Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Middle Ages and arrival of the Slavs 2.2 Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro and fights against the Ottomans 2.3 Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910) 2.4 Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918) 2.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia 2.6 World War II 2.7 Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia 2.8 Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia 2.9 Independence 2.10 Euro-Atlantic integration in the 21st century 3 Geography and environment 3.1 Biodiversity 4 Politics 4.1 Foreign relations of Montenegro 4.2 Symbols 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions 4.5 Cities in Montenegro 5 Economy 5.1 Infrastructure 5.2 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Ethnic structure 6.2 Languages 6.3 Religion 7 Education 7.1 Elementary and secondary education 7.2 Tertiary education 7.3 Post-graduate education 8 Culture 8.1 Art 8.2 Literature 8.3 Media 8.4 In popular culture 8.5 Cuisine 8.6 Sport 8.7 Public holidays 9 See also 10 References 10.1 Notes 10.2 Citations 10.3 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links


Etymology[edit] The seal found in the 19th century. It says "Peter, archon of Diokleia, Amen". The country's name in most Western European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro (Latin mons "mountain" + niger "black"), roughly "Mount Black" or "black mountain". Many other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain". Examples are the Albanian name for the country, Mali i Zi, the Greek name Μαυροβούνιο (Mavrovoúnio), the Chinese name "黑山" (Hēishān), the Turkish name Karadağ (along with many Turkic languages using a variation on that name), and the Arabic name الجبل الاسود (al-Jabbal al-Aswad), all meaning "Black Mountain". All Slavic languages use slight variations on the Montenegrin name Crna Gora; examples include the Czech Černá Hora, the Russian Черного́рия (Černogórija), the Bulgarian Черна гора (Černa gora), and the Polish Czarnogóra (from its literal form Czarna Góra). Other languages include Chechen and Ingush Ӏаьржаламанчоь (Järƶalamançö), Karbadian БгыфӀыцӀей (Bgyf’yc’ej), Meadow Mari Шемкурык Эл (Šemkuryk El), Latvian Melnkalne, and Lithuanian Juodkalnija. Mongolian calls the country either Черногори (Chernogori, a loanword from Russian) or Монтенегро (Montenegro). In older English literature, variant "Montenegria" was also used.[12] The name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century.[13] Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta.[13] The aforementioned region became known as "Old Montenegro" (Stara Crna Gora) by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda ("the Highlands"). Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе, Savezna država Crne Gore) on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB. After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора, Narodna Republika Crna Gora) on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора, Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora). As the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора, Republika Crna Gora) on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "Socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as Montenegro. The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.[14]


History[edit] Main article: History of Montenegro Middle Ages and arrival of the Slavs[edit] Main articles: Duklja, Principality of Zeta, and Tribes of Montenegro 1080 AD. The zenith of Dukljan power Doclea (town), Roman city and seat of the Late Roman province of Praevalitana In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north.[9][10] Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death (in 1101 or 1108), several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Constantine Bodin (1081–1101).[15] By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro). As the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, and by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate, but after 1455, another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans in 1496, and got annexed to the sanjak of Shkodër. During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name – Montenegro. For a short time, Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528, another version of which existed again between 1597 and 1614. Also, Old Herzegovina region was part of Sanjak of Herzegovina. Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro and fights against the Ottomans[edit] Main article: Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro Uprising of Montenegrins against Ottomans Montenegrin refugees during Montenegrin-Turkish war Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. In the 16th century, Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire permitting Montenegrin clans freedom from certain restrictions. Nevertheless, the Montenegrins were disgruntled with Ottoman rule, and in the 17th century, raised numerous rebellions, which culminated in the defeat of the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century. Montenegrin military strategy was simple but effective: if the Ottomans came with 5,000 soldiers, the Montenegrins were able to withstand the force; if the Ottomans mustered more than the Montenegrins could withstand, the Montenegrins would burn everything, retreat deeper into the mountains, and let the enemy starve. Montenegro consisted of territories controlled by warlike clans. Most clans had a chieftain (knez), who was not permitted to assume the title unless he proved to be as worthy a leader as his predecessor. The great assembly of Montenegrin clans (Zbor) was held every year on 12 July in Cetinje, and any adult clansman could take part.[citation needed] Parts of the territory were controlled by Republic of Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, its successors. In 1515, Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, which flourished after the Petrović-Njegoš of Cetinje became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). However, the Venetian Republic introduced governors who meddled in Montenegrin politics. The republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, and the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.[citation needed] Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910)[edit] Main article: Principality of Montenegro Battle of Vučji Do between Montenegrin and Ottoman Army Under Nicholas I, the principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.[16] The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations.[16] Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party, who supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia, and those of the True People's Party, who were monarchist. During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the Battle of Grahovac. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of Knjaz Danilo, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans who had 15,000 troops at Grahovac on 1 May 1858. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina, then part of Austria-Hungary. This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire at Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The first Montenegrin constitution was proclaimed in 1855; it was also known as the Danilo Code. Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Montenegro King Nikola I of Montenegro and Queen consort Milena Cover of the Italian weekly La Tribuna Illustrata from 1919, titled "Fighting near Podgorica between Montenegrin army and Serbian rebels" In 1910, Montenegro became a kingdom, and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania, though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica, was the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia. Montenegro was among the Allied Powers during World War I (1914–18). From 1916 to October 1918, Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary. During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux. Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Yugoslavia In 1922, Montenegro formally became the Oblast of Cetinje in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around Budva and Bay of Kotor. In a further restructuring in 1929, it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River. Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I, dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas which formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia. World War II[edit] Main article: Italian governorate of Montenegro In April 1941, Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and other Axis allies attacked and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro. Uprising in Montenegro 1944 In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6,000 of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare. The first armed uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.