Contents 1 Background 1.1 Roots of the conflict in North Mexico 1.2 Designs on California 1.3 Republic of Texas 2 Origins of the war 3 Preparation for war 3.1 Challenges in Mexico 3.1.1 Mexican Army Soldaderas 3.1.2 Political divisions 3.2 United States Army 4 Outbreak of the war 4.1 Initial skirmish at the Nueces Strip 4.2 Further hostilities 4.3 Declarations of war 4.4 Antonio López de Santa Anna 5 Reaction in the United States 5.1 Opposition to the war 5.2 Defense of the war 5.3 U.S. press and popular war enthusiasm 6 Conduct of the war 6.1 New Mexico campaign 6.2 California campaign 6.3 Pacific Coast campaign 6.4 Northeastern Mexico 6.5 Northwestern Mexico 6.6 Southern Mexico 6.6.1 First Battle of Tabasco 6.6.2 Second Battle of Tabasco 6.6.3 Yucatán 6.7 Desertion 6.7.1 San Patricios 6.8 Scott's Mexico City campaign 6.8.1 Landings and siege of Veracruz 6.8.2 Advance on Puebla 6.8.3 Pause at Puebla 6.8.4 Advance on Mexico City and its capture Battle of Chapultepec 6.9 Santa Anna's last campaign 6.10 Anti-guerrilla campaign 7 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 8 Results 8.1 Altered territories 9 Impact of the war in the United States 9.1 Effect on the American Civil War 10 Impact of the war in Mexico 11 See also 12 Notes 13 Citations 14 Bibliography 14.1 Reference works 14.2 Surveys 14.3 Military 14.4 Political and diplomatic 14.5 Memory and historiography 14.6 Primary sources 15 External links 15.1 Guides, bibliographies and collections 15.2 Media and primary sources 15.3 Other

Background[edit] Roots of the conflict in North Mexico[edit] Comanches of West Texas in war regalia, c. 1830 The 1832 boundaries of Comancheria, the Comanche homeland The northern area of Mexico was sparsely settled and not well controlled politically by the government based in Mexico City. After independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico contended with internal struggles that sometimes verged on civil war and the northern frontier was not a high priority. In the sparsely settled interior of northern Mexico, the end of Spanish rule was marked by the end of financing for presidios and for subsidies to indigenous Americans to maintain the peace. There were conflicts between indigenous people in the northern region as well. The Comanche were particularly successful in expanding their territory in the Comanche–Mexico Wars and garnering resources. The Apache–Mexico Wars also made Mexico's north a violent place, with no effective political control. The Apache raids left thousands of people dead throughout northern Mexico. When the United States Army entered northern Mexico in 1846 they found demoralized Mexican settlers. There was little resistance to US forces from the civilian population.[10] Hostile activity from indigenous people also made communications and trade between the interior of Mexico and provinces such as Alta California and New Mexico difficult. As a result, New Mexico was dependent on the overland Santa Fe Trail trade with the United States at the outbreak of the Mexican–American War.[11] Mexico's military and diplomatic capabilities declined after it attained independence and left the northern half of the country vulnerable to the Comanche, Apache, and Navajo. The indigenous people, especially the Comanche, took advantage of the weakness of the Mexican state to undertake large-scale raids hundreds of miles into the country to acquire livestock for their own use and to supply an expanding market in Texas and the US.[12] The Mexican government's policy of settlement of US citizens in its province of Tejas was aimed at expanding control into Comanche lands, the Comancheria. Instead of settlement occurring in the central and west of the province, people settled in East Texas, where there was rich farmland and which was contiguous to southern US slave states. As settlers poured in from the US, the Mexican government took steps to discourage further settlement, including its 1829 abolition of slavery. In 1836, Mexico was relatively united in refusing to recognize the independence of Texas. Mexico threatened war with the United States if it annexed the Republic of Texas.[13] Meanwhile, U.S. President Polk's assertion of Manifest Destiny was focusing United States interest on westward expansion beyond its existing national borders. Designs on California[edit] During the Spanish colonial era, the Californias (i.e., the Baja California peninsula and Alta California) were sparsely settled. After Mexico became independent, it shut down the missions and reduced its military presence. Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwesternmost federal territory. In 1842, the US minister in Mexico, Waddy Thompson Jr., suggested Mexico might be willing to cede Alta California to settle debts, saying: "As to Texas, I regard it as of very little value compared with California, the richest, the most beautiful, and the healthiest country in the world ... with the acquisition of Upper California we should have the same ascendency on the Pacific ... France and England both have had their eyes upon it." US President John Tyler's administration suggested a tripartite pact that would settle the Oregon boundary dispute and provide for the cession of the port of San Francisco from Mexico; Lord Aberdeen declined to participate but said Britain had no objection to U.S. territorial acquisition there.[14] The British minister in Mexico, Richard Pakenham, wrote in 1841 to Lord Palmerston urging "to establish an English population in the magnificent Territory of Upper California", saying that "no part of the World offering greater natural advantages for the establishment of an English colony ... by all means desirable ... that California, once ceasing to belong to Mexico, should not fall into the hands of any power but England ... daring and adventurous speculators in the United States have already turned their thoughts in this direction." But by the time the letter reached London, Sir Robert Peel's Tory government, with its Little England policy, had come to power and rejected the proposal as expensive and a potential source of conflict.[15][16] A significant number of influential Californios were in favor of annexation, either by the United States or by the United Kingdom. Pío de Jesús Pico IV, the last governor of Alta California, was in favor of British annexation.[17] Republic of Texas[edit] Main articles: Republic of Texas, Texas annexation, and Texas Revolution The Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the individual U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845. In 1800, the colonial province of Texas was sparsely populated, with only about 7,000 non-Indian settlers.[18] The Spanish crown developed a policy of colonization to more effectively control the territory. After independence, the Mexican government implemented the policy, granting Moses Austin, a banker from Missouri, a large tract of land in Texas. Austin died before he could bring his plan of recruiting American settlers for the land to fruition, but his son, Stephen F. Austin, brought over 300 American families into Texas.[19] This started the steady trend of migration from the United States into the Texas frontier. Austin's colony was the most successful of several colonies authorized by the Mexican government. The Mexican government intended the new settlers to act as a buffer between the Tejano residents and the Comanches, but the non-Hispanic colonists tended to settle where there was decent farmland and trade connections with American Louisiana, which the United States had acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, rather than further west where they would have been an effective buffer against the Indians. In 1829, as a result of the large influx of American immigrants, the non-Hispanic outnumbered native Spanish speakers in the Texas territory. President Vicente Guerrero, a hero of Mexican independence, moved to gain more control over Texas and its influx of southern non-Hispanic colonists and discourage further immigration by abolishing slavery in Mexico.[18][20] The Mexican government also decided to reinstate the property tax and increase tariffs on shipped American goods. The settlers and many Mexican businessmen in the region rejected the demands, which led to Mexico closing Texas to additional immigration, which continued from the United States into Texas illegally. In 1834, General Antonio López de Santa Anna became the centralist dictator of Mexico, abandoning the federal system. He decided to quash the semi-independence of Texas, having succeeded in doing so in Coahuila (in 1824, Mexico had merged Texas and Coahuila into the enormous state of Coahuila y Tejas). Finally, Stephen F. Austin called Texians to arms; they declared independence from Mexico in 1836, and after Santa Anna defeated the Texians at the Alamo, he was defeated by the Texian Army commanded by General Sam Houston and captured at the Battle of San Jacinto and signed a treaty recognizing Texas' independence.[5] Texas consolidated its status as an independent republic and received official recognition from Britain, France, and the United States, which all advised Mexico not to try to reconquer the new nation. Most Texians wanted to join the United States of America, but annexation of Texas was contentious in the US Congress, where Whigs were largely opposed. In 1845 Texas agreed to the offer of annexation by the US Congress. Texas became the 28th state on December 29, 1845.[5]

Origins of the war[edit] The border of Texas as an independent state was originally never settled. The Republic of Texas claimed land up to the Rio Grande based on the Treaties of Velasco, but Mexico refused to accept these as valid, claiming that the Rio Grande in the treaty was the Nueces, and referred to the Rio Grande as the Rio Bravo. The ill-fated Texan Santa Fe Expedition of 1841 attempted to realize the claim to New Mexican territory East of the Rio Grande, but its members were captured and imprisoned. Reference to the Rio Grande boundary of Texas was omitted from the US Congress's annexation resolution to help secure passage after the annexation treaty failed in the Senate. President Polk claimed the Rio Grande boundary, and when Mexico sent forces over the Rio Grande, this provoked a dispute.[21] In July 1845, Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to Texas, and by October 3,500 Americans were on the Nueces River, ready to take by force the disputed land. Polk wanted to protect the border and also coveted for the U.S. the continent clear to the Pacific Ocean. At the same time Polk wrote to the American consul in the Mexican territory of Alta California, disclaiming American ambitions in California, but offering to support independence from Mexico or voluntary accession to the United States, and warning that the United States would oppose a British or French takeover.[21] To end another war scare with the United Kingdom over the Oregon Country, Polk signed the Oregon Treaty dividing the territory, angering northern Democrats who felt he was prioritizing Southern expansion over Northern expansion. In the Winter of 1845–46, the federally commissioned explorer John C. Frémont and a group of armed men appeared in Alta California. After telling the Mexican governor and the American Consul Larkin he was merely buying supplies on the way to Oregon, he instead went to the populated area of California and visited Santa Cruz and the Salinas Valley, explaining he had been looking for a seaside home for his mother.[22] Mexican authorities became alarmed and ordered him to leave. Frémont responded by building a fort on Gavilan Peak and raising the American flag. Larkin sent word that Frémont's actions were counterproductive. Frémont left California in March but returned to California and took control of the California Battalion following the outbreak of the Bear Flag Revolt in Sonoma.[23] In November 1845, Polk sent John Slidell, a secret representative, to Mexico City with an offer to the Mexican government of $25 million for the Rio Grande border in Texas and Mexico's provinces of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México. US expansionists wanted California to thwart British ambitions in the area and to gain a port on the Pacific Ocean. Polk authorized Slidell to forgive the $3 million owed to US citizens for damages caused by the Mexican War of Independence and pay another $25 to $30 million in exchange for the two territories.[24][25] Mexico was not inclined nor able to negotiate. In 1846 alone, the presidency changed hands four times, the war ministry six times, and the finance ministry sixteen times.[26] Mexican public opinion and all political factions agreed that selling the territories to the United States would tarnish the national honor.[27] Mexicans who opposed direct conflict with the United States, including President José Joaquín de Herrera, were viewed as traitors.[28] Military opponents of de Herrera, supported by populist newspapers, considered Slidell's presence in Mexico City an insult. When de Herrera considered receiving Slidell to settle the problem of Texas annexation peacefully, he was accused of treason and deposed. After a more nationalistic government under General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga came to power, it publicly reaffirmed Mexico's claim to Texas;[28] Slidell, convinced that Mexico should be "chastised", returned to the US.[29]

