSCIIndependent Station (North America)KWHYMundoFoxKHTV-CDHome Shopping NetworkKPXNIon TelevisionKVEATelemundoKRCAEstrella TVKBEHCNN LatinoKSFV-CAWikipedia:Citation NeededCHARA ArrayGeorgia State UniversityAstronomical InterferometerThe View Of Los Angeles From Mount Wilson.File:LA Mount Wilson Pano.jpgLos AngelesCategory:San Gabriel Mountains National MonumentPalomar ObservatorySierra Madre, CaliforniaU.S. National Geodetic SurveyWikimedia CommonsHuell HowserChapman UniversityHelp:CategoryCategory:San Gabriel MountainsCategory:Mountains Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Angeles National ForestCategory:San Gabriel Mountains National MonumentCategory:Radio Masts And Towers In The United StatesCategory:Mountains Of Southern CaliforniaCategory:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2007Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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