[17] Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32,000 men and women had joined the fight. Except for the coast and major towns (Podgorica, Cetinje, Pljevlja, and Nikšić), which were besieged, Montenegro was mostly liberated. In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5,000 dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67,000 Italian troops brought in from Albania. Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December. Liberation of Montenegro from foreign occupation from 1711 to 1918 Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. Most of them went on to join the Yugoslav Partisans, consisting of communists and those inclined towards active resistance; these included Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, and Blažo Jovanović. Those loyal to the Karađorđević dynasty and opposing communism went on to become Chetniks, and turned to collaboration with Italians against the Partisans. War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of 1942. Pressured by Italians and Chetniks, the core of the Montenegrin Partisans went to Serbia and Bosnia, where they joined with other Yugoslav Partisans. Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war. Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid-1942 to April 1943. Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar, where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat. During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June 1943, Germans disarmed large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans. After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944. Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December 1944. Josip Broz Tito was the leader of SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White House, 1971 Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia[edit] Main article: Socialist Republic of Montenegro Montenegro, like the rest of Yugoslavia, was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944. Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Its capital became Podgorica, renamed Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974.[citation needed] Montenegro within FR Yugoslavia[edit] Main articles: Serbia and Montenegro and Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006) After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia. In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, the turnout was 66%, with 96% of the votes cast in favour of the federation with Serbia. The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organized under anti-democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in 2006 when European Union observers were present. Mausoleum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, in Lovćen During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia.[18] These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterized by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights.[19] Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik.[20] Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed.[21][22] In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and its partner Serbia, which was led by Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the euro, although not part of the Eurozone currency union. Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected.[23] In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years. Independence[edit] Main articles: Serbia and Montenegro and Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006 Montenegrin national flag flies over the Bay of Kotor. The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate; 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against.[24] This narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence. The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)/ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE), and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report stated that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights." On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro,[25] formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration. Euro-Atlantic integration in the 21st century[edit] Montenegrin Prime Minister Duško Marković with NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg in Washington D.C. after Montenegro's accession to the alliance on 5 June 2017. On 12 July 2011, the Parliament of Montenegro passed the Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty that rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic. In 2015, the investigative journalists' network OCCRP named Montenegro's long-time President and Prime Minister Milo Đukanović 'Person of the Year in Organized Crime'.[26] The extent of Đukanović's corruption led to street demonstrations and calls for his removal.[27][28] In October 2016, for the day of the parliamentary election, a coup d'état was prepared by a group of persons that included leaders of the Montenegrin opposition, Serbian nationals and Russian agents; the coup was prevented.[29] In 2017, fourteen people, including two Russian nationals and two Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević, were indicted for their alleged roles in the coup attempt on charges such as "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act."[30] In June 2017, Montenegro formally became a member of NATO, an eventuality that had been supported and opposed by approximately same share of the country′s population[31] and had triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia′s government.[32][33][34] Since 2012, Montenegro is in negotiations with the EU. The view to acceding by 2022[35] was revised to 2025.[36]


Geography and environment[edit] Main article: Geography of Montenegro Zla Kolata, highest mountain of Montenegro on the border with Albania Lovćen Orjen Bobotov Kuk on the Durmitor mountain is the symbol of Montenegro Bjelasica Lake Skadar Lake Biograd Black Lake Internationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo,[a] and Albania. It lies between latitudes 41° and 44°N, and longitudes 18° and 21°E. Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo,[a] and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only 1.5 to 6 kilometres (1 to 4 miles) wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor. Montenegro's large Karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,280 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 m (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m or 6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), is the lowest segment. The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 m (8,274 ft). Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period. Longest beach: Velika Plaža, Ulcinj — 13,000 m (8.1 mi) Highest peak: Zla Kolata, Prokletije at 2,534 m (8,314 ft) Largest lake: Skadar Lake — 391 km2 (151 sq mi) of surface area Deepest canyon: Tara River Canyon — 1,300 m (4,300 ft) Biggest bay: Bay of Kotor Deepest cave: Iron Deep 1,169 m (3,835 ft), exploring start in 2012, now more than 3,000 m (9,800 ft) long[37] Satellite view of Montenegro Name Established Area Durmitor National Park 1952 390 square kilometres (39,000 ha) Biogradska Gora 1952 54 square kilometres (5,400 ha) Lovćen National Park 1952 64 square kilometres (6,400 ha) Lake Skadar National Park 1983 400 square kilometres (40,000 ha) Prokletije National Park 2009 166 square kilometres (16,600 ha) Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, as more than 2,000 km2 (772 sq mi) of the country's territory lie within the Danube catchment area. Biodiversity[edit] The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country.[38] Biodiversity outlook Freshwater algae of Montenegro – so far 1,200 species and varieties have been described. The vascular flora of Montenegro has 3,250 species. The number of endemics is also high – there are 392 Balkan (regional) endemic species, equivalent to over 7% of Montenegrin flora. There are 354 species of marine molluscs in Montenegro.[39] Lake Skadar is among the most important habitats of freshwater fish, with 40 species, including species that migrate from marine to freshwater ecosystems, such as the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and shad (Alossa falax nilotica). The diversity of marine fish fauna of the Adriatic Sea includes 117 recorded families, but with a low level of endemism. To date, 40,742 marine fish species have been recorded in Montenegro, which represent 70% of the species recorded in the Mediterranean. Currently, 56 species (18 amphibian and 38 reptile) and 69 subspecies are recorded within 38 genera, and the list is probably incomplete. The mountain regions of Lovćen and Prokletije are particular hot spots for amphibians and reptiles. Of 526 European bird species, 333 are assumed to be regularly present in Montenegro. Of these, 204 species nest in the country.[40] Biodiversity of Montenegro The Eurasian brown bear, a protected species in Montenegro. Pinus heldreichii, Bijela gora. The common bottlenose dolphin is often seen in the Bay of Kotor.


Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Montenegro See also: Foreign relations of Montenegro and Military of Montenegro Filip Vujanović President Duško Marković Prime Minister The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law."[41] Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007. The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje. The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. Blue Palace residence of President of Montenegro in Cetinje. The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is a unicameral legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the 2012 parliamentary election. Foreign relations of Montenegro[edit] After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June 2006, following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state. Embassy of Montenegro, Warsaw The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation. These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders.[42] Integration into the European Union is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO, which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals. Montenegro believes NATO integration would speed up EU integration.[42] In May 2017 NATO accepted Montenegro as a NATO member starting June 5, 2017.[43] Although it only borders Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, and Serbia, Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Symbols[edit] An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nikola I, was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ, partly in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script) representing King Nikola I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion. The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world[44] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro. In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, Oh, Bright Dawn of May, as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nikola was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori ("To our beautiful Montenegro"). Main article: Military of Montenegro Military[edit] Main article: Military of Montenegro Montenegro Navy Armed Forces of Montenegro The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army, the Montenegrin Navy, and the Montenegrin Air Force, along with special forces. Conscription was abolished in 2006. The military currently maintains a force of 1,920 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force. Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November 2008, which was granted in December 2009. Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.[45] Montenegro was invited to join NATO on 2 December 2015 and on 19 May 2016, NATO and Montenegro conducted a signing ceremony at NATO headquarters in Brussels for Montenegro's membership invitation.[46] Montenegro became NATO's 29th member on 5 June 2017, despite Russia's objections.[47] The government plans to have the army participate in peacekeeping missions through the UN and NATO such as the International Security Assistance Force.[48] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Municipalities of Montenegro and List of regions of Montenegro Montenegro is divided into twenty-three municipalities (opština), and two urban municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije". No. Municipality Seat Municipalities of Montenegro. Regions of Montenegro. 1 Pljevlja Municipality Pljevlja 2 Plužine Municipality Plužine 3 Žabljak Municipality Žabljak 4 Mojkovac Municipality Mojkovac 5 Bijelo Polje Municipality Bijelo Polje 6 Berane / Petnjica Berane / Petnjica (22) 7 Rožaje Municipality Rožaje 8 Šavnik Municipality Šavnik 9 Nikšić Municipality Nikšić 10 Kolašin Municipality Kolašin 11 Andrijevica Municipality Andrijevica 12 Plav / Gusinje Plav / Gusinje (23) 13 Kotor Municipality Kotor 14 Cetinje Old Royal Capital 15 Danilovgrad Municipality Danilovgrad 16 Podgorica Capital City and Municipality 17 Herceg Novi Municipality Herceg Novi 18 Tivat Municipality Tivat 19 Budva Municipality Budva 20 Bar Municipality Bar 21 Ulcinj Municipality Ulcinj Cities in Montenegro[edit] Main article: List of cities in Montenegro   v t e Largest cities or towns in Montenegro 2011 census[49] Rank Name Municipalities of Montenegro Pop. Podgorica Nikšić 1 Podgorica Podgorica Municipality 136,473 Pljevlja Bijelo Polje 2 Nikšić Nikšić Municipality 58,212 3 Pljevlja Pljevlja Municipality 21,377 4 Bijelo Polje Bijelo Polje Municipality 15,883 5 Cetinje Cetinje Municipality 15,137 6 Bar Bar Municipality 13,719 7 Herceg Novi Herceg Novi Municipality 12,739 8 Berane Berane Municipality 11,776 9 Budva Budva Municipality 10,918 10 Ulcinj Ulcinj Municipality 10,828


Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Montenegro Roads of Montenegro in service and two planned: red - Bar–Boljare highway , blue - Adriatic–Ionian motorway Montenegro uses the Euro as its national currency. The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.114 billion in 2009. The GDP PPP for 2009 was $6.590 billion, or $10,527 per capita.[50] According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 41% of the EU average in 2010.[51] The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "euroised", using the euro unilaterally as its currency. GDP grew at 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008.[50] The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment.[52] The country exited the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth at around 0.5%.[53] However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit. In 2007, the service sector made up 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively.[54] There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget.[55] Infrastructure[edit] Main article: Transport in Montenegro The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination. Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E80. The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade – Bar railway. This railway intersects with Nikšić – Tirana (Albania) at Podgorica; however, it is not used for passenger service. A train of Railways of Montenegro Đurđevića Tara Bridge Podgorica Airport Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro. The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Montenegro Montenegro UNESCO World Heritage Site Part of Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iii, iv Reference 125 Inscription 1979 (3rd Session) Area 14,600 ha Buffer zone 36,491 ha Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years. With a total of 1.6 million visitors, the nation is the 36th (out of 47 countries) most visited country in Europe.