Preparation for war[edit] Challenges in Mexico[edit] Mexican Army[edit] General Antonio López de Santa Anna was a military hero who became president of Mexico on multiple occasions. The Mexican Army's intervention in politics was an ongoing issue during much of the mid-nineteenth century. The Mexican Army emerged from the war of independence (1810–1821) as a weak and divided force. Before the war with the United States, the military faced both internal and foreign challenges. The Spanish still occupied the coastal fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, and Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence, so that the new nation was at risk for invasion. In 1829, the Spanish attempted to reconquer their former colony and Antonio López de Santa Anna became a national hero defending the homeland.[30] The army had a set of privileges (fueros), established in the colonial era, that gave it jurisdiction over many aspects of its affairs. In general, the military supported conservative positions, advocating for a strong central government and upholding privileges of the military and the Catholic Church. Some military men exercised power in local areas as caudillos and resisted central command. Liberal politicians, such as Valentín Gómez Farías, sought to rein in the military's power. The military faced insurrections and separatist movements in Tabasco, Yucatán, and Texas. The French blockaded in Veracruz in 1838 to collect debts, a conflict known to history as the Pastry War. Compounding the demands on the Mexican military, there were continuing Indian challenges to power in the northern region.[31] On the Mexican side, only 7 of the 19 states that formed the Mexican federation sent soldiers, armament, and money for the war effort, as the young Republic had not yet developed a sense of a unifying, national identity.[32] Mexican soldiers were not easily melded into an effective fighting force. Santa Anna said "the leaders of the army did their best to train the rough men who volunteered, but they could do little to inspire them with patriotism for the glorious country they were honored to serve."[33] According to leading conservative politician Lucas Alamán, the "money spent on arming Mexican troops merely enabled them to fight each other and 'give the illusion' that the country possessed an army for its defense."[34] However, an officer criticized Santa Anna's training of troops, "The cavalry was drilled only in regiments. The artillery hardly ever maneuvered and never fired a blank shot. The general in command was never present on the field of maneuvers, so that he was unable to appreciate the respective qualities of the various bodies under his command.... If any meetings of the principal commanding officers were held to discuss the operations of the campaign, it was not known, nor was it known whether any plan of campaign had been formed."[35] At the beginning of the war, Mexican forces were divided between the permanent forces (permanentes) and the active militiamen (activos). The permanent forces consisted of 12 regiments of infantry (of two battalions each), three brigades of artillery, eight regiments of cavalry, one separate squadron and a brigade of dragoons. The militia amounted to nine infantry and six cavalry regiments. In the northern territories of Mexico, presidial companies (presidiales) protected the scattered settlements there.[36] One of the contributing factors to loss of the war by Mexico was the inferiority of their weapons. The Mexican army was using surplus British muskets (e.g. Brown Bess) from the Napoleonic Wars period. While at the beginning of the war the majority of American soldiers were still equipped with the very similar Springfield 1816 flintlock muskets, more reliable caplock models gained large inroads within the rank and file as the conflict progressed. Some US troops carried radically modern weapons that gave them a significant advantage over their Mexican counterparts, such as the Springfield 1841 rifle of the Mississippi Rifles and the Colt Paterson revolver of the Texas Rangers. In the later stages of the war, the US Mounted Rifles were issued Colt Walker revolvers, of which the US Army had ordered 1,000 in 1846. Most significantly, throughout the war the superiority of the US artillery often carried the day. While technologically Mexican and American artillery operated on the same plane, US army training as well as the quality and reliability of their logistics gave US guns and cannoneers a significant edge. Desertion was a major problem for the Mexican army, depleting forces on the eve of battle. Most soldiers were peasants who held loyalty to their village and family, but not to the generals who had conscripted them. Often hungry and ill, under-equipped, only partially trained, and never well paid, the soldiers were held in contempt by their officers and had little reason to fight the invading US forces. Looking for their opportunity, many slipped away from camp to find their way back to their home village.[37] Soldaderas[edit] Women who traveled with the men in the Mexican army where known as soldaderas. While they only carried their packs, there were recorded instances where the soldaderas would join in the battle alongside the men. These women were involved in street fighting during the defence of Mexico City and Monterey. Some women such as Dos Amandes and Maria Josefa Zozaya would be remembered as heroes.[38] Political divisions[edit] Liberal Valentín Gómez Farías, who served as Santa Anna's vice president and implemented a liberal reform in 1833, was an important political player in the era of the Mexican–American War. Political divisions inside Mexico were another factor in the US victory. Inside Mexico, the centralistas and republicanos vied for power, and at times these two factions inside Mexico's military fought each other rather than the invading US Army. Another faction called the monarchists, whose members wanted to install a monarch (some advocated rejoining Spain), further complicated matters. This third faction would rise to predominance in the period of the French intervention in Mexico. The ease of the American landing at Veracruz was in large part due to civil warfare in Mexico City, which made any real defense of the port city impossible. As Gen. Santa Anna said, "However shameful it may be to admit this, we have brought this disgraceful tragedy upon ourselves through our interminable in-fighting."[39][40] United States Army[edit] Main article: List of U.S. Army, Navy, and volunteer units in the Mexican–American War U.S. Army occupation of Mexico City in 1847. The American flag is flying over the National Palace, the seat of the Mexican government. On the U.S. side, the war was fought by regiments of regulars and various regiments, battalions, and companies of volunteers from the different states of the Union as well as Americans and some Mexicans in the California and New Mexico territories. On the West Coast, the US Navy fielded a battalion of sailors, in an attempt to recapture Los Angeles.[41] Although the US Army and Navy were not large at the outbreak of the war, the officers were generally well trained and the numbers of enlisted men fairly large compared to Mexico's. At the beginning of the war, the US Army had eight regiments of infantry (three battalions each), four artillery regiments and three mounted regiments (two dragoons, one of mounted rifles). These regiments were supplemented by 10 new regiments (nine of infantry and one of cavalry) raised for one year of service by the act of Congress from February 11, 1847.[42] State volunteers were raised in various sized units and for various periods of time, mostly for one year. Later some were raised for the duration of the war as it became clear it was going to last longer than a year.[43] US soldiers' memoirs describe cases of looting and murder of Mexican civilians, mostly by State Volunteers. One officer's diary records: We reached Burrita about 5 pm, many of the Louisiana volunteers were there, a lawless drunken rabble. They had driven away the inhabitants, taken possession of their houses, and were emulating each other in making beasts of themselves.[44] John L. O'Sullivan, a vocal proponent of Manifest Destiny, later recalled: The regulars regarded the volunteers with importance and contempt ... [The volunteers] robbed Mexicans of their cattle and corn, stole their fences for firewood, got drunk, and killed several inoffensive inhabitants of the town in the streets. Many of the volunteers were unwanted and considered poor soldiers. The expression "Just like Gaines's army" came to refer to something useless, the phrase having originated when a group of untrained and unwilling Louisiana troops were rejected and sent back by Gen. Taylor at the beginning of the war.[45] 1,563 US soldiers are buried in the Mexico City National Cemetery, which is maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission.

Outbreak of the war[edit] Initial skirmish at the Nueces Strip[edit] Main article: Nueces Strip President Polk ordered General Taylor and his forces south to the Rio Grande, entering the territory that Mexicans disputed. Mexico laid claim to all the lands as far north as the Nueces River—about 150 mi (240 km) north of the Rio Grande. The U.S. claimed that the border was the Rio Grande, citing the 1836 Treaties of Velasco. However, Mexico rejected the treaties and refused to negotiate, instead still claiming all of Texas.[46] Taylor ignored Mexican demands to withdraw to the Nueces. He constructed a makeshift fort (later known as Fort Brown/Fort Texas) on the banks of the Rio Grande opposite the city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas.[47] The Mexican forces under General Santa Anna immediately prepared for war. On April 25, 1846, a 2,000-man Mexican cavalry detachment attacked a 70-man U.S. patrol under the command of Captain Seth Thornton, which had been sent into the contested territory north of the Rio Grande and south of the Nueces River. In the Thornton Affair, the Mexican cavalry routed the patrol, killing 11 American soldiers.[48] Regarding the beginning of the war, Ulysses S. Grant, who had opposed the war but served as an army lieutenant in Taylor's Army, claims in his Personal Memoirs (1885) that the main goal of the U.S. Army's advance from Nueces River to Rio Grande was to provoke the outbreak of war without attacking first, to debilitate any political opposition to the war. The presence of United States troops on the edge of the disputed territory farthest from the Mexican settlements, was not sufficient to provoke hostilities. We were sent to provoke a fight, but it was essential that Mexico should commence it. It was very doubtful whether Congress would declare war; but if Mexico should attack our troops, the Executive could announce, "Whereas, war exists by the acts of, etc.," and prosecute the contest with vigor. Once initiated there were but few public men who would have the courage to oppose it.... Mexico showing no willingness to come to the Nueces to drive the invaders from her soil, it became necessary for the "invaders" to approach to within a convenient distance to be struck. Accordingly, preparations were begun for moving the army to the Rio Grande, to a point near Matamoras (sic). It was desirable to occupy a position near the largest centre of population possible to reach, without absolutely invading territory to which we set up no claim whatever.[49] Further hostilities[edit] Captain Charles A. May's squadron of the 2nd Dragoons slashes through the Mexican Army lines. Resaca de la Palma, Texas, May 9, 1846. A few days after the defeat of the U.S. troops by General Arista, the Siege of Fort Texas began on May 3, 1846. Mexican artillery at Matamoros opened fire on Fort Texas, which replied with its own guns. The bombardment continued for 160 hours[50] and expanded as Mexican forces gradually surrounded the fort. Thirteen U.S. soldiers were injured during the bombardment, and two were killed.[50] Among the dead was Jacob Brown, after whom the fort was later named.[51] On May 8, Zachary Taylor and 2,400 troops arrived to relieve the fort.[52] However, General Arista rushed north and intercepted him with a force of 3,400 at Palo Alto. The U.S. Army employed "flying artillery", their term for horse artillery, a type of mobile light artillery that was mounted on horse carriages with the entire crew riding horses into battle. It had a devastating effect on the Mexican army. In contrast to the "flying artillery" of the Americans, the Mexican cannons at the Battle of Palo Alto fired at such slow velocities that it was possible for American soldiers to dodge artillery rounds.[53] The Mexicans replied with cavalry skirmishes and their own artillery. The U.S. flying artillery somewhat demoralized the Mexican side, and seeking terrain more to their advantage, the Mexicans retreated to the far side of a dry riverbed (resaca) during the night. It provided a natural fortification, but during the retreat, Mexican troops were scattered, making communication difficult.[50] During the Battle of Resaca de la Palma the next day, the two sides engaged in fierce hand to hand combat. The U.S. Cavalry managed to capture the Mexican artillery, causing the Mexican side to retreat—a retreat that turned into a rout.[50] Fighting on unfamiliar terrain, his troops fleeing in retreat, Arista found it impossible to rally his forces. Mexican casualties were heavy, and the Mexicans were forced to abandon their artillery and baggage. Fort Brown inflicted additional casualties as the withdrawing troops passed by the fort. Many Mexican soldiers drowned trying to swim across the Rio Grande.[citation needed] Both these engagements were fought before war was declared. Declarations of war[edit] v t e Texas Campaign Thornton Affair Siege of Fort Texas Battle of Palo Alto Battle of Resaca de la Palma Overview map of the war. Key:   Disputed territory   United States territory, 1848   Mexican territory, 1848   After treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo In 1846, relations between the two countries had deteriorated considerably and on April 23, 1846, the president of Mexico issued a proclamation, declaring Mexico's intent to fight a "defensive war" against the encroachment of the United States.[54] On April 25, 1846, 2,000 Mexican cavalry crossed into the disputed territory and routed a small detachment of American soldiers sparking the "Thornton Affair" [54] Polk received word of the Thornton Affair, which, added to the Mexican government's rejection of Slidell, Polk believed, constituted a casus belli (cause for war).[55] His message to Congress on May 11, 1846, claimed that "Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil."[56][57] The U.S. Congress approved the declaration of war on May 13, 1846, after a few hours of debate, with southern Democrats in strong support. Sixty-seven Whigs voted against the war on a key slavery amendment,[58] but on the final passage only 14 Whigs voted no,[58] including Rep. John Quincy Adams. In Mexico, although President Paredes issued a manifesto on May 23, 1846 and a declaration of a defensive war on April 23, both of which are considered by some the de facto start of the war, Mexico officially declared war by Congress on July 7, 1846. Antonio López de Santa Anna[edit] Once the U.S. declared war on Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna wrote to the Mexican government, saying he no longer had aspirations to the presidency, but would eagerly use his military experience to fight off the foreign invasion of Mexico as he had before. President Valentín Gómez Farías, a civilian, was desperate enough to accept the offer and allowed Santa Anna to return. Meanwhile, Santa Anna had secretly been dealing with representatives of the U.S., pledging that if he were allowed back in Mexico through the U.S. naval blockades he would work to sell all contested territory to the United States at a reasonable price.[59] Once back in Mexico at the head of an army, Santa Anna reneged on both agreements. He declared himself president once again and unsuccessfully tried to fight off the U.S. invasion.

