Contents 1 Malaysia 2 Dialects 3 Vowels and Consonants 4 Example 4.1 Sentences 4.2 Numbers 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading


Malaysia[edit] Besides Indonesia, Minangkabau is also spoken in Malaysia, by some descendants of migrants from the Minang-speaking region in Sumatra (Ranah Minang, Tanah Minang, or Land of the Minang). Significant numbers of the early migrants settled in what is now the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan; this Negeri Sembilan Malay is known as Bahaso Nogori / Baso Nogoghi. More recent immigrants are known as Minang.


Dialects[edit] The Minangkabau language has several dialects, sometimes differing between nearby villages (e.g. separated by a river). The dialects are Rao Mapat Tunggul, Muaro Sungai Lolo, Payakumbuh, Pangkalan-Lubuk Alai, Agam-Tanah Datar, Pancungsoal, Kotobaru, Sungai Bendung Air, and Karanganyar.[6] In everyday communication between Minangkabau people of different regions, the Agam-Tanah Datar dialect (Baso Padang or Baso Urang Awak "our (people's) language") is often used and has become a kind of standard. The Tapan language, spoken in the town of Tapan in southern West Sumatra province, is a recently discovered Malayan language which has been proposed as related to but not part of Minangkabau. Together, Tapan and Minangkabau would form a Greater Minangkabau subgroup.[7] The two languages Tapan and Muko-Muko form a Lunangic subgroup within the Minangic (Greater Minangkabau) language group.[8][9] The Minangic subgroup is characterized by the following word-final sound changes.[10] *V[hi]ŋ > V[hi]ăŋ *us > uĭh *at > eʔ *as > eh *is > ih


Vowels and Consonants[edit] The phonology and orthography of Minangkabau is listed below[11]: Consonants Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Plosive voiceless p [p] t [t] k [k] q [ʔ] voiced b [b] d [d] g [ɡ] Fricative voiceless s [s] h [h] voiced Affricate voiceless c [tʃ] voiced j [dʒ] Nasal m [m] n [n] ny [ɲ] ng [ŋ] Lateral l [l] Rhotic r [r] Approximant w [w] y [j] Vowels Front Central Back Close i [i] u [u] Mid e [e] ē [ə] o [o] Open a [a]


Example[edit] Sentences[edit] English Minangkabau Indonesian/Malay How are you now? Ba'a kaba sanak kini? Bagaimana kabar anda sekarang? I'm well. How about you? Lai elok-elok se nyo. Sanak ba'a? Saya baik-baik saja. Anda bagaimana? What is your name? Sia namo sanak? Siapa nama anda? My name is ... Namo ambo ... Nama saya ... Thank you. Tarimo kasih. Terima kasih. The trees in the jungle don't have the same height, moreover the people. (Proverb) Sadang kayu di rimbo 'ndak samo tinggi, apo lai manusia. (Pribaso) Sedangkan pohon di hutan tidak sama tinggi, apalagi manusia. (Peribahasa) "How the frog swim, he swim like that too" means doing something without having a goal. "Co a koncek baranang co itu inyo" ba'arti mangarajokan suatu tapi indak punyo tujuan. "Bagaimana katak berenang seperti itulah dia" berarti mengerjakan sesuatu tanpa punya tujuan. Don't throw the rubbish here! (Command) Dilarang mambuang sarok di siko! (Parintah) Dilarang membuang sampah di sini! (Perintah) Do not touch! You will burn your hand. Ijan dipacik! Beko tangan ang kanai api. Jangan disentuh! Nanti tangannya terkena api. Numbers[edit] Number Minangkabau Indonesian/Malay English 1 cie' satu one 2 duo dua two 3 tigo tiga three 4 ampe' empat four 5 limo lima five 6 anam enam six 7 tujuah tujuh seven 8 lapan delapan eight 9 sambilan sembilan nine 10 sapuluah sepuluh ten 11 sabaleh sebelas eleven 15 limo baleh lima belas fifteen 50 limo puluah lima puluh fifty 100 saratuih seratus one hundred/a hundred 150 saratuih limo puluah seratus lima puluh one hundred and fifty 500 limo ratuih lima ratus five hundred #,000 ribu ribu thousand #,000,000 juta juta million #,000,000,000 millia milliar billion


See also[edit] Indonesia portal Languages portal Minangkabau edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Minangkabau people Overseas Minangkabau


References[edit] ^ Minangkabau at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) Negeri Sembilan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ Joshua Project. "People Groups". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2 July 2015.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Minangkabau". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Negeri Sembilan Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Kajian Serba Lingustik : Untuk Anton Moeliono Pereksa Bahasa (2000) ^ Nadra, Reniwati, and Efri Yades, Daerah Asal dan Arah Migrasi Orang Minangkabau di Provinsi Jambi Berdasarkan Kajian Variasi Dialektikal (2008) ^ Santi Kurniati, Yessy Prima Putri, Søren Wichmann and David Gil (2011)." Tapan: An Exploration in Malayic Subgrouping". ISMIL 15 conference presentation. Archived 2011-08-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://ical13.ling.sinica.edu.tw/Full_papers_and_ppts/July_18/G-32.pdf ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-18.  ^ http://ical13.ling.sinica.edu.tw/Full_papers_and_ppts/July_18/G-32.pdf ^ Maksan. 1984, p. 23-24