[56] The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is 295 km (183 mi) long, with 72 km (45 mi) of beaches, and with many well-preserved ancient old towns. National Geographic Traveler (edited once in decade) features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine.[57] The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, The New York Times ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, as among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations.[58] Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)".[59] It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as top touristic destination along with Greece, Spain and other world touristic places.[60][61] It was not until the 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic. Tourist destinations Bay of Kotor Budva is one of the main tourist destinations Perast in Bay of Kotor Skadar Lake Sveti Stefan island in Budva. Once secluded, it is now connected to the mainland by a long isthmus Jaz Beach Herceg Novi Žabljak ski resort Durmitor, Škrčko Lake Porto Montenegro, luxury yacht marina Tara Canyon, deepest canyon in Europe


Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Montenegro and Demographic history of Montenegro Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1900 311,564 —     1909 317,856 +2.0% 1921 311,341 −2.0% 1931 360,044 +15.6% 1948 377,189 +4.8% 1953 419,873 +11.3% 1961 471,894 +12.4% 1971 529,604 +12.2% 1981 584,310 +10.3% 1991 615,035 +5.3% 2003 620,145 +0.8% 2011 625,266 +0.8% Ethnic structure[edit] Predominant ethnic group in each municipality of Montenegro, 2011 According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro has 620,029 citizens.[62] Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority.[63][64] Major ethnic groups include Montenegrins (Црногорци/Crnogorci) and Serbs (Срби/Srbi), others are Bosniaks (Bošnjaci), Albanians (Albanci – Shqiptarët) and Croats (Hrvati). The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation.[65] Ethnic groups (2011 census) Ethnic composition according to the 2011 official data:[62] Number % Total 620,029 100 Montenegrins 278,865 45.0 Serbs 178,110 28.7 Bosniaks 53,605 8.6 Albanians 30,439 4.9 Muslims by nationality 20,537 3.3 Croats 6,021 0.97 Roma 5,251 0.8 Serbo-Montenegrins 2,103 0.34 Egyptians 2,054 0.33 Montenegrins-Serbs 1,833 0.30 Yugoslavs 1,154 0.19 Russians 946 0.15 Macedonians 900 0.15 Bosnians 427 0.07 Slovenes 354 0.06 Hungarians 337 0.05 Muslim-Montenegrins 257 0.04 Gorani people 197 0.03 Muslim-Bosniaks 183 0.03 Bosniaks-Muslims 181 0.03 Montenegrin-Muslims 175 0.03 Italians 135 0.02 Germans 131 0.02 Turks 104 0.02 regional qualification 1.202 0.19 without declaration 30.170 4.87 other 3.358 0.54 Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Montenegro Linguistic structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011 The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. All of these languages, except Albanian, are mutually intelligible. According to the 2011 census, most citizens declared Serbian as their mother tongue. Montenegrin is the majority mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age, although by a very narrow margin- 39.2% comparing to 37.5% of Serbophone citizens.[66] In 2013, Matica crnogorska announced the results of public opinion research regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro, indicating that the majority of the population claims Montenegrin as their mother tongue.[67] Previous constitutions endorsed Serbo-Croatian as the official language in SR Montenegro and the Serbian language of Ijekavian Standard during the 1992–2006 period. Languages (2011 census) According to the 2011 Census the following languages are spoken in the country:[62] Number % Total 620,029 100 Serbian 265,895 42.88 Montenegrin 229,251 36.97 Bosnian 33,077 5.33 Albanian 32,671 5.27 Serbo-Croatian 12,559 2.03 Roma 5,169 0.83 Bosniak 3,662 0.59 Croatian 2,791 0.45 Russian 1,026 0.17 Serbo-Montenegrin 618 0.10 Macedonian 529 0.09 Montenegrin-Serbian 369 0.06 Hungarian 225 0.04 Croatian-Serbian 224 0.04 English 185 0.03 German 129 0.02 Slovene 107 0.02 Romanian 101 0.02 mother tongue 3.318 0.54 regional languages 458 0.07 without declaration 24.748 3.99 other 2.917 0.47 Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Montenegro Religious structure of Montenegro by settlements, 2011 Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian population.[68] Montenegrins have been, historically, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (governed by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most popular religion today in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognized. During the intensified tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War, Montenegro has remained fairly stable, mainly due its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity.[69] Religious institutions from Montenegro all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state. The second largest religious denomination religion is Islam, which amounts to 19% of the total population of the country. One third of Albanians are Catholics (8,126 in the 2004 census) while the two other thirds (22,267) are mainly Sunni Muslims; in 2012 a protocol passed that recognizes Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah (Friday)-prayer.[70] There is also a small Roman Catholic population, mostly Albanians with some Croats, divided between the Archdiocese of Antivari headed by the Primate of Serbia and the Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Church of Croatia. Points of interest Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica, greatest church in Montenegro. Ostrog Monastery the most important Christian pilgrimage site in Montenegro Kotor Cathedral Religion (2011 census) Religious determination according to the 2011 census:[62] Religion Number % Total 620,029 100 Eastern Orthodox 446,858 72.07 Islam/Muslims 118,477 (99,038 Islam, 19,439 Muslims) 19.11 (15.97 Islam, 3.14 Muslims) Catholics 21,299 3.44 Atheists 7,667 1.24 Christians 1,460 0.24 Adventists 894 0.14 Agnostics 451 0.07 Jehovah's Witnesses 145 0.02 Protestants 143 0.02 Buddhists 118 0.02 other 6,337 1.02 without declaration 16,180 2.61 Note: In the 2011 census, there are two separate columns for the adherents of Islam, one is called Islam, the other Muslims.