Reaction in the United States[edit] Events leading to the American Civil War Slavery Northwest Ordinance Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Battle of Negro Fort Missouri Compromise Tariff of 1828 Nat Turner's slave rebellion Nullification Crisis The Amistad Prigg v. Pennsylvania Texas annexation Mexican–American War Wilmot Proviso Manifest destiny Underground Railroad Nashville Convention Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas–Nebraska Act Ostend Manifesto Bleeding Kansas Caning of Charles Sumner Dred Scott v. Sandford The Impending Crisis of the South Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry 1860 presidential election Crittenden Compromise Secession of Southern States Star of the West Corwin Amendment Battle of Fort Sumter v t e Opposition to the war[edit] Abraham Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives when he opposed the Mexican–American War. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846. In the United States, increasingly divided by sectional rivalry, the war was a partisan issue and an essential element in the origins of the American Civil War. Most Whigs in the North and South opposed it;[60] most Democrats supported it.[61] Southern Democrats, animated by a popular belief in Manifest Destiny, supported it in hope of adding slave-owning territory to the South and avoiding being outnumbered by the faster-growing North. John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, coined this phrase in its context, stating that it must be "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."[62] Ex-slave and powerful anti-slavery advocate Frederick Douglass (circa 1847–52) opposed the Mexican–American War. Northern antislavery elements feared the expansion of the Southern Slave Power; Whigs generally wanted to strengthen the economy with industrialization, not expand it with more land. Among the most vocal opposing the war in the House of Representatives was John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. Adams had first voiced concerns about expanding into Mexican territory in 1836 when he opposed Texas annexation. He continued this argument in 1846 for the same reason. War with Mexico would add new slavery territory to the nation. When the vote to go to war with Mexico came to a vote on May 13, Adams spoke a resounding "NO" in the chamber. Only 13 others followed his lead. Ex-slave Frederick Douglass opposed the war and was dismayed by the weakness of the anti-war movement. "The determination of our slave holding president, and the probability of his success in wringing from the people, men and money to carry it on, is made evident by the puny opposition arrayed against him. None seem willing to take their stand for peace at all risks."[63] Democrats wanted more land; northern Democrats were attracted by the possibilities in the far northwest. Joshua Giddings led a group of dissenters in Washington D.C. He called the war with Mexico "an aggressive, unholy, and unjust war", and voted against supplying soldiers and weapons. He said: In the murder of Mexicans upon their own soil, or in robbing them of their country, I can take no part either now or hereafter. The guilt of these crimes must rest on others. I will not participate in them.[64] Fellow Whig Abraham Lincoln contested Polk's causes for the war. Polk had said that Mexico had "shed American blood upon American soil". Lincoln submitted eight "Spot Resolutions", demanding that Polk state the exact spot where Thornton had been attacked and American blood shed, and clarify whether or not that location was actually American soil, or in fact had been claimed by Spain and Mexico. Whig Senator Thomas Corwin of Ohio gave a long speech indicting presidential war in 1847.[65] Whig leader Robert Toombs of Georgia declared: This war is nondescript... We charge the President with usurping the war-making power ... with seizing a country ... which had been for centuries, and was then in the possession of the Mexicans.... Let us put a check upon this lust of dominion. We had territory enough, Heaven knew.[66] Henry David Thoreau spent a night in jail for not paying poll taxes to support the war and later wrote Civil Disobedience. Northern abolitionists attacked the war as an attempt by slave-owners to strengthen the grip of slavery and thus ensure their continued influence in the federal government. Acting on his convictions, Henry David Thoreau was jailed for his refusal to pay taxes to support the war, and penned his famous essay Civil Disobedience. Democratic Representative David Wilmot introduced the Wilmot Proviso, which would prohibit slavery in new territory acquired from Mexico. Wilmot's proposal passed the House but not the Senate, and it spurred further hostility between the factions. Defense of the war[edit] Besides alleging that the actions of Mexican military forces within the disputed boundary lands north of the Rio Grande constituted an attack on American soil, the war's advocates viewed the territories of New Mexico and California as only nominally Mexican possessions with very tenuous ties to Mexico. They saw the territories as actually unsettled, ungoverned, and unprotected frontier lands, whose non-aboriginal population, where there was any at all, represented a substantial—in places even a majority—American component. Moreover, the territories were feared to be under imminent threat of acquisition by America's rival on the continent, the British. President Polk reprised these arguments in his Third Annual Message to Congress on December 7, 1847.[67] In it he scrupulously detailed his administration's position on the origins of the conflict, the measures the U.S. had taken to avoid hostilities, and the justification for declaring war. He also elaborated upon the many outstanding financial claims by American citizens against Mexico and argued that, in view of the country's insolvency, the cession of some large portion of its northern territories was the only indemnity realistically available as compensation. This helped to rally congressional Democrats to his side, ensuring passage of his war measures and bolstering support for the war in the U.S. U.S. press and popular war enthusiasm[edit] War News from Mexico (1848) Whipping up support for the war was embraced by the press. Richard Caton Woodville's lithograph, War News From Mexico satirizes the reactions of various segments of the American population to the war. The lithograph is generally considered unfavorable to the war's apparent pro-slavery motivations. [68] The coverage of the war was an important development in the U.S., with journalists as well as letter-writing soldiers giving the public in the U.S. "their first-ever independent news coverage of warfare from home or abroad."[69] During the war, inventions such as the telegraph created new means of communication that updated people with the latest news from the reporters, who were on the scene. The most important of these was George Wilkins Kendall, a Northerner who wrote for the New Orleans Picayune, and whose collected Dispatches from the Mexican War constitute an important primary source for the conflict.[70] With more than a decade's experience reporting urban crime, the "penny press" realized the public's voracious demand for astounding war news. Moreover, Shelley Streetby demonstrates that the print revolution (1830s-1840s), which preceded the U.S.-Mexican War, made it possible for the distribution of cheap newspapers throughout the country.[71] This was the first time in American history that accounts by journalists, instead of opinions of politicians, had great influence in shaping people's opinions about and attitudes toward a war. Along with written accounts of the war, there were war artists giving a visual dimension to the war at the time and immediately afterward. Carl Nebel's visual depictions of the war are well known.[72] By getting constant reports from the battlefield, Americans became emotionally united as a community. News about the war always caused extraordinary popular excitement. In the Spring of 1846, news about Zachary Taylor's victory at Palo Alto brought up a large crowd that met in a cotton textile town of Lowell, Massachusetts. New York celebrated the twin victories at Veracruz and Buena Vista in May 1847. Among fireworks and illuminations, they had a "grand procession" of about 400,000 people.[citation needed] Generals Taylor and Scott became heroes for their people and later became presidential candidates.