Further reading[edit] Nurlela Adnan, Ermitati, Rosnida M. Nur, Pusat Bahasa (Indonesia), Balai Pustaka (Persero), PT. 2001 - Indonesian-Minangkabau dictionary (Kamus bahasa Indonesia-Minangkabau), 841 pages. Tata Bahasa Minangkabau, Gerard Moussay (original title La Langue Minangkabau, translated from French by Rahayu S. Hidayat), ISBN 979-9023-16-5. v t e Languages of Indonesia Sunda-Sulawesi languages Malayo-Sumbawan Indonesian Bahasa Binan Slang Malay Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese Baduy Bantenese Javanese Javanese Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese Celebic Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu Lampungic Komering Lampung Northwest Sumatran Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’ Bornean languages Barito Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau Kayan–Murik Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai Land Dayak Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus North Bornean Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah Mainstream Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan Philippine languages Central Philippine Tausug Gorontalo-Mongondow Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa Minahasan Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan Sangiric Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud Central-Eastern languages Aru Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir Central Maluku Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan Flores–Lembata Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata Halmahera- Cenderawasih Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar Kei-Tanimbar Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena Selaru Selaru Seluwasan Sumba–Flores Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa Timor–Babar Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar Western Oceanic Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna Other Kowiai Papuan languages Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Ayamaru Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Karon Dori Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mantion Mawes Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom Other languages Creoles and Pidgins Malay-based creoles Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay Other creoles and pidgins Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese Sinitic languages Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien Medan Riau Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew Afro-Asiatic languages Modern Standard Arabic Dravidian languages Tamil Germanic languages English Dutch (historical) Sign languages Indonesian Sign Language Kata Kolok v t e Languages of Malaysia Main Official Malaysian Recognised English (comparison with British English) Significant minority Chinese Sino-Tibetan Cantonese Eastern Min Fuqing Fuzhou Hokkien Mandarin Chinese Malaysian Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Penang Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien Yue Chinese Indian Dravidian Malayalam Tamil Malaysian Tamil Telugu Indo-European Gujarati Hindi Punjabi Urdu Families Austroasiatic Aslian Austronesian Bornean Land Dayak Malayic Philippine Sama–Bajaw Tai-Kadai Tai Creoles Chavacano Kristang Manglish Other Malay trade and creole languages Natives & Indigenous Nationwide Banjar Buginese Javanese Malay (Malayan) Peninsular Malaysia Baba Malay Batek Baweanese Cheq Wong Chetty Malay Duano’ Jah Hut Jahai Jakun Kedah Malay Kelantan-Pattani Malay Kenaboi1 Kensiu Kintaq Kristang Lanoh Mah Meri Minriq Mintil Mos Negeri Sembilan Malay Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Perak Malay Rawa Malay Sabüm1 Semai Semaq Beri Semelai Semnam Southern Thai Temiar Temoq2 Temuan Terengganu Malay Wila'1 East Malaysia Abai Bahau Bajaw Balau Belait Berawan Biatah Bintulu Bonggi Bookan Bruneian/Kedayan Malay Brunei Bisaya Bukar Sadong Bukitan Coastal Kadazan Cocos Malay Daro-Matu Dumpas Dusun Eastern Kadazan Gana’ Iban Ida'an Iranun Jagoi Jangkang Kajaman Kalabakan Kanowit Kayan Kelabit Kendayan Keningau Murut Kinabatangan Kiput Klias River Kadazan Kota Marudu Talantang Kuijau Lahanan Lelak1 Lengilu1 Lotud Lun Bawang Mainstream Kenyah Maranao Melanau Molbog Momogun Murik Kayan Narom Nonukan Tidong Okolod Paluan Papar Punan Batu2 Penan Remun Sa'ban Sabah Bisaya Sabah Malay Sama Sarawak Malay Sebop Sebuyau Sekapan Selungai Murut Sembakung Seru1 Serudung Sian Suluk Sungai Tagol Timugon Tombonuwo Tring Tringgus Tutoh Ukit2 Uma’ Lasan Mixed & Others Rojak Tanglish Esperanto Immigrants African Arab Bangladeshi Burmese Cambodian East Timorese Filipino Indonesian comparison with Malaysian Iranian Japanese Korean Laotian Nepalese Pakistani Sri Lankan Thai Vietnamese Signs Main Malaysian Sign Language (Manually Coded Malay) By states Penang Sign Language Selangor Sign Language 1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinct languages. v t e Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages Malayo-Sumbawan Sundanese Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy) Madurese Kangean Madurese Malayo-Chamic Chamic Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat) Malayic Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi' Bali–Sasak Balinese Sasak Sumbawa Northwest Sumatran Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing Lampungic Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering Celebic (Disputed) Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’ Moken Moken dialects Javanese Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages) Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar Unclassified Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan Authority control GND: 4281547-2 NDL: 00567665 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minangkabau_language&oldid=823361195" Categories: Agglutinative languagesLanguages of IndonesiaLanguages of MalaysiaMalayic languagesMinangkabauMinangkabau languageHidden categories: Language articles citing Ethnologue 18Webarchive template wayback linksLanguages with ISO 639-2 codeArticles containing Indonesian-language textWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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