Education[edit] Main article: Education in Montenegro Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science. Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years. The students may continue their secondary education (Montenegrin: Srednja škola), which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura). Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. There is one public University (University of Montenegro) and two private (Mediterranean University and University of Donja Gorica). Elementary and secondary education[edit] National Library of Montenegro in Cetinje Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 7 and 15 when children attend the "eight-year school". Various types of elementary education are available to all who qualify, but the vocational and technical schools (gymnasiums), where the students follow four-year course which will take them up to the university entrance, are the most popular. At the secondary level there are a number of art schools, apprentice schools and teacher training schools. Those who have attended the technical schools may pursue their education further at one of two-year post-secondary schools, created in response to the needs of industry and the social services. Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades: Gymnasium (Gimnazija / Гимназиjа), lasts for four years and offers a general, broad education. It is a preparatory school for university, and hence the most academic and prestigious. Professional schools (Stručna škola / Стручна школа) last for three or four years and specialize students in certain fields which may result in their attending college; professional schools offer a relatively broad education. Vocational schools (Zanatska škola / Занатска школа) last for three years and focus on vocational education (e.g., joinery, plumbing, mechanics) without an option of continuing education after three years. Tertiary education[edit] Tertiary level institutions are divided into "Higher education" (Više obrazovanje) and "High education" (Visoko obrazovanje) level faculties. Colleges (Fakultet) and art academies (akademija umjetnosti) last between 4 and 6 years (one year is two semesters long) and award diplomas equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree. Higher schools (Viša škola) lasts between two and four years. Post-graduate education[edit] Post-graduate education (post-diplomske studije) is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, PhD and specialization education.


Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Montenegro Our Lady of Philermos the patroness of Montenegro, Rhodes and Sovereign Military Order of Malta, one of the first Christian icons, according to legend painted by St. Luke, National Museum of Montenegro, Cetinje. Our Lady of the Rocks, one example of Roman Catholic architecture in Montenegro. Art[edit] The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman (Turk), Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries. Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor[71] (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls. Medieval tombstones Stećci, UNESCO World Heritage by 2016. A dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, "Humaneness and Gallantry".[72][73] The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, the "eagle dance" that involves dancing in circles with couples alternating in the centre, and is finished by forming a human pyramid by dancers standing on each other's shoulders. Literature[edit] Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centres of culture and the arts in the country. Media[edit] Main article: Media of Montenegro The media of Montenegro refers to mass media outlets based in Montenegro. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of speech. As a country in transition, Montenegro's media system is under transformation. In popular culture[edit] Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, was a Prince-Bishop (vladika) of Montenegro and Montenegrin national poet and philosopher The setting for Franz Lehár's 1905 operetta The Merry Widow is the Paris embassy of the Grand Duchy of Pontevedro. Pontevedro is a fictionalized version of Montenegro and several of the characters were loosely based on actual Montenegrin nobility. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1915 novel Herland, a character discusses little-known countries: "Then there's Montenegro—splendid little state—you could lose a dozen Montenegroes up and down these great ranges."[74] In F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel The Great Gatsby, Gatsby impresses Nick that he has been awarded a World War I medal "for Valour Extraordinary" from Montenegro. Telling Nick, "Every Allied country gave me a decoration — even Montenegro, little Montenegro down on the Adriatic Sea!"[75] Nero Wolfe, the eccentric fictional detective created by American writer Rex Stout, is Montenegrin by birth.[76] One Nero Wolfe novel, The Black Mountain (1954), takes place in Tito-era Montenegro. The Dark Side of the Sun, a 1988 American-Yugoslavian drama film starring Brad Pitt about a young man in search of a cure for a dreaded skin disease, was filmed in Montenegro and directed by Montenegrin director Božidar Nikolić. The first modern official international representation of Montenegro as an independent state was in Miss World 2006, held on 30 September 2006 in Warsaw, Poland. Ivana Knežević from the city of Bar was the first Miss Montenegro at any international beauty pageant.[77] Both Montenegro and Serbia competed separately in this pageant for the first time after the state union came to an end. Part of the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale is set in Montenegro,[78] although all of the filming was done in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic.[79] The Big Picture (2010), based on a 1997 Douglas Kennedy novel, is a French film about a Parisian man who reinvents himself by becoming a photographer in Montenegro. The French name of the film is L'Homme qui voulait vivre sa vie (The Man Who Wanted to Live His Life). The first scenes of The November Man (2014) with Pierce Brosnan are filmed in Montenegro. Foods from Montenegro Njeguški pršut Cuisine[edit] Main article: Montenegrin cuisine Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and as well from Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental. Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Montenegro The Sports in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, and handball. Other sports involved are boxing, tennis, swimming, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess. Most popular sport is football. Among many great players from Montenegro were Dejan Savićević, Predrag Mijatović, Mirko Vučinić, Stefan Savić or Stevan Jovetić. Montenegrin national football team, founded at 2006, played in playoffs for UEFA Euro 2012, which is the biggest success in the history of national team. Water polo is often considered the national sport. Montenegro's national team is one of the top ranked teams in the world, winning the gold medal at the 2008 Men's European Water Polo Championship in Málaga, Spain, and winning the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League, which was held in Montenegrin capital, Podgorica. Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from Kotor became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia. Podgorica City Stadium, Montenegro fans with national features. The Montenegro national basketball team is also known for good performances and had won a lot of medals in the past as part of the Yugoslavia national basketball team. In 2006, the Basketball Federation of Montenegro along with this team joined the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) on its own, following the Independence of Montenegro. Montenegro participated on two Eurobaskets until now. Among women sports, the national handball team is the most successful, having won the 2012 European Championship and finishing as runner-ups at the 2012 Summer Olympics. ŽRK Budućnost Podgorica won two times EHF Champions League. Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, are born in Montenegro. At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Montenegro women's national handball team won the Silver medal losing to defending World, Olympic and European Champions, Norway in an exciting match 26–23. This is also Montenegro's first ever Olympic medal. Less than half a year later the team got revenge by beating Norway in the final of the 2012 European Championship, thus becoming champions for the first time. Medals won by Montenegro at the Olympics[80] Olympic Games Olympic medals Gold Silver Bronze 2008 Beijing 0 0 0 2010 Vancouver 0 0 0 2012 London 0 1 0 2014 Sochi 0 0 0 2016 Brazil 0 0 0 TOTAL: 0 1 0 Further informations and details about all Montenegrin clubs, club-competitions, their participation in European Cups and Montenegrin national teams are available on the page Sport in Montenegro. Public holidays[edit] Main article: Public holidays in Montenegro Holidays Date Name Notes 1 January New Year's Day (non-working holiday) 7 January Orthodox Christmas (non-working) 10 April Orthodox Good Friday Date for 2015 only 12 April Orthodox Easter Date for 2015 only 1 May Labor Day (non-working) 9 May Victory Day 21 May Independence Day (non-working) 13 July Statehood Day (non-working)


See also[edit] Montenegro portal NATO portal Europe portal Accession of Montenegro to NATO History of the Balkans Languages of Montenegro Law enforcement in Montenegro List of rulers of Montenegro Music of Montenegro Outline of Montenegro Savez Izviđača Crne Gore Telecommunications in Montenegro


References[edit] Notes[edit] ^ a b c Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states. Citations[edit] ^ "Language and alphabet Article 13". Constitution of Montenegro. WIPO. 19 October 2007. The official language in Montenegro shall be Montenegrin. Cyrillic and Latin alphabet shall be equal.  ^ "Language and alphabet Article 13". Constitution of Montenegro. WIPO. 19 October 2007. Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian shall also be in the official use.  ^ "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011" (PDF). Monstat. Retrieved 12 July 2011.  ^ "Procjene stanovništva i osnovni demografski pokazatelji 2016. godina" (PDF). Monstat.org. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ a b c d "Montenegro". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency".  ^ "2014 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ Basic data of Montenegro Archived 20 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b David Luscombe; Jonathan Riley-Smith (14 October 2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, C.1024-c.1198. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–.  ^ a b Jean W Sedlar. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. pp. 21–.  ^ John Van Antwerp Fine. he early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century. University of Michigan Press. p. 194.  ^ The Parliamentary Register, vol. 31, London 1792, p. 36 ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 532 ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 26 September 2006 Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Duklja, the first Montenegrin state". Montenegro.org. Archived from the original on 1997-01-16. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ a b Uğur Özcan, II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri(Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era)Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013. ISBN 9789751625274 ^ "Prema oceni istoričara, Trinaestojulski ustanak bio je prvi i najmasovniji oružani otpor u porobljenoj Evropi 1941. godine" (in Serbian). B92.net. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ "Bombing of Dubrovnik". Croatiatraveller.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ "A/RES/47/121. The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina". Un.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ YIHR.org Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [1] Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Porodica Nedžiba Loje o Njegovom Hapšenju i Deportaciji 1992". Godine Bosnjaci.net Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Russia pushes peace plan". BBC. 29 April 1999.  ^ "Montenegro vote result confirmed". BBC News. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "Montenegro declares independence". BBC News. 4 June 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "OCCRP announces 2015 Organized Crime and Corruption ‘Person of the Year’ Award". Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. ^ "The Balkans’ Corrupt Leaders are Playing NATO for a Fool". Foreign Policy. January 5, 2017. ^ "Montenegro invited to join NATO, a move sure to anger Russia, strain alliance’s standards". The Washington Times. December 1, 2015. ^ STOJANOVIC, DUSAN (31 October 2016). "NATO, RUSSIA TO HOLD PARALLEL DRILLS IN THE BALKANS". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  "Russians behind Montenegro coup attempt, says prosecutor". Deutsche Welle. Germany. AFP, Reuters, AP. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  "Montenegro Prosecutor: Russian Nationalists Behind Alleged Coup Attempt". Wall Street Journal. United States. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  "'Russian nationalists' behind Montenegro PM assassination plot". BBC. United Kingdom. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Montenegrin Court Confirms Charges Against Alleged Coup Plotters Radio Liberty, 8 June 2017. ^ Indictment tells murky Montenegrin coup tale: Trial will hear claims of Russian involvement in plans to assassinate prime minister and stop Balkan country’s NATO membership. Politico, 23 may 2017. ^ Montenegro finds itself at heart of tensions with Russia as it joins Nato: Alliance that bombed country only 18 years ago welcomes it as 29th member in move that has left its citizens divided The Guardian, 25 May 2017. ^ МИД РФ: ответ НАТО на предложения российских военных неконкретный и размытый // ″Расширение НАТО″, TASS, 6 October 2016. ^ Комментарий Департамента информации и печати МИД России в связи с голосованием в Скупщине Черногории по вопросу присоединения к НАТО Russian Foreign Ministry′s Statement, 28.04.17. ^ Darmanović: Montenegro becomes EU member in 2022 20 April 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. ^ EU to map out membership for 6 western Balkan states, Michael Peel and Neil Buckley, Financial Times, February 1, 2018 ^ "[Iron Deep 2012] Czech Speleological Society".  ^ Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. p. 22.  ^ Petović S., Gvozdenović S. & Ikica Z. (2017) "An Annotated Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of the South Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) and a Comparison with Those of Neighbouring Areas". Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17: 921-934. PDF. doi:10.4194/1303-2712-v17_5_08 ^ Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. pp. 22–23.  ^ "Ustav Crne Gore" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ a b "Foreign Policy".  ^ Julian E. Barnes (2017-05-25). "Montenegro to Join NATO on June 5 – WSJ". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017-05-25.  ^ "President Vujanovic's Closing Speech at the Crans Montana Forum". Predsjednik.me. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "Adriatic Charter".  ^ "NATO Formally Invites Montenegro as 29th Member". Associated Press. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ Milic, Predrag (2017-06-05). "Defying Russia, Montenegro finally joins NATO". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Vijesti.me. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.  ^ a b "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". April 2011.  ^ "GDP per capita in PPS" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ FDI falls across West Balkans, except Montenegro. Reuters India 10 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009. ^ "Montenegro's leader sees slow economic recovery". balkans.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.  ^ "Montenegro at a glance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011.  ^ Milosevic, Milena. "EU Farming Standards Pose Test For Montenegro". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ Mark Hillsdon (27 February 2017). "The European capital you'd never thought to visit (but really should)". telegraph.co.uk.  ^ "50 Places of a Lifetime". Blogs.nationalgeographic.com. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "The 31 Places to Go in 2010". New York Times. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009 by Yahoo Travel". Travel.yahoo.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Leue, Holger. "Where to go in June". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "America Sending their Best Adventure Racers to Montenegro". Adventureworldmagazineonline.com. 4 June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ a b c d "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.  ^ "Montenegro, country report" (PDF). European Commission. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.  ^ "Montenegro: A Modern History". I.B. Tauris. 15 February 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2016.  ^ "Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003". Njegos.org. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ [2] Vijesti: The majority of youth below 18 years of age speaks the Montenegrin language (26/07/2011) ^ [3] Matica crnogorska: Third deep research of public opinion regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro (2013) ^ Pettifer, James (2007). Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans. IOS Press. ISBN 1-58603-779-X.  ^ Larkin, Barbara (2001). International Religious Freedom 2000: Annual Report: Submitted By The U.S. Department Of State. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-7567-1229-7.  ^ Rifat Fejzic, the reis (president) of the Islamic community in Montenegro Today's Zaman ^ Šestović, Aleksandar. "Kotor". Kotoronline.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ "Чојство и јнаштво старих Црногораца, Цетиње 1968. 3–11". Web.f.bg.ac.rs. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Oblikovanje crnogorske nacije u doba petrovica njegosa, "Cojstvo je osobeno svojstvo Crnogoraca, koje su uzdigli u najvecu vrlinu i uzor."[dead link] ^ "Herland by Charlotte Perkins Gilman". Gutenberg.org. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ [4], eBooks: the Great Gatsby, "Text" ^ McAleer, John, Rex Stout: A Biography, 1977, Little, Brown and Company; ISBN 0-316-55340-9 pp. 403, 556, 566 ^ "Warsaw (MissWorld-2006-Warsaw)". Sfmission.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Sonypictures.com Archived 3 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine., James Bond Casino Royal official web site, "About" ^ "Grandhotel Pupp, Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic". Bond Lifestyle. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2017-02-06.  ^ "Croatia". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  Sources[edit] Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991), The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3  John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4 Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2007). Hitler's New Disorder: The Second World War in Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-1-85065-895-5. 