Conduct of the war[edit] See also: Mexican–American War campaigns After the declaration of war on May 13, 1846, U.S. forces invaded Mexican territory on two main fronts. The U.S. War Department sent a U.S. Cavalry force under Stephen W. Kearny to invade western Mexico from Jefferson Barracks and Fort Leavenworth, reinforced by a Pacific fleet under John D. Sloat. This was done primarily because of concerns that Britain might also try to seize the area. Two more forces, one under John E. Wool and the other under Taylor, were ordered to occupy Mexico as far south as the city of Monterrey. New Mexico campaign[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Capture of Santa Fe and Taos Revolt v t e New Mexico Campaign Mexican-American Conflict Capture of Santa Fe Capture of Tucson Battle of El Brazito Taos Revolt Battle of Cañada First Battle of Mora Battle of Embudo Pass Second Battle of Mora Siege of Pueblo de Taos Battle of Red River Canyon Battle of Las Vegas Battle of Cienega Creek Gen. Kearny's annexation of New Mexico, August 15, 1846 United States Army General Stephen W. Kearny moved southwest from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas with about 1,700 men in his Army of the West. Kearny's orders were to secure the territories Nuevo México and Alta California.[73] In Santa Fe, Governor Manuel Armijo wanted to avoid battle, but on August 9, Catholic priests, Diego Archuleta (the young regular-army commander), and the young militia officers Manuel Chaves and Miguel Pino forced him to muster a defense.[74] Armijo set up a position in Apache Canyon, a narrow pass about 10 miles (16 km) southeast of the city.[75] However, on August 14, before the American army was even in view, he decided not to fight. (An American named James Magoffin claimed he had convinced Armijo and Archuleta to follow this course;[76] an unverified story says he bribed Armijo.[77]) When Pino, Chaves, and some of the militiamen insisted on fighting, Armijo ordered the cannon pointed at them.[74] The New Mexican army retreated to Santa Fe, and Armijo fled to Chihuahua. Kearny and his troops encountered no Mexican forces when they arrived on August 15. Kearny and his force entered Santa Fe and claimed the New Mexico Territory for the United States without a shot being fired. Kearny declared himself the military governor of the New Mexico Territory on August 18 and established a civilian government. American officers with a background in law drew up a temporary legal system for the territory called the Kearny Code.[78] Kearny then took the remainder of his army west to Alta California.[73] When he departed with his forces for California, he left Colonel Sterling Price in command of U.S. forces in New Mexico. He appointed Charles Bent as New Mexico's first territorial governor. Following Kearny's departure, dissenters in Santa Fe plotted a Christmas uprising. When the plans were discovered by the U.S. authorities, the dissenters postponed the uprising. They attracted numerous Indian allies, including Puebloan peoples, who also wanted to push the Americans from the territory. On the morning of January 19, 1847, the insurrectionists began the revolt in Don Fernando de Taos, present-day Taos, New Mexico, which later gave it the name the Taos Revolt. They were led by Pablo Montoya, a New Mexican, and Tomás Romero, a Taos pueblo Indian also known as Tomasito (Little Thomas). Romero led an Indian force to the house of Governor Charles Bent, where they broke down the door, shot Bent with arrows, and scalped him in front of his family. They moved on, leaving Bent still alive. With his wife Ignacia and children, and the wives of friends Kit Carson and Thomas Boggs, the group escaped by digging through the adobe walls of their house into the one next door. When the insurgents discovered the party, they killed Bent, but left the women and children unharmed. The next day a large armed force of approximately 500 New Mexicans and Pueblo attacked and laid siege to Simeon Turley's mill in Arroyo Hondo, several miles outside of Taos. Charles Autobees, an employee at the mill, saw the men coming. He rode to Santa Fe for help from the occupying U.S. forces. Eight to ten mountain men were left at the mill for defense. After a day-long battle, only two of the mountain men, John David Albert and Thomas Tate Tobin, Autobees' half brother, survived. Both escaped separately on foot during the night. The same day New Mexican insurgents killed seven American traders who were passing through the village of Mora. At most, 15 Americans were killed in both actions on January 20. The U.S. military moved quickly to quash the revolt; Col. Price led more than 300 U.S. troops from Santa Fe to Taos, together with 65 volunteers, including a few New Mexicans, organized by Ceran St. Vrain, the business partner of the brothers William and Charles Bent. Along the way, the combined forces beat back a force of some 1,500 New Mexicans and Pueblo at Santa Cruz de la Cañada at Embudo Pass. The insurgents retreated to Taos Pueblo, where they took refuge in the thick-walled adobe church. During the ensuing battle, the U.S. breached a wall of the church and directed cannon fire into the interior, inflicting many casualties and killing about 150 rebels. They captured 400 more men after close hand-to-hand fighting. Only seven Americans died in the battle.[79] A separate force of U.S. troops under captains Israel R. Hendley and Jesse I. Morin campaigned against the rebels in Mora. The First Battle of Mora ended in a New Mexican victory. The Americans attacked again in the Second Battle of Mora and won, which ended their operations against Mora. New Mexican rebels engaged U.S. forces three more times in the following months. The actions are known as the Battle of Red River Canyon, the Battle of Las Vegas, and the Battle of Cienega Creek. After the U.S. forces won each battle, the New Mexicans and Indians ended open warfare.[citation needed] California campaign[edit] Main article: Conquest of California v t e California Campaign Battle of Chino Mexican–American War Battle of Monterey Siege of Los Angeles Battle of Dominguez Rancho Battle of Natividad Battle of San Pasqual Battle of Rio San Gabriel Battle of La Mesa A replica of the first "Bear Flag" now at El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks Although the U.S. declared war against Mexico on May 13, 1846,[80] it took almost three months (until early August 1846) for definitive word of Congress' declaration of war to get to California. American consul Thomas O. Larkin, stationed in Monterey, worked successfully during the events in that vicinity to avoid bloodshed between Americans and the Mexican military garrison commanded by General José Castro, the senior military officer in California.[81] Captain John C. Frémont, leading a U.S. Army topographical expedition to survey the Great Basin, entered the Sacramento Valley in December 1845.[82] Frémont's party was at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon Territory, when it received word that war between Mexico and the U.S. was imminent;[83] the party then returned to California.[84] Mexico had issued a proclamation that unnaturalized foreigners were no longer permitted to have land in California and were subject to expulsion.[85] With rumors swirling that General Castro was massing an army against them, American settlers in the Sacramento Valley banded together to meet the threat.[86] On June 14, 1846, 34 American settlers seized control of the undefended Mexican government outpost of Sonoma to forestall Castro's plans.[87] One settler created the Bear Flag and raised it over Sonoma Plaza. Within a week, 70 more volunteers joined the rebels' force,[88] which grew to nearly 300 in early July.[89] This event, led by William B. Ide, became known as the Bear Flag Revolt. On June 25, Frémont's party arrived to assist in an expected military confrontation.[90] San Francisco, then called Yerba Buena, was occupied by the Bear Flaggers on July 2.[91] On July 5 Frémont's California Battalion was formed by combining his forces with many of the rebels.[92] Commodore John D. Sloat, commander of the U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron, near Mazatlan, Mexico, had received orders to seize San Francisco Bay and blockade California ports when he was positive that war had begun.[93] Sloat set sail for Monterey, reaching it on July 1.[94] Sloat, upon hearing of the events in Sonoma and Frémont's involvement, erroneously believed Frémont to be acting on orders from Washington and ordered his forces to occupy Monterey on July 7 and raise the American flag.[95] On July 9, 70 sailors and marines landed at Yerba Buena and raised the American flag. Later that day in Sonoma, the Bear Flag was lowered and the American flag was raised in its place.[96] On Sloat's orders, Frémont brought 160 volunteers to Monterey, in addition to the California Battalion.[97] On July 15, Sloat transferred his command of the Pacific Squadron to Commodore Robert F. Stockton, who was more militarily aggressive.[98] He mustered the willing members of the California Battalion into military service with Frémont in command.[98] Stockton ordered Frémont to San Diego to prepare to move northward to Los Angeles.[99] As Frémont landed, Stockton's 360 men arrived in San Pedro.[100] General Castro and Governor Pío Pico wrote farewells and fled separately to the Mexican state of Sonora.[101] Stockton's army entered Los Angeles unopposed on August 13, whereupon he sent a report to the Secretary of State that "California is entirely free from Mexican dominion."[102] Stockton, however, left a tyrannical officer in charge of Los Angeles with a small force.[103] The Californios under the leadership of José María Flores, acting on their own and without federal help from Mexico, in the Siege of Los Angeles, forced the American garrison to retreat on September 29.[104] They also forced small U.S. garrisons in San Diego and Santa Barbara to flee.[105] Captain William Mervine landed 350 sailors and Marines at San Pedro on October 7.[106] They were ambushed and repulsed at the Battle of Dominguez Rancho by Flores' forces in less than an hour.[107] Four Americans died, with 8 severely injured. Stockton arrived with reinforcements at San Pedro, which increased the American forces there to 800.[108] He and Mervine then set up a base of operations at San Diego.[109] Meanwhile, U.S. Colonel Stephen W. Kearny and his force of about 100 men, who had performed a grueling march across New Mexico and the Sonoran Desert, crossed the Colorado River in late November, 1846.[110] Stockton sent a 35-man patrol from San Diego to meet them.[111] On December 7, 100 lancers under General Andrés Pico (brother of the governor), tipped off and lying in wait, fought Kearny's army of about 150 at the Battle of San Pasqual, where 22 of Kearny's men (one of whom later died of wounds), including three officers, were killed in 30 minutes of fighting.[112] The wounded Kearny and his bloodied force pushed on until they had to establish a defensive position on "Mule Hill".[113] However, General Pico kept the hill under siege for four days until a 215-man American relief force arrived.[114] Frémont and the 428-man California Battalion arrived in San Luis Obispo on December 14[115] and Santa Barbara on December 27.[116] On December 28, a 600-man American force under Kearny began a 150-mile march to Los Angeles.[117][118] Flores then moved his ill-equipped 500-man force to a 50-foot-high bluff above the San Gabriel River.[119] On January 8, 1847, the Stockton-Kearny army defeated the Californio force in the two-hour Battle of Rio San Gabriel.[120][121] That same day, Frémont's force arrived at San Fernando.[122] The next day, January 9, the Stockton-Kearny forces fought and won the Battle of La Mesa.[123] On January 10, the U.S. Army entered Los Angeles to no resistance.[124] On January 12, Frémont and two of Pico's officers agreed to terms for a surrender.[125] Articles of Capitulation were signed on January 13 by Frémont, Andrés Pico and six others at a rancho at Cahuenga Pass (modern-day North Hollywood).[125] This became known as the Treaty of Cahuenga, which marked the end of armed resistance in California.[125] v t e Pacific Coast Campaign Bombardment of Guaymas – Battle of Mulege – Bombardment of Punta Sombrero – Battle of La Paz – Battle of San José del Cabo – Siege of La Paz – Siege of San José del Cabo – Skirmish of Todos Santos Pacific Coast campaign[edit] Main article: Pacific Coast Campaign American (left) and Mexican (right) uniforms of the period USS Independence assisted in the blockade of the Mexican Pacific coast, capturing the Mexican ship Correo and a launch on May 16, 1847. She supported the capture of Guaymas, Sonora, on October 19, 1847, and landed bluejackets and Marines to occupy Mazatlán, Sinaloa, on November 11, 1847. After upper California was secure, most of the Pacific Squadron proceeded down the California coast, capturing all major cities of the Baja California Territory and capturing or destroying nearly all Mexican vessels in the Gulf of California. Other ports, not on the peninsula, were taken as well. The objective of the Pacific Coast Campaign was to capture Mazatlán, on the Mexican mainland, which was a major supply base for Mexican forces. Numerous Mexican ships were also captured by this squadron, with the USS Cyane given credit for 18 ships captured and numerous destroyed.[126] Entering the Gulf of California, Independence, Congress, and Cyane seized La Paz, then captured and burned the small Mexican fleet at Guaymas. Within a month, they cleared the Gulf of hostile ships, destroying or capturing 30 vessels. Later, their sailors and Marines captured the port of Mazatlán on November 11, 1847. A Mexican campaign under Manuel Pineda Muñoz to retake the various captured ports resulted in several small clashes (Battle of Mulege, Battle of La Paz, Battle of San José del Cabo) and two sieges (Siege of La Paz, Siege of San José del Cabo) in which the Pacific Squadron ships provided artillery support. U.S. garrisons remained in control of the ports. Following reinforcement, Lt. Col. Henry S. Burton marched out. His forces rescued captured Americans, captured Pineda, and, on March 31, defeated and dispersed remaining Mexican forces at the Skirmish of Todos Santos, unaware that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been signed in February 1848 and a truce agreed to on March 6. When the American garrisons were evacuated to Monterey following the treaty ratification, many Mexicans went with them: those who had supported the American cause and had thought Lower California would also be annexed along with Upper California. Northeastern Mexico[edit] General Zachary Taylor rides his white horse at the Battle of Palo Alto near present-day Brownsville – May 8, 1846 The Mexican Army's defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico, turmoil which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return from self-imposed exile in Cuba in mid-August 1846.[127] It was President Polk's plan to bring back the exiled dictator who had defeated the Texans at the Alamo and Goliad. On 4 August 1846, "Polk negotiated a deal to not only bring Santa Anna back, but to pay him $2 million—ostensibly a bribe as an advance payment on the cession of California."[128] Santa Anna promised the U.S. that if he was allowed to pass through the blockade, he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and Alta California territories to the U.S.[129] Once Santa Anna arrived in Mexico City, however, he reneged on his deal with the U.S. and offered his services to the Mexican government. Then, after being appointed commanding general, he reneged again and seized the presidency. Led by Zachary Taylor, 2,300 U.S. troops crossed the Rio Grande after some initial difficulties in obtaining river transport. His soldiers occupied the city of Matamoros, then Camargo (where the soldiery suffered the first of many problems with disease) and then proceeded south and besieged the city of Monterrey. The hard-fought Battle of Monterrey resulted in serious losses on both sides. The American light artillery was ineffective against the stone fortifications of the city. The Mexican forces were under General Pedro de Ampudia and repulsed Taylor's best infantry division at Fort Teneria.[130] The Battle of Monterrey September 20–24, 1846, after a painting by Carl Nebel The Battle of Buena Vista, February 23, 1847 American soldiers, including many West Pointers, had never engaged in urban warfare before and they marched straight down the open streets, where they were annihilated by Mexican defenders well-hidden in Monterrey's thick adobe homes.[130] Two days later, they changed their urban warfare tactics. Texan soldiers had fought in a Mexican city before (the Siege of Béxar in December 1835) and advised Taylor's generals that the Americans needed to "mouse hole" through the city's homes. In other words, they needed to punch holes in the side or roofs of the homes and fight hand to hand inside the structures. Mexicans called the Texas soldiers the Diabólicos Tejanos (the Devil Texans).[131] This method proved successful.[132] Eventually, these actions drove and trapped Ampudia's men into the city's central plaza, where howitzer shelling forced Ampudia to negotiate. Taylor agreed to allow the Mexican Army to evacuate and to an eight-week armistice in return for the surrender of the city. Under pressure from Washington, Taylor broke the armistice and occupied the city of Saltillo, southwest of Monterrey. Santa Anna blamed the loss of Monterrey and Saltillo on Ampudia and demoted him to command a small artillery battalion. On February 22, 1847, Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20,000 men. Taylor, with 4,600 men, had entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15,000 men in a tired state. He demanded and was refused surrender of the U.S. Army; he attacked the next morning. Santa Anna flanked the U.S. positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass, while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. Furious fighting ensued, during which the U.S. troops were nearly routed, but managed to cling to their entrenched position, thanks to the Mississippi Rifles, a volunteer regiment led by Jefferson Davis, who formed them into a defensive V formation.[133] The Mexicans had inflicted considerable losses but Santa Anna had gotten word of upheaval in Mexico City, so he withdrew that night, leaving Taylor in control of part of Northern Mexico. Polk mistrusted Taylor, who he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful 1848 presidential campaign. Northwestern Mexico[edit] The Treaty of Bear Springs ended a large scale insurrection by the Ute, Zuni, Moquis, and Navajo tribes.[134] After the successful conquest of New Mexico, American troops moved into modern-day northwest Mexico. On March 1, 1847, Alexander W. Doniphan occupied Chihuahua City. British consul John Potts did not want to let Doniphan search Governor Trias's mansion, and unsuccessfully asserted it was under British protection. American merchants in Chihuahua wanted the American force to stay in order to protect their business. Major William Gilpin advocated a march on Mexico City and convinced a majority of officers, but Doniphan subverted this plan. Then in late April, Taylor ordered the First Missouri Mounted Volunteers to leave Chihuahua and join him at Saltillo. The American merchants either followed or returned to Santa Fe. Along the way, the townspeople of Parras enlisted Doniphan's aid against an Indian raiding party that had taken children, horses, mules, and money.[135] The civilian population of northern Mexico offered little resistance to the American invasion, possibly because the country had already been devastated by Comanche and Apache Indian raids. Josiah Gregg, who was with the American army in northern Mexico, said that "the whole country from New Mexico to the borders of Durango is almost entirely depopulated. The haciendas and ranchos have been mostly abandoned, and the people chiefly confined to the towns and cities."[136] Southern Mexico[edit] Southern Mexico had a large indigenous population and was geographically distant from the capital. Yucatán in particular had closer ties to Cuba and to the United States than it did to central Mexico. On a number of occasions in the early era of the Mexican Republic, Yucatán seceded from the federation. There were also rivalries between regional elites, with one faction based in Mérida and the other in Campeche. These issues factored into the Mexican–American War.[137] The U.S. Navy contributed to the war by controlling the coast and clearing the way for U.S. troops and supplies, especially to Mexico's main port of Veracruz. Even before hostilities began in the disputed northern region, the U.S. Navy created a blockade. Given the shallow waters of that portion of the Gulf coast, the U.S. Navy needed ships with a shallow draft rather than large frigates. Since the Mexican Navy was almost non-existent, the U.S. Navy could operate unimpeded in Gulf waters.[138] First Battle of Tabasco[edit] See also: First Battle of Tabasco Commodore Matthew C. Perry led a detachment of seven vessels along the northern coast of Tabasco state. Perry arrived at the Tabasco River (now known as the Grijalva River) on October 22, 1846, and seized the town Port of Frontera along with two of their ships. Leaving a small garrison, he advanced with his troops towards the town of San Juan Bautista (Villahermosa today). Perry arrived in the city of San Juan Bautista on October 25, seizing five Mexican vessels. Colonel Juan Bautista Traconis, Tabasco Departmental commander at that time, set up barricades inside the buildings. Perry realized that the bombing of the city would be the only option to drive out the Mexican Army, and to avoid damage to the merchants of the city, withdrew its forces preparing them for the next day. Second Battle of Tabasco On the morning of October 26, as Perry's fleet prepared to start the attack on the city, the Mexican forces began firing at the American fleet. The U.S. bombing began to yield the square, so that the fire continued until evening. Before taking the square, Perry decided to leave and return to the port of Frontera, where he established a naval blockade to prevent supplies of food and military supplies from reaching the state capital. Second Battle of Tabasco[edit] See also: Second Battle of Tabasco On June 13, 1847, Commodore Perry assembled the Mosquito Fleet and began moving towards the Grijalva River, towing 47 boats that carried a landing force of 1,173. On June 15, 12 miles (19 km) below San Juan Bautista, the fleet ran through an ambush with little difficulty. Again at an "S" curve in the river known as the "Devil's Bend", Perry encountered Mexican fire from a river fortification known as the Colmena redoubt, but the fleet's heavy naval guns quickly dispersed the Mexican force. On June 16, Perry arrived at San Juan Bautista and commenced bombing the city. The attack included two ships that sailed past the fort and began shelling it from the rear. David D. Porter led 60 sailors ashore and seized the fort, raising the American flag over the works. Perry and the landing force arrived and took control of the city around 14:00. Yucatán[edit] The U.S. was concerned with the extension of British power in the Caribbean, especially Spanish Cuba, as well as the strategic Yucatán peninsula. In 1847 Maya revolted against the white elites of the peninsula in a racial war known as the Caste War of Yucatan. Jefferson Davis, then a senator from Mississippi, argued in congress that the president needed no further powers to intervene in Yucatan since the war with Mexico was underway. Davis's concern was strategic and part of his vision of Manifest Destiny, considering the Gulf of Mexico "a basin of water belonging to the United States" and continuing "the cape of Yucatan and the island of Cuba must be ours" rather than under British influence.[139] In the end, the U.S. did not intervene in Yucatán, but it had figured in congressional debates about the Mexican–American War. At one point, the government of Yucatán petitioned the U.S. for protection during the Caste War,[140] but the U.S. did not respond. Desertion[edit] Battle of Churubusco by J. Cameron, published by Nathaniel Currier. Hand tinted lithograph, 1847. Digitally restored. Further information: Saint Patrick's Battalion Desertion was a major problem for the Mexican Army, depleting forces on the eve of battle. Most soldiers were peasants who had a loyalty to their village and family, but not to the generals who had conscripted them. Often hungry and ill, under-equipped, only partially trained, and never well paid, the soldiers were held in contempt by their officers and had little reason to fight the Americans. Looking for their opportunity, many slipped away from camp to find their way back to their home village.[141] The desertion rate in the U.S. Army was 8.3% (9,200 out of 111,000), compared to 12.7% during the War of 1812 and usual peacetime rates of about 14.8% per year.[142] Many men deserted to join another U.S. unit and get a second enlistment bonus. Some deserted because of the miserable conditions in camp. It has been suggested that others used the army to get free transportation to California, where they deserted to join the gold rush;[143] this, however, is unlikely as gold was only discovered in California on January 24, 1848, less than two weeks before the war concluded. By the time word reached the eastern U.S. that gold had been discovered, word also reached it that the war was over. Several hundred U.S. deserters went over to the Mexican side. Nearly all were recent immigrants from Europe with weak ties to the U.S.. The Mexicans issued broadsides and leaflets enticing U.S. soldiers with promises of money, land bounties, and officers' commissions. Mexican guerrillas shadowed the U.S. Army and captured men who took unauthorized leave or fell out of the ranks. The guerrillas coerced these men to join the Mexican ranks. The generous promises proved illusory for most deserters, who risked being executed if captured by U.S. forces. San Patricios[edit] The mass hanging of Irish Catholic soldiers who joined the Mexican side, forming the Saint Patrick's Battalion The most famous group of deserters from the U. S. Army, was the Saint Patrick's Battalion or (San Patricios), composed primarily several hundred immigrant soldiers, the majority Catholic Irish and German immigrants, who deserted the U.S. Army because of ill-treatment or sympathetic leanings to fellow Mexican Catholics and joined the Mexican army. The battalion also included Canadians, English, French, Italians, Poles, Scots, Spaniards, Swiss, and Mexican people, many of whom were members of the Catholic Church.[144] Most of the battalion were killed in the Battle of Churubusco; about 100 were captured by the U.S. and roughly half of the San Patricios were tried and were hanged as deserters following their capture at Churubusco in August 1847.[143]. The leader, Jon Riley, was merely branded since he had deserted before the war started. Scott's Mexico City campaign[edit] v t e Mexico City Campaign Veracruz – Cerro Gordo – Contreras – Churubusco – Molino del Rey – Chapultepec – Mexico City The Battle of Chapultepec Landings and siege of Veracruz[edit] Bombardment of Veracruz Scott's campaign Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance, President Polk sent a second army under General Winfield Scott, which was transported to the port of Veracruz by sea, to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. On March 9, 1847, Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in U.S. history in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz. A group of 12,000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies, weapons, and horses near the walled city using specially designed landing crafts. Included in the invading force were Robert E. Lee, George Meade, Ulysses S. Grant, James Longstreet, and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3,400 men. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. After a bombardment on March 24, 1847, the walls of Veracruz had a thirty-foot gap.[145] The city replied the best it could with its own artillery. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force, and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. U.S. troops suffered 80 casualties, while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded, about half of whom were civilian. During the siege, the U.S. side began to fall victim to yellow fever. Advance on Puebla[edit] Main article: Battle of Cerro Gordo Scott then marched westward on April 2, 1847, toward Mexico City with 8,500 healthy troops, while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road about 50 miles (80 km) north-west of Veracruz, near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12,000 troops, and artillery that were trained on the road, where he expected Scott to appear. However, Scott had sent 2,600 mounted dragoons ahead and they reached the pass on April 12. The Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and therefore revealed their positions, beginning the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Instead of taking the main road, Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north, setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. Although by then aware of the positions of U.S. troops, Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. In the battle fought on April 18, the Mexican army was routed. The U.S. Army suffered 400 casualties, while the Mexicans suffered over 1,000 casualties and 3,000 were taken prisoner. In August 1847, Captain Kirby Smith, of Scott's 3rd Infantry, reflected on the resistance of the Mexican army: They can do nothing and their continued defeats should convince them of it. They have lost six great battles; we have captured six hundred and eight cannon, nearly one hundred thousand stands of arms, made twenty thousand prisoners, have the greatest portion of their country and are fast advancing on their Capital which must be ours,—yet they refuse to treat [i.e., negotiate terms]![146] Pause at Puebla[edit] In May, Scott pushed on to Puebla, the second largest city in Mexico. Because of the citizens' hostility to Santa Anna, the city capitulated without resistance on May 1. During the following months, Scott gathered supplies and reinforcements at Puebla and sent back units whose enlistments had expired. Scott also made strong efforts to keep his troops disciplined and treat the Mexican people under occupation justly, so as to prevent a popular rising against his army. Advance on Mexico City and its capture[edit] The Battle of Molino del Rey With guerrillas harassing his line of communications back to Veracruz, Scott decided not to weaken his army to defend Puebla but, leaving only a garrison at Puebla to protect the sick and injured recovering there, advanced on Mexico City on August 7 with his remaining force. The capital was laid open in a series of battles around the right flank of the city defenses, the Battle of Contreras and Battle of Churubusco. After Churubusco, fighting halted for an armistice and peace negotiations, which broke down on September 6, 1847. With the subsequent battles of Molino del Rey and of Chapultepec, and the storming of the city gates, the capital was occupied. Scott became military governor of occupied Mexico City. His victories in this campaign made him an American national hero. Battle of Chapultepec[edit] Storming of Chapultepec The Battle of Chapultepec was an encounter between the Mexican Army and the United States on the castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. At this time, this castle was a renowned military school in Mexico City. After the battle, which ended in an American victory, the legend of "Los Niños Héroes" was born. Although not confirmed by historians, six military cadets between the ages of 13 and 17 stayed in the school instead of evacuating.[147] They decided to stay and fight for Mexico. These Niños Héroes (hero children) became icons in Mexico's pantheon of heroes. Rather than surrender to the U.S. Army, some military cadets leaped from the castle walls. A cadet named Juan Escutia wrapped himself in the Mexican flag and jumped to his death.[147][148] Santa Anna's last campaign[edit] In late September 1847, Santa Anna made one last attempt to defeat the Americans, by cutting them off from the coast. General Joaquín Rea began the Siege of Puebla, soon joined by Santa Anna, but they failed to take it before the approach of a relief column from Veracruz under Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane prompted Santa Anna to stop him. Puebla was relieved by Gen. Lane October 12, 1847, following his defeat of Santa Anna at the Battle of Huamantla on October 9, 1847. The battle was Santa Anna's last. Following the defeat, the new Mexican government led by Manuel de la Peña y Peña asked Santa Anna to turn over command of the army to General José Joaquín de Herrera. Anti-guerrilla campaign[edit] Following his capture and securing of the capital, General Scott sent about a quarter of his strength to secure his line of communications to Veracruz from the Light Corps of General Joaquín Rea and other Mexican guerrilla forces that had been harassing it since May. He strengthened the garrison of Puebla and by November had added a 1200-man garrison at Jalapa, established 750-man posts along the National Road, the main route between the port of Veracruz and the capital, at the pass between Mexico City and Puebla at Rio Frio, at Perote and San Juan on the road between Jalapa and Puebla, and at Puente Nacional between Jalapa and Veracruz.[149] He had also detailed an anti guerrilla brigade under Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane to carry the war to the Light Corps and other guerrillas. He ordered that convoys would travel with at least 1,300-man escorts. Victories by General Lane over the Light Corps at Atlixco (October 18, 1847), at Izucar de Matamoros (November 23, 1847) and Galaxara Pass (November 24, 1847) ended the threat of General Rea. Later a raid against the guerrillas of Padre Jarauta at Zacualtipan (February 25, 1848) further reduced guerrilla raids on the American line of communications. After the two governments concluded a truce to await ratification of the peace treaty, on March 6, 1848, formal hostilities ceased. However some bands continued in defiance of the Mexican government until the American evacuation in August.[150] Some were suppressed by the Mexican Army or, like Padre Jarauta, executed.[151][152]

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo[edit] Main article: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Mexican Cession, shown in red, and the later Gadsden Purchase, shown in yellow Outnumbered militarily and with many of its large cities occupied, Mexico could not defend itself; the country was also faced with many internal divisions, including the Caste War of Yucatán. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, by American diplomat Nicholas Trist and Mexican plenipotentiary representatives Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto, and Miguel Atristain, ended the war. The treaty gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, and Utah, most of New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received $15 million[153] ($424 million today) – less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities[154] – and the U.S. agreed to assume $3.25 million ($92 million today) in debts that the Mexican government owed to U.S. citizens.[155] The treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate by a vote of 38 to 14 on March 10, and by Mexico through a legislative vote of 51-34 and a Senate vote of 33-4, on May 19. News that New Mexico's legislative assembly had passed an act for organization of a U.S. territorial government helped ease Mexican concern about abandoning the people of New Mexico.[156] The acquisition was a source of controversy, especially among U.S. politicians who had opposed the war from the start. A leading antiwar U.S. newspaper, the Whig National Intelligencer, sardonically concluded that "We take nothing by conquest .... Thank God."[157][158] Mexican territorial claims relinquished in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in white Jefferson Davis introduced an amendment giving the U.S. most of northeastern Mexico, which failed 44–11. This amendment was supported by both senators from Texas (Sam Houston and Thomas Jefferson Rusk), Daniel S. Dickinson of New York, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, Edward A. Hannegan of Indiana, and one each from Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and Tennessee. Most of the leaders of the Democratic party – Thomas Hart Benton, John C. Calhoun, Herschel V. Johnson, Lewis Cass, James Murray Mason of Virginia, and Ambrose Hundley Sevier – were opposed.[159] An amendment by Whig Senator George Edmund Badger of North Carolina to exclude New Mexico and Upper California lost 35–15, with three Southern Whigs voting with the Democrats. Daniel Webster was bitter that four New England senators made deciding votes for acquiring the new territories. The acquired lands west of the Rio Grande are traditionally called the Mexican Cession in the U.S., as opposed to the Texas Annexation two years earlier, though division of New Mexico down the middle at the Rio Grande never had any basis either in control or Mexican boundaries. Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas[160] before the war, and did not cede its claim to territory north of the Rio Grande or Gila River until this treaty. Before ratifying the treaty, the U.S. Senate made two modifications: changing the wording of Article IX (which guaranteed Mexicans living in the purchased territories the right to become U.S. citizens) and striking out Article X (which conceded the legitimacy of land grants made by the Mexican government). On May 26, 1848, when the two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, they further agreed to a three-article protocol (known as the Protocol of Querétaro) to explain the amendments. The first article claimed that the original Article IX of the treaty, although replaced by Article III of the Treaty of Louisiana, would still confer the rights delineated in Article IX. The second article confirmed the legitimacy of land grants under Mexican law.[161] The protocol was signed in the city of Querétaro by A. H. Sevier, Nathan Clifford, and Luis de la Rosa.[161] Article XI offered a potential benefit to Mexico, in that the US pledged to suppress the Comanche and Apache raids that had ravaged northern Mexico and pay restitutions to the victims of raids it could not prevent.[162] However, the Indian raids did not cease for several decades after the treaty, although a cholera epidemic reduced the numbers of the Comanche in 1849.[163] Robert Letcher, U.S. Minister to Mexico in 1850, was certain "that miserable 11th article" would lead to the financial ruin of the US if it could not be released from its obligations.[164] The US was released from all obligations of Article XI five years later by Article II of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853.[165]

Results[edit] Altered territories[edit] American occupation of Mexico City Before the secession of Texas, Mexico comprised almost 1,700,000 sq mi (4,400,000 km2), but by 1849 it was just under 800,000 square miles (2,100,000 km2). Another 30,000 square miles (78,000 km2) were sold to the U.S. in the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, so the total reduction of Mexican territory was more than 55%, or 900,000 square miles (2,300,000 km2).[166] Though the annexed territory was about the size of Western Europe, it was sparsely populated. The land contained about 14,000 non-indigenous people in Alta California[167] and about 60,000 in Nuevo México,[168] as well as large Indian nations, such as the Papago, Pima, Puebloan, Navajo, Apache and many others. Although some native people relocated farther south in Mexico, the great majority remained in the U.S. territory. The American settlers surging into the newly conquered Southwest were openly contemptuous of Mexican law (a civil law system based on the law of Spain) as alien and inferior and disposed of it by enacting reception statutes at the first available opportunity. However, they recognized the value of a few aspects of Mexican law and carried them over into their new legal systems. For example, most of the southwestern states adopted community property marital property systems, as well as water law. Mexicans and Indians in the annexed territories faced a loss of civil and political rights, even though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo promised American citizenship to all Mexican citizens living in the territory of the Mexican Cession. The U.S. government withheld citizenship from Indians in the southwest until the 1930s, despite the fact that they were citizens under Mexican law.[169]

Impact of the war in the United States[edit] In much of the United States of America, victory and the acquisition of new land brought a surge of patriotism. Victory seemed to fulfill Democrats' belief in their country's Manifest Destiny. While Whig Ralph Waldo Emerson rejected war "as a means of achieving America's destiny," he accepted that "most of the great results of history are brought about by discreditable means."[170] Although the Whigs had opposed the war, they made Zachary Taylor their presidential candidate in the election of 1848, praising his military performance while muting their criticism of the war. Has the Mexican War terminated yet, and how? Are we beaten? Do you know of any nation about to besiege South Hadley [Massachusetts]? If so, do inform me of it, for I would be glad of a chance to escape, if we are to be stormed. I suppose [our teacher] Miss [Mary] Lyon would furnish us all with daggers and order us to fight for our lives... — The sixteen-year-old Emily Dickinson, writing to her older brother, Austin in the fall of 1847, shortly after the Battle of Chapultepec[171] A month before the end of the war, Polk was criticized in a United States House of Representatives amendment to a bill praising Major General Zachary Taylor for "a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States." This criticism, in which Congressman Abraham Lincoln played an important role with his Spot Resolutions, followed congressional scrutiny of the war's beginnings, including factual challenges to claims made by President Polk.[172][173] The vote followed party lines, with all Whigs supporting the amendment. Lincoln's attack won lukewarm support from fellow Whigs in Illinois but was harshly counter-attacked by Democrats, who rallied pro-war sentiments in Illinois; Lincoln's Spot resolutions haunted his future campaigns in the heavily Democratic state of Illinois, and were cited by enemies well into his presidency.[174] Effect on the American Civil War[edit] Second lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant, one of the many officers in the U.S. Army in the Mexican–American War to serve in the American Civil War Many of the military leaders on both sides of the American Civil War were trained at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and had fought as junior officers in Mexico. This list includes military men fighting for the Union: Ulysses S. Grant, George B. McClellan, William T. Sherman, George Meade, William Rosecrans, and Ambrose Burnside. Military men who joined the Southern secessionists of the Confederate States of America were Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, Joseph E. Johnston, Braxton Bragg, Sterling Price, and the future Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Both sides had leaders with significant experience in active combat in strategy and tactics, likely shaping ways the Civil War conflict played out. President Ulysses S. Grant, who as a young army lieutenant had served in Mexico under General Taylor, recalled in his Memoirs, published in 1885, that: Generally, the officers of the army were indifferent whether the annexation was consummated or not; but not so all of them. For myself, I was bitterly opposed to the measure, and to this day regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory.[175] Grant also expressed the view that the war against Mexico had brought punishment on the United States in the form of the American Civil War: The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war. Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times.[176] This view was shared by the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson, who towards the end of the war wrote that "The United States will conquer Mexico, but it will be as the man swallows the arsenic, which brings him down in turn. Mexico will poison us."[177] "An Available Candidate: The One Qualification for a Whig President." Political cartoon about the 1848 presidential election which refers to Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott, the two leading contenders for the Whig Party nomination in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War. Published by Nathaniel Currier in 1848, digitally restored. General Robert E. Lee, leader of the Confederate forces through the end of the American Civil War, began building his reputation as a military officer in America's war against Mexico. At the start of the Mexican–American War, Captain Lee invaded Mexico with General Wool's engineering department from the North. By early 1847, he helped take the Mexican cities of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec. Lee was wounded in Chapultepec. By September, Mexico City surrendered and the United States was victorious. General Scott was the ranking officer in the army during the Mexican–American campaign. He described Robert E. Lee as "gallant and indefatigable," saying that Lee had displayed the "greatest feat of physical and moral courage performed by any individual in [his] knowledge during the campaign." [178] Robert E. Lee's humility and professionalism was apparent early on in his career when gave credit to General Scott for the victories. He said that "It was his stout heart…his bold self reliance…his indomitable courage that…ressed us forward to this capital." [178] It is important to note that although Lee is remembered for his valor during the Mexican–American War, he was only a junior officer "who had never commanded a regiment in the field".[178] In 1861, it was General Scott who advised Abraham Lincoln to ask Lee to command the union forces. Lee declined, and later recounted "I declined the offer he made me to take command of the army that was brought into the field, stating candidly and as courteously as I could that though opposed to secession and depreciating war, I could take no part in the invasion of the southern states."[179] (Sneiderman,118) On 9 April 1865, it was General Robert E. Lee who had surrendered to President Lincoln's Union Forces.[180] Despite initial objections from the Whigs and abolitionists, the war nevertheless united the U.S. in a common cause and was fought almost entirely by volunteers. The army swelled from just over 6,000 to more than 115,000. The majority of 12-month volunteers in Scott's army decided that a year's fighting was enough and returned to the U.S.[181] Veterans of the war were often broken men. "As the sick and wounded from Taylor's and Scott's campaigns made their way back from Mexico to the United States, their condition shocked the folks at home. Husbands, sons, and brothers returned in broken health, some with missing limbs."[182] Anti-slavery elements opposed that position and fought for the exclusion of slavery from any territory absorbed by the U.S.[183] In 1847, the House of Representatives passed the Wilmot Proviso, stipulating that none of the territory acquired should be open to slavery. The Senate avoided the issue, and a late attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was defeated. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the result of Nicholas Trist's unauthorized negotiations. It was approved by the U.S. Senate on March 10, 1848, and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25. Mexico's cession of Alta California and Nuevo México and its recognition of U.S. sovereignty over all of Texas north of the Rio Grande formalized the addition of 1.2 million square miles (3.1 million km2) of territory to the United States. In return the U.S. agreed to pay $15 million and assumed the claims of its citizens against Mexico. A final territorial adjustment between Mexico and the U.S. was made by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. The sale of this territory was a contributing factor in the final fall of Santa Anna in Mexico for having sold Mexican patrimony. As late as 1880, the "Republican Campaign Textbook" by the Republican Congressional Committee[184] described the war as "Feculent, reeking Corruption" and "one of the darkest scenes in our history—a war forced upon our and the Mexican people by the high-handed usurpations of Pres't Polk in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement of the slave oligarchy." The war was one of the most decisive events for the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century. While it marked a significant waypoint for the nation as a growing military power, it also served as a milestone especially within the U.S. narrative of Manifest Destiny. The resultant territorial gains set in motion many of the defining trends in American 19th-century history, particularly for the American West. The war did not resolve the issue of slavery in the U.S. but rather in many ways inflamed it, as potential westward expansion of the institution took an increasingly central and heated theme in national debates preceding the American Civil War. Furthermore, in doing much to extend the nation from coast to coast, the Mexican–American War was one step in the huge migrations to the West of Americans, which culminated in transcontinental railroads and the Indian wars later in the same century.[original research?][citation needed]

Impact of the war in Mexico[edit] Memorial to the Mexican cadets killed in the Battle of Chapultepec The obvious impact of the war was the loss of its northern areas and the defeat of the Mexican military. The war remains a painful historical event for Mexicans. In the immediate aftermath of the war, a group of prominent Mexicans wrote an assessment of the reasons for the war and Mexico's defeat, edited by Ramón Alcaraz and including contributions by Ignacio Ramírez, Guillermo Prieto, José María Iglesias, and Francisco Urquidi. The work was translated to English by Col. Albert Ramsey, a veteran of the Mexican–American War and published in 1850.[185] In Mexico City's Chapultepec Park, the Niños Héroes (Monument to the Heroic Cadets) commemorates the heroic sacrifice of six teenaged military cadets who fought to their deaths rather than surrender to American troops during the Battle of Chapultepec Castle on September 13, 1847. The monument is an important patriotic site in Mexico. On March 5, 1947, nearly one hundred years after the battle, U.S. President Harry S. Truman placed a wreath at the monument and stood for a moment of silence.

See also[edit] Battles of the Mexican–American War Christopher Werner, maker of the "Iron Palmetto" commemorating the loss of South Carolinians in the War Reconquista (Mexico) Republic of Texas–United States relations Texas annexation Territories of Mexico General: History of Mexico History of New Mexico History of the United States List of conflicts in the United States List of wars involving the United States List of wars involving Mexico Mexico–United States relations

Notes[edit] ^ Variations include U.S.–Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexico War. ^ Spanish: Intervención americana en México, or Intervención estadounidense en México. In Mexico, it may also be called the War of United States-Mexico (Guerra de Estados Unidos-México).

Citations[edit] ^ 1846 only. ^ a b c d e f Clodfelter 2017, p. 249. ^ Official DOD data Archived February 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ramón Alcaraz, et al. The Other Side or Notes for the History of the War between Mexico and the United States. New York: Burt Franklin 1850, republished 1970, 1-2. ^ a b c See ""Republic of Texas"". Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved 2014-07-05. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ ^ See Rives, The United States and Mexico, vol. 2, p. 658 ^ Pedro Santoni, "U.S.-Mexican War" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p. 1511. ^ Alcaraz, et al. The Other Side, pp. 1-2. ^ DeLay, Brian. The War of a Thousand Deserts New Haven: Yale U Press, 2008, p.286 ^ "The Borderlands on the Eve of War". The U.S.-Mexican War. PBS. ^ Brian Delay, "Independent Indians and the U.S. Mexican War" The American Historical Review, Vol 112, No. l (February 2007), p 35 ^ "The Annexation of Texas" U.S. Department of State, Retrieved July 6, 2012 ^ Rives, The United States and Mexico vol. 2, pp 45–46. September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Rives, pp. 48–49 ^ Engelson, Lester G. (1939). "Proposals for the Colonization of California by England: In Connection with the Mexican Debt to British Bondholders 1837–1846". California Historical Society Quarterly. University of California Press. 18 (2): 136–48. doi:10.2307/25139106. ISSN 0008-1175. JSTOR 25139106 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Groom, Winston "Kearny's March" Alfred A. Knopf, 2011 pp.46 ^ a b Santoni, "U.S.-Mexican War", p. 1511. ^ Jesús F. de la Teja, "Texas Secession" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, 1403-04. ^ Douglas W. Richmond, "Vicente Guerrero" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p. 617. ^ a b Rives, vol. 2, pp. 165–168 ^ Rives, vol. 2, pp. 172–173 ^ Mary Lee Spence, and Donald Jackson, The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont: The Bear Flag Revolt and the Court-Martial. U of Illinois Press, 1973. ^ Smith (1919) p. xi. ^ Richard R. Stenberg, "The Failure of Polk's Mexican War Intrigue of 1845," Pacific Historical Review 4#1 (1935), pp. 39-68 in JSTOR ^ Donald Fithian Stevens, Origins of Instability in Early Republican Mexico (1991) p. 11. ^ Miguel E. Soto, "The Monarchist Conspiracy and the Mexican War" in Essays on the Mexican War ed by Wayne Cutler; Texas A&M University Press. 1986. pp. 66–67. ^ a b Brooks (1849) pp. 61–62. ^ Mexican War from Global ^ Christon I. Archer, "Military: 1821–1914" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, 905. ^ Archer, "Military, 1821–1914", pp. 906-907. ^ "The End of the Mexican American War: The Signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". Memoria Política de México (Political History of Mexico) (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ quoted in Carol and thomas Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War. Companion to the Public Television Series, The U.S.-Mexican War, 1846–48. San Francisco: Bay Books 1998, p. 138. ^ Alamán paraphrased in Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War, p. 61. ^ Mexican soldier Manuel Balontín, quoted in Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War, p. 137. ^ René Chartrand, Santa Anna's Mexican Army 1821–48, Illustrated by Bill Younghusband, Osprey Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-84176-667-4, ISBN 978-1-84176-667-6. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Meed, Douglas (2003). The Mexican War, 1846–1848. Routledge. p. 67.  ^ Acuña, Rodolfo (2015). Occupied America A History of Chicanos. Pearson. p. 50.  ^ Missionaries of Republicanism: A Religious History of the Mexican-American War By John C. Pinheiro, page 96 ^ Santa Anna of Mexico, By Will Fowler, page 265 ^ "William Hugh Robarts, "Mexican War veterans : a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops in the war between the United States and Mexico, from 1846 to 1848 ; the volunteers are arranged by states, alphabetically", BRENTANO'S (A. S. WITHERBEE & CO, Proprietors); WASHINGTON, D. C., 1887". March 10, 2001. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Robarts, "Mexican War veterans" pp.1–24 ^ Robarts, "Mexican War veterans" pp.39–79 ^ Bronwyn Mills. U.S.-Mexican War ISBN 0-8160-4932-7. ^ Spencer Tucker. U.S. Leadership in Wartime: Clashes, Controversy, and Compromise, Volume 1. page 249 ^ David Montejano (1987). Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986. University of Texas Press. p. 30.  ^ Justin Harvey Smith (1919). The war with Mexico vol. 1. Macmillan. p. 464.  ^ K. Jack Bauer (1993). Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest. Louisiana State University Press. p. 149.  ^ "PERSONAL MEMOIRS U. S. GRANT, COMPLETE". Retrieved 2016-02-25.  ^ a b c d Brooks (1849) p. 122. ^ Brooks (1849) pp. 91, 117. ^ Brooks (1849) p. 121. ^ Morgan, Robert "Lions of the West" Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2011 pp.237 ^ a b Tucker (2013) p.718. ^ Smith (1919) p. 279. ^ Faragher, John Mack, et al., eds. Out Of Many: A History of the American People. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, 2006. ^ "Message of President Polk, May 11, 1846". Retrieved July 20, 2008. Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are now at war.  ^ a b Bauer (1992) p. 68. ^ see A. Brook Caruso, The Mexican Spy Company. 1991, p. 62-79 ^ Jay (1853) pp. 165–166. ^ Jay (1853) p. 165. ^ See O'Sullivan's 1845 article "Annexation", United States Magazine and Democratic Review ^ quoted in Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War, p. 74. ^ Giddings, Joshua Reed. Speeches in Congress [1841–1852], J.P. Jewett and Company, 1853, p.17 ^ Speech of U.S. Senator against the Mexican–American War characterizing it as imperialist and presidential ^ Beveridge 1:417. ^ "James K. Polk: Third Annual Message—December 7, 1847". Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ "War News From Mexico": What the Blacks in the 1848 Painting Tell Us Archived May 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. The Root, 2013 ^ Lawrence Delbert Cress, "Introduction", Dispatches from the Mexican War, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1999, p.8. ^ George Wilkins Kendall, Dispatches from the Mexican War, edited by Larence Delbert Cress. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1999. ^ Streetby, Shellby (2001). "American Sensations: Empire, Amnesia, and the US-Mexican War". American Literary History. 13:1: 2.  ^ Ron Tyler. "A Great American Book: The War between the United States and Mexico, Illustrated" in Artes de México. No. 80, "Carl Nebel: Nineteenth-Century Itinerant Painter", August 2006, pp. 77-80. ^ a b "The Battle of Santa Fe". Early American Wars: A Guide to Early American Units and Battles before 1865. 2005–2008. Retrieved 2009-01-14.  ^ a b Simmons, Marc (1973). The Little Lion of the Southwest: a life of Manuel Antonio Chaves. Chicago: The Swallow Press. ISBN 0-8040-0633-4.  ^ "New Mexico Historic Markers: Canoncito at Apache Canyon". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-15.  Includes a link to a map. ^ Keleher, William A. (1952). Turmoil in New Mexico 1846–1848. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0631-4.  ^ Beck, Warren A. (1962). New Mexico: A History of Four Centuries. University of Oklahoma Press.  ^ Morgan, Robert (2011). Lions of the West. Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. p. 243 ^ Garrard, Lewis H. (1850). Wah-to-yah and the Taos Trail; or Prairie Travel and Scalp Dances, with a Look at Los Rancheros from Muleback and the Rocky Mountain Camp-fire, pp. 214-215; reprint, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1955 ^ Walker, Dale L. (1999). Bear Flag Rising: The Conquest of California, 1846. New York: Macmillan. p. 104. ISBN 0312866852.  ^ Walker p. 91-92, 96 ^ Walker p. 72 ^ Walker p. 103 ^ Walker p. 107 ^ Walker p. 101 ^ Walker p. 110 ^ Walker p. 123-125 ^ Walker p. 129 ^ Walker p. 139 ^ Walker p. 134 ^ Walker p. 138 ^ Walker p. 140 ^ Walker p. 98 ^ Walker p. 142 ^ Walker p. 143-144 ^ Walker p. 148 ^ Walker p. 149 ^ a b Walker p. 154 ^ Walker p. 156 ^ Walker p. 157 ^ Walker p. 158 ^ Walker p. 159 ^ Walker p. 196 ^ Walker p. 197 ^ Walker p. 198 ^ Walker p. 199 ^ Walker p. 200 ^ Walker p. 201 ^ Walker p. 203 ^ Walker p. 209 ^ Walker p. 204 ^ Walker p. 215-219 ^ Walker p. 221 ^ Walker p. 224 ^ Walker p. 234 ^ Walker p. 235 ^ Brooks (1849) p. 257. ^ Walker p. 233 ^ Walker p. 237 ^ Bauer (1992) pp. 190–191. ^ Walker p. 238 ^ Walker p. 239 ^ Walker p. 240-241 ^ Walker p. 242 ^ a b c Walker p. 246 ^ Silversteen, p42 ^ Bauer (1992) p. 201. ^ Schweikart, Larry; Allen, Michael (2004). A Patriot's History of the United States: From Columbus's Great Discovery to the War on Terror. Sentinel HC. p. 242. ISBN 978-1595230010. Retrieved 22 April 2015.  ^ Rives, George Lockhart, The United States and Mexico, 1821–1848: a history of the relations between the two countries from the independence of Mexico to the close of the war with the United States, Volume 2, C. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1913, p.233. September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ a b "Urban Warfare". Battle of Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Rip Ford's Texas Memoirs, Stephen Oates, University of Texas Press, 1963 ^ Dishman, Christopher (2010). A Perfect Gibraltar: The Battle for Monterrey, Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-4140-9.  ^ Shelby Foote, The Civil War: A Narrative: Volume 1: Fort Sumter to Perryville (1958) ^ Groom, Winston "Kearny's March" Alfred A. Knopf, 2011 pp.143 ^ Roger D. Launius (1997). Alexander William Doniphan: portrait of a Missouri moderate. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1132-3.  ^ Hamalainen, Pekka. The Comanche Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 232.  ^ Gilbert M. Joseph, "The United States, Feuding Elites, and Rural Revolt in Yucatán, 1836–1915" in Rural Revolt in Mexico: U.S. Intervention and the Domain of Subaltern Politics, expanded edition, Daniel Nugent, ed. Durham: Duke University Press 1998 pp. 173-206. ^ K. Jack Bauer, The Mexican war, 1846–1848. 1974. Republished by University of Nebraska Press 1992, pp. 108-109. ^ quoted in Brian Loveman, No Higher Law: American Foreign Policy and the Western Hemisphere Since 1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press 2010, p. 70. ^ "Message from the President of the United States with communications from the government of Yucatan, representing the state of suffering to which that country is reduced by an insurrection of the Indians, imploring the protection of the United States, and offering, in case it should be granted, to transfer the dominion and sovereignty of the peninsula to the United States." United States. Congress. Senate. April 29, 1848. Read, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, and ordered to be printed. [Washington, D.C.] 19 pages, 30th Congress, 1st session. Senate. Ex. Doc. No. 40 ^ Meed, Douglas (2003). The Mexican War, 1846–1848. Routledge. p. 67.  ^ McAllister, Brian. "see Coffman, Old Army (1988) p. 193". Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ a b Foos, Paul (2002). A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair. pp. 25, 103–7.  ^ Miller, Robert Ryal (1989). Shamrock and Sword, The Saint Patrick's Battalion in the US—Mexican War. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 188–192. ISBN 0-8061-2964-6.  ^ Morgan, Robert, Lions of the West, Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2011 p. 282 ^ Eisenhower, John S. D. (1989). So Far from God: The U.S. War With Mexico, 1846–1848. New York: Random House. p. 295. ISBN 0-8061-3279-5.  ^ a b Diseño Web y Desarrollo de Aplicaciones por Webtopia, Retrieved May 8, 2014. ^ Kirkwood, Burton (2000). The History of Mexico. pp. 97, 98, 99. ISBN 9780313303517.  ^ Executive Document, No. 60, House of Representatives, first Session of the thirtieth Congress, pp. 1028, 1032 ^ Carney, Stephen A. (2005), U.S. Army Campaigns of the Mexican War: The Occupation of Mexico, May 1846-July 1848 (CMH Pub 73-3), Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 30–38  ^ Celedonio Domeco de Jarauta from accessed June 5, 2013. ^ "Memoria Política de México".  ^ Smith (1919) p. 241. ^ Mills, Bronwyn. U.S.-Mexican War. p. 23. ISBN 0-8160-4932-7.  ^ Jay (1853) p. 117. ^ Rives, p. 649 ^ Davis, Kenneth C. (1995). Don't Know Much About History. New York: Avon Books. p. 143.  ^ Zinn, Howard (2003). "Chapter 8: We take nothing by conquest, Thank God". A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 169.  ^ Rives, George Lockhart (1913). The United States and Mexico, 1821–1848. C. Scribner's Sons. pp. 634–636.  ^ Frazier, Donald S. "Boundary Disputes". US-Mexican War, 1846–1848. PBS.  ^ a b "Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement Between the United States of America and the United Mexican States Concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgoa". Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. University of Dayton ( Retrieved October 25, 2007.  ^ "Article IX". Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; February 2, 1848. Lillian Goldman Law Library.  ^ Hamalainen, 293-341 ^ DeLay, Brian (2008). War of a thousand deserts: Indian raids and the U.S.-Mexican War. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 302.  ^ "Gadsden Purchase Treaty : December 30, 1853". Lillian Goldman Law Library.  ^ "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". Retrieved June 27, 2007.  ^ Franzius, Andrea. "California Gold -- Migrating to California: Overland, around the Horn and via Panama". Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Table 16. Population: 1790 to 1990", Population and Housing Unit Counts. 1990 Census of Population and Housing. CPH-2-1., U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, pp. 26–27, ISBN 99946-41-25-5  ^ Griswold el Castillo, Richard War's End: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" PBS, 2006 ^ Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1860). The Conduct of Life. p. 110. ISBN 1-4191-5736-1.  ^ Linscott, 1959, pp. 218–219 ^ "Congressional Globe, 30th Session (1848)". pp. 93–95. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ "House Journal, 30th Session (1848) pp. 183–184/". Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Donald, David Herbert (1995). Lincoln. pp. 124, 128, 133.  ^ "Ulysses S Grant Quotes on the Military Academy and the Mexican War". Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ "Personal Memoirs of General U. S. Grant — Complete by Ulysses S. Grant". Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Archived from the original on January 15, 2006.  ^ Groom, Winston "Kearny's March" Alfred A. Knopf, 2011 pp.275 ^ a b c Winston, Robert (1934). Robert E. Lee; a Biography. New York: W. Morrow & Co. p. 84. ISBN 9780313384370.  ^ sneiderman, Barney (2006). Warriors Seven: seven American Commanders, Seven Wars, and the Irony of Battle. New York: Savas beatie. p. 118. ISBN 1932714286.  ^ Holmes, Prescott (1897). The battles of the war for the union being the story of the great Civil War from the election of Abraham Lincoln to the surrender at Appomatox. Philadelphia: H. Altemus. p. 333.  ^ Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War, p. 187. ^ Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War, p. 190. ^ John Douglas Pitts Fuller (1969) [1936]. The Movement for the Acquisition of All Mexico, 1846–1848. New York: Da Capo Press. Retrieved May 28, 2011.  ^ Mexican–American War description from the Republican Campaign Textbook. ^ Ramón Alcaraz, et al. The Other Side: or Notes for the History of the War between Mexico and the United States. Translated by Albert C. Ramsey, Colonel of the Eleventh United States Infantry During with War with Mexico. New York: Burt Franklin 1850. Republished 1970.

Bibliography[edit] Reference works[edit] Crawford, Mark; Heidler, Jeanne; Heidler (eds.), David Stephen (1999). Encyclopedia of the Mexican War. ISBN 1-57607-059-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Frazier, Donald S. ed. The U.S. and Mexico at War, (1998), 584; an encyclopedia with 600 articles by 200 scholars Surveys[edit] Bauer, Karl Jack (1992). The Mexican War: 1846–1848. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6107-1.  De Voto, Bernard, Year of Decision 1846 (1942), well written popular history Greenberg, Amy S. A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. Invasion of Mexico (2012). ISBN 9780307592699 and Corresponding Author Interview at the Pritzker Military Library on December 7, 2012 Henderson, Timothy J. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States (2008) Meed, Douglas. The Mexican War, 1846–1848 (2003). A short survey. Merry Robert W. A Country of Vast Designs: James K. Polk, the Mexican War and the Conquest of the American Continent (2009) Smith, Justin Harvey. The War with Mexico, Vol 1. (2 vol 1919), full text online. Smith, Justin Harvey. The War with Mexico, Vol 2. (1919). full text online. Military[edit] Bauer K. Jack. Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest. Louisiana State University Press, 1985. Dishman, Christopher, A Perfect Gibraltar: The Battle for Monterrey, Mexico," University of Oklahoma Press, 2010 ISBN 0-8061-4140-9. Eisenhower, John. So Far From God: The U.S. War with Mexico, Random House (1989). Eubank, Damon R., Response of Kentucky to the Mexican War, 1846–1848. (Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), ISBN 978-0-7734-6495-7. Foos, Paul. A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict during the Mexican-War (2002). Fowler, Will. Santa Anna of Mexico (2007) 527pp; a major scholarly study Frazier, Donald S. The U.S. and Mexico at War, Macmillan (1998). Hamilton, Holman, Zachary Taylor: Soldier of the Republic, (1941). Huston, James A. The Sinews of War: Army Logistics, 1775–1953 (1966), U.S. Army; 755p. pp 125-58 Lewis, Lloyd. Captain Sam Grant (1950). Johnson, Timothy D. Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory (1998) McCaffrey, James M. Army of Manifest Destiny: The American Soldier in the Mexican War, 1846–1848 (1994)excerpt and text search Smith, Justin H. (1918). "American Rule in Mexico". The American Historical Review. American Historical Association. 23 (2): 287–302. doi:10.2307/1836568. ISSN 1937-5239. JSTOR 1836568 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Smith, Justin Harvey. The War with Mexico. 2 vol (1919). Pulitzer Prize winner. full text online. Winders, Richard Price. Mr. Polk's Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War (1997) Clodfelter, M. (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015 (4th ed.). McFarland. ISBN 978-0786474707.  Political and diplomatic[edit] Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln, 1809–1858. Volume: 1. 1928. Brack, Gene M. Mexico Views Manifest Destiny, 1821–1846: An Essay on the Origins of the Mexican War (1975). Fowler, Will. Tornel and Santa Anna: The Writer and the Caudillo, Mexico, 1795–1853 (2000). Fowler, Will. Santa Anna of Mexico (2007) 527pp; the major scholarly study excerpt and text search Gleijeses, Piero. "A Brush with Mexico" Diplomatic History 2005 29(2): 223–254. ISSN 0145-2096 debates in Washington before war. Graebner, Norman A. Empire on the Pacific: A Study in American Continental Expansion. (1955). Graebner, Norman A. (1978). "Lessons of the Mexican War". Pacific Historical Review. University of California Press. 47 (3): 325–42. doi:10.2307/3637470. ISSN 1533-8584. JSTOR 3637470 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Graebner, Norman A. (1980). "The Mexican War: A Study in Causation". Pacific Historical Review. University of California Press. 49 (3): 405–26. doi:10.2307/3638563. ISSN 1533-8584. JSTOR 3638563 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Henderson, Timothy J. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States (2007), survey Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power, (1997), textbook. Linscott, Robert N., Editor. 1959. Selected Poems and Letters of Emily Dickinson. Anchor Books, New York. ISBN 0-385-09423-X Mayers, David; Fernández Bravo, Sergio A., "La Guerra Con Mexico Y Los Disidentes Estadunidenses, 1846–1848" [The War with Mexico and US Dissenters, 1846–48]. Secuencia [Mexico] 2004 (59): 32–70. ISSN 0186-0348. Pinheiro, John C. Manifest Ambition: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War (2007). Pletcher David M. The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War. University of Missouri Press, 1973. Price, Glenn W. Origins of the War with Mexico: The Polk-Stockton Intrigue. University of Texas Press, 1967. Reeves, Jesse S. (1905). "The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo". The American Historical Review. American Historical Association. 10 (2): 309–24. doi:10.2307/1834723. ISSN 1937-5239. JSTOR 1834723 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  Rives, George Lockhart (1913). The United States and Mexico, 1821–1848: a history of the relations between the two countries from the independence of Mexico to the close of the war with the United States. 2. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.  Rodríguez Díaz, María Del Rosario. "Mexico's Vision of Manifest Destiny During the 1847 War" Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 41–50. ISSN 0022-3840. Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo. Triumph and Tragedy: A History of the Mexican People, Norton 1992, textbook Schroeder John H. Mr. Polk's War: American Opposition and Dissent, 1846–1848. University of Wisconsin Press, 1973. Sellers Charles G. James K. Polk: Continentalist, 1843–1846 (1966), the standard biography vol 1 and 2 are online at ACLS e-books Smith, Justin Harvey. The War with Mexico. 2 vol (1919). Pulitzer Prize winner. full text online. Stephenson, Nathaniel Wright. Texas and the Mexican War: A Chronicle of Winning the Southwest. Yale University Press (1921). Weinberg Albert K. Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935. Yanez, Agustin. Santa Anna: Espectro de una sociedad (1996). Memory and historiography[edit] Faulk, Odie B., and Stout, Joseph A., Jr., eds. The Mexican War: Changing Interpretations (1974) Rodriguez, Jaime Javier. The Literatures of the U.S.-Mexican War: Narrative, Time, and Identity (University of Texas Press; 2010) 306 pages. Covers works by Anglo, Mexican, and Mexican-American writers. Benjamin, Thomas. "Recent Historiography of the Origins of the Mexican War," New Mexico Historical Review, Summer 1979, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp 169–181 Vázquez, Josefina Zoraida. "La Historiografia Sobre la Guerra entre Mexico y los Estados Unidos," ["The historiography of the war between Mexico and the United States"] Histórica (02528894), 1999, Vol. 23 Issue 2, pp 475–485 Primary sources[edit] Calhoun, John C. The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Vol. 23: 1846, ed. by Clyde N. Wilson and Shirley Bright Cook. (1996). 598 pp Calhoun, John C. The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Vol. 24: December 7, 1846 – December 5, 1847 ed. by Clyde N. Wilson and Shirley Bright Cook, (1998). 727 pp. Conway, Christopher, ed. The U.S.-Mexican War: A Binational Reader (2010) Grant, Ulysses S. (1885). Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co.  Kendall, George Wilkins (1999). Lawrence Dilbert Cress, ed. Dispatches from the Mexican War. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.  Polk, James, K. (1910). Milo Milton Quaife, ed. The Diary of James K. Polk: During his Presidency, 1845–1849. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co.  Robinson, Cecil, The View From Chapultepec: Mexican Writers on the Mexican War, University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 1989). Smith, Franklin (1991). Joseph E. Chance, ed. The Mexican War Journal of Captain Franklin Smith. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.  George Winston and Charles Judah, ed. (1968). Chronicles of the Gringos: The U.S. Army in the Mexican War, 1846–1848, Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Combatants. Albuquerque, New Mexico: The University of New Mexico Press.  Webster, Daniel (1984). Charles M. Wiltse, ed. The Papers of Daniel Webster, Correspondence. 6. Hanover, New Hampshire: The University Press of New England.  "Treaty of Guadalope Hidalgo". Internet Sourcebook Project. Retrieved November 26, 2008.  "28th Congress, 2nd session". United States House Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2008.  "29th Congress, 1st session". United States House Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2008.  "28th Congress, 2nd session". United States Senate Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2008.  "29th Congress, 1st session". United States Senate Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2008.  William Hugh Robarts, "Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops in the war between the United States and Mexico, from 1846 to 1848; the volunteers are arranged by states, alphabetically", BRENTANO'S (A. S. WITHERBEE & CO, Proprietors); WASHINGTON, D. C., 1887.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexican–American War. Guides, bibliographies and collections[edit] Library of Congress Guide to the Mexican War The Handbook of Texas Online: Mexican War Reading List compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History Mexican War Resources The Mexican–American War, Illinois Historical Digitization Projects at Northern Illinois University Libraries Media and primary sources[edit] A Continent Divided: The U.S. - Mexico War Robert E. Lee Mexican War Maps in the VMI Archives The Mexican War and the Media, 1845–1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and related resources at the U.S. Library of Congress Letters of Winfield Scott including official reports from the front sent to the Secretary of War Franklin Pierce's Journal on the March from Vera Cruz Mexican–American War Time line Animated History of the Mexican–American War Maps showing course of Mexican-American War at Other[edit] PBS site of US-Mexican war program Battle of Monterrey Web Site – Complete Info on the battle Manifest Destiny and the U.S.-Mexican War: Then and Now The Mexican War Smithsonian teaching aids for "Establishing Borders: The Expansion of the United States, 1846–48" A History by the Descendants of Mexican War Veterans Mexican–American War Invisible Men: Blacks and the U.S. Army in the Mexican War by Robert E. May Milton Meltzer, "Bound for the Rio Grande: Traitors--Or Martyrs", Reading, video, and lesson for high school students, 1974, Zinn Education Project/Rethinking Schools. Google Map of The Mexican-American War of 1846–1848 John H. Hewitt wrote the song "The Fall of Mexico" in 1847 v t e United States intervention in Latin America Policy Monroe Doctrine (1823) Platt Amendment (1901–04) Roosevelt Corollary/Big Stick ideology (1904) Good Neighbor policy (1933) Dollar diplomacy Banana Wars Wars Mexican–American War (1846–48) Spanish–American War (1898) Border War (1910–19) United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution (1916–19) Overt actions and occupations Paraguay expedition (1858) First Occupation of Cuba (1899–1902) Panama–Colombia separation and Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903) Second Occupation of Cuba (1906–09) Occupations of Honduras Occupation of Nicaragua (1912–33) Occupation of Veracruz (1914) Occupation of Haiti (1915–34) Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–24) Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66) Invasion of Grenada (1983) Invasion of Panama (1989) Covert actions 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) Operation MONGOOSE Project FUBELT 1973 Chilean coup d'état Disputed claims 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt 2004 Haitian rebellion Other Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) United States involvement in regime change in Latin America Foreign policy of the United States Latin America–United States relations v t e Mexico articles History Pre-Columbian era Colonial era War of Independence First Mexican Empire First Mexican Republic Centralist Republic Texas Revolution Pastry War Mexican–American War Second Mexican Republic La Reforma French intervention Second Mexican Empire Porfiriato Mexican Revolution Cristero War Maximato Institutional Revolutionary Party Mexican miracle Chiapas conflict Mexican Drug War Geography Borders Cities Climate Earthquakes Extreme points Forests Islands Metropolitan areas Mountains Protected Natural Areas Rivers States Territorial evolution Time Volcanos Water resources Wettest-known tropical cyclones Politics Administrative divisions Congress Senate Chamber of Deputies Constitution Elections Federal government Foreign relations Human rights Intersex LGBT Law Law enforcement Military Political parties President Cabinet Supreme Court State legislatures Economy Agriculture Automotive market Central bank Companies Economic history Energy Irrigation Labor law North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Oil Pension system Peso (currency) Petroleum Science and technology States by GDP States by unemployment Stock exchange Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Water scarcity Society Corruption Crime Demographics Education Health Immigration Nationality law People Poverty Religion States by HDI Water supply and sanitation Welfare Women Culture Architecture Art Visual arts Cinema Cuisine Flags Folklore Handcrafts and folk art Languages Literature Monuments Music National symbols Public holidays Radio Sports Television World Heritage Sites Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e Armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces listed chronologically Domestic Shays' Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Fries's Rebellion Mormon War Dorr Rebellion Bleeding Kansas Utah War Civil War Indian Wars Brooks–Baxter War Range War Lincoln County War Johnson County War Coal Creek War Homestead strike Battle of Blair Mountain Bonus Army Battle of Athens Foreign Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War First Sumatran expedition Second Sumatran expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Mexican–American War First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Formosa Expedition Korean Expedition Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Border War World War I Russian Civil War World War II Korean War Vietnam War U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Invasion of Panama Gulf War Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War Afghanistan War Iraq War War in North-West Pakistan Libyan Civil War Intervention against ISIL Iraq Syria Cameroon Libya Related articles List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war Peace movement List of anti-war organizations Conscientious objector War on Terror v t e History of California Before 1900 Native Californian Precontact First explorations Later explorations Spanish colonization Mexican rule California Trail Mexican–American War Californio California Republic United States rule Gold Rush Civil War Since 1900 Labor Engineering Water wars Industrial growth Postwar culture Development Legal revolution Tech boom Present day By topic Highways Maritime Missions Ranchos Slavery Railroads Etymology By region San Fernando Valley By county Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba By city Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim Santa Ana Riverside Stockton Chula Vista Fremont Irvine San Bernardino Modesto Oxnard Fontana Moreno Valley Glendale Huntington Beach Santa Clarita Garden Grove Santa Rosa Oceanside Rancho Cucamonga Ontario Lancaster Elk Grove Palmdale Corona Salinas Pomona Torrance Hayward Escondido Sunnyvale Pasadena Fullerton Orange Thousand Oaks Visalia Simi Valley Concord Roseville Santa Clara Vallejo Victorville El Monte Berkeley Downey Costa Mesa Inglewood Ventura Fairfield Santa Maria Redding Santa Monica Santa Barbara Chico Merced Napa Redwood City Yuba City Madera Santa Cruz San Rafael Woodland Hanford San Luis Obispo El Centro Lompoc Martinez Hollister Eureka Susanville Ukiah Oroville Red Bluff Auburn Marysville Piedmont Placerville Yreka Crescent City Willows Colusa Sonora Lakeport Jackson Nevada City Alturas v t e United States articles History By event Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier America's Critical Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present) By topic Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrial Geography Territory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky National Park Service National Parks Regions East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western Rivers Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon Time Water supply and sanitation Politics Federal Executive Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy Legislative House of Representatives current members Speaker Senate current members President pro tempore Vice President Judicial Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court Law Bill of Rights civil liberties Code of Federal Regulations Constitution federalism preemption separation of powers Federal Reporter United States Code United States Reports Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence Uniformed Armed Forces Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps 51st state political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement Elections Electoral College Foreign relations Foreign policy Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism Local government Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Red states and blue states Purple America Scandals State government governor state legislature state court Uncle Sam Economy By sector Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation Companies by state Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street Society Culture Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages American English Indigenous languages ASL Black American Sign Language HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish Literature Media Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art Social class Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth Issues Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e History of the United States Timeline Prehistory Pre-Columbian Colonial America's Critical Period 1776–89 1789–1849 1849–65 1865–1918 1918–45 1945–64 1964–80 1980–91 1991–2008 2008–present Topics American Century Cities Constitution Demographic Diplomatic Economic Education Immigration Medical Merchant Marine Military Musical Religious Slavery Southern Technological and industrial Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Voting rights Women Category Portal Authority control NDL: 00560575 Retrieved from "–American_War&oldid=830984233" Categories: Mexican–American War1840s conflicts1846 in Alta California1846 in Mexico1846 in the United States1847 in Alta California1847 in Mexico1847 in the United States1848 in California1848 in Mexico1848 in the United StatesConflicts in 1846Conflicts in 1847Conflicts in 1848History of United States expansionismInvasionsMexican CaliforniaMexico–United States relationsPresidency of James K. PolkPre-statehood history of ArizonaPre-statehood history of CaliforniaPre-statehood history of NevadaPre-statehood history of New MexicoPre-statehood history of UtahSouthwestern United StatesUnited States Marine Corps in the 18th and 19th centuriesWars fought in ArizonaWars fought in CaliforniaWars fought in TexasWars involving the United StatesHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownPages with login required references or sourcesCS1 Spanish-language sources (es)Use mdy dates from October 2013All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2015Articles needing additional references from May 2017All articles needing additional referencesAll articles that may contain original researchArticles that may contain original research from September 2017Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listPages using div col with deprecated parameters

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikiquote Languages AfrikaansالعربيةAsturianuAzərbaycancaБългарскиBoarischBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeگیلکی한국어ՀայերենHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתქართულიКыргызчаLatinaLietuviųLigureMagyarमराठीBahasa MelayuNederlands日本語NorskOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்ไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 18 March 2018, at 02:04. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"1.420","walltime":"1.693","ppvisitednodes":{"value":15596,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":605707,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":77568,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":21,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":49,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":105199,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 1233.674 1 -total"," 32.10% 396.015 2 Template:Reflist"," 15.83% 195.333 18 Template:Navbox"," 13.31% 164.172 42 Template:Cite_book"," 10.35% 127.638 26 Template:Cite_web"," 9.36% 115.502 2 Template:Country_topics"," 5.30% 65.363 5 Template:Fix"," 4.97% 61.253 4 Template:Citation_needed"," 4.95% 61.122 1 Template:United_States_topics"," 4.92% 60.730 1 Template:Infobox_military_conflict"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.525","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":11786869,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1239","timestamp":"20180318114235","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":96,"wgHostname":"mw1242"});});

Mexican–American_War - Photos and All Basic Informations

Mexican–American_War More Links

Winfield ScottZócaloBattle For Mexico CityBattle Of Resaca De La PalmaBattle Of ChurubuscoBattle Of ChapultepecBattle Of Cerro GordoTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoTexasTexas RevolutionMexican CessionUnited StatesCalifornia RepublicSecond Federal Republic Of MexicoJames K. PolkWinfield ScottZachary TaylorStephen W. KearnyJohn D. SloatWilliam J. WorthRobert F. StocktonJoseph LaneFranklin PierceDavid Conner (naval Officer)Matthew C. PerryJohn C. FrémontThomas ChildsHenry Stanton BurtonWilliam B. IdeEdward Dickinson BakerAntonio López De Santa AnnaMariano AristaPedro De AmpudiaJosé María FloresMariano Guadalupe VallejoNicolás BravoJosé Joaquín De HerreraAndrés PicoManuel ArmijoMartin Perfecto De CosPedro Maria De AnayaAgustín Jerónimo De Iturbide Y HuarteJoaquín ReaManuel Pineda MunozGabriel ValenciaTemplate:Campaignbox Mexican–American WarsTemplate Talk:Campaignbox Mexican–American WarsMexico–United States RelationsTaos RevoltCortina TroublesLas Cuevas WarSan Elizario Salt WarGarza RevolutionYaqui UprisingUnited States Involvement In The Mexican RevolutionBorder War (1910–19)Bandit WarCategory:History Of The United StatesHistory Of The United StatesGreater Coat Of Arms Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPrehistory Of The United StatesPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesHistory Of The United States (1776–89)History Of The United States (1789–1849)History Of The United States (1849–65)History Of The United States (1865–1918)History Of The United States (1918–45)History Of The United States (1945–64)History Of The United States (1964–80)History Of The United States (1980–91)History Of The United States (1991–2008)History Of The United States (2008–present)African-American HistoryHistory Of Asian AmericansHistory Of Chinese AmericansHistory Of Filipino AmericansHistory Of Japanese AmericansHistory Of The Jews In The United StatesHistory Of Mexican AmericansHistory Of Native Americans In The United StatesHistory Of The Poles In The United StatesHistory Of Antisemitism In The United StatesAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)Civil Rights MovementAmerican Civil WarCultural History Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesHistory Of U.S. Foreign PolicyEconomic History Of The United StatesHistoriography Of The United StatesLabor History Of The United StatesHistory Of Medicine In The United StatesMilitary History