Further reading[edit] Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, (1984) ISBN 0-8014-9493-1 Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land (2002) ISBN 0-9619364-9-5 Longley, Norm. The Rough Guide to Montenegro (2009) ISBN 978-1-85828-771-3 Morrison, Kenneth. Montenegro: A Modern History (2009) ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8 Roberts, Elizabeth. Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro (Cornell University Press, 2007) 521pp ISBN 978-1-85065-868-9 Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro 2002) ISBN 978-1-4212-5089-2 Özcan, Uğur II. Abdulhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri [Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era] (2013) Türk Tarih Kurumu Turkish Historical Society ISBN 978-975-16-2527-4


External links[edit] Find more aboutMontenegroat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Official website of the Government of Montenegro (English) "Montenegro". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Montenegro from UCB Libraries GovPubs Montenegro at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Montenegro profile from the BBC News Culture Corner – leading Montenegrin web portal for culture Wikimedia Atlas of Montenegro Geographic data related to Montenegro at OpenStreetMap Montenegro topics v t e Municipalities of Montenegro Capital City Podgorica Golubovci Tuzi Old Royal Capital Cetinje Municipalities Andrijevica Bar Berane Bijelo Polje Budva Danilovgrad Gusinje Herceg Novi Kolašin Kotor Mojkovac Nikšić Petnjica Plav Pljevlja Plužine Rožaje Šavnik Tivat Ulcinj Žabljak v t e Regions in Montenegro Banjani Bay of Kotor Bihor Bjelice Bjelopavlići Budva Riviera Bukovica Bratonožići Brda Ceklin Cetinje Field Crmnica Cuce Dragalj Field Drobnjaci Grahovo Field Grbalj Gruda Hoti Lower Kolašin Upper Kolašin Krivošije Kuči Lukovo Field Lješanska nahija Malesija Maleševci Montenegrin Littoral Morača Mrkojevići Nikšić Njeguši Field Old Herzegovina Old Montenegro Paštrovići Piperi Piva Pješivci Podgora Plav-Gusinje Potarje Polimlje Rovca Sandžak Skadarska Krajina Šaranci Tuzi Vasojevići Zeta Plain v t e Ethnic groups of Montenegro Montenegrins Serbs Bosniaks Albanians Muslims Croats Roma (Ashkali-Egyptians) Macedonians Yugoslavs Turks See also Demographics Demographic history v t e Universities in Montenegro State University of Montenegro Private University Donja Gorica (UDG) University Mediteran Private faculties Faculty of Management in Traffic and Communications, Berane Faculty of Business and Tourism, Budva Faculty of Management, Herceg Novi Faculty of State and European Studies, Podgorica Faculty of Mediterranean Business Studies, Tivat Location v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. v t e Balkan Peninsula countries Geographically fully located Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Kosovo1 Macedonia Montenegro Significantly located Serbia Greece Croatia Mostly outside of the peninsula Romania Slovenia Turkey See also Southeast Europe History of the Balkans Balkan languages (Sprachbund) Balkanization 1 Declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008 and is recognised by 113 United Nations member states. International membership v t e Council of Europe Institutions Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Observers Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta Former members Czechoslovakia (1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956) 1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute. v t e North Atlantic Treaty Organization History North Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations Enlargement Structure Council Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization Agreement People Secretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander Transformation Members Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States Multilateral relations Atlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for Peace Portal v t e Enlargement and partners of the European Union Previous enlargements 1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Statistics Negotiating  Montenegro (status)  Serbia (status)  Turkey (status) Candidate status  Albania (status)  Macedonia (status) Potential candidates  Bosnia and Herzegovina (status)  Kosovo* (under the Belgrade–Pristina agreement; status) Partnerships Free trade agreements  Iceland (relations)  Liechtenstein (relations)  Norway (relations)   Switzerland (relations) Eastern Partnership  Armenia (relations)  Azerbaijan (relations)  Belarus (relations)  Georgia (relations) (accession)  Moldova (relations)  Ukraine (relations) Northern Dimension  Russia (relations)  Norway (relations) Union for the Mediterranean  Algeria  Egypt  Israel (relations)  Jordan (relations)  Lebanon (relations)  Mauritania  Monaco  Morocco (relations)  Palestine (relations)  Syria  Tunisia Current membership Criteria Withdrawal v t e Members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo/UNMIK Macedonia Moldova Montenegro Serbia v t e Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Members Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan Partners for Cooperation Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia Bodies and posts Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149551124 LCCN: n81032743 GND: 4040163-7 SELIBR: 154439 HDS: 41011 NDL: 01072580 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Montenegro&oldid=826248554" Categories: MontenegroBalkan countriesMember states of NATOMember states of the Council of EuropeMember states of the Union for the MediterraneanMember states of the United NationsStates and territories established in 20062006 establishments in MontenegroSlavic countries and territoriesSerbian-speaking countries and territoriesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Serbian-language sources (sr)CS1 Serbo-Croatian-language sources (sh)All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from June 2016Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse dmy dates from July 2012Coordinates on WikidataArticles containing Montenegrin-language textAll accuracy disputesArticles with disputed statements from August 2017Articles with hAudio microformatsArticles including recorded pronunciations (English)Articles containing Venetian-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2016Articles with Curlie linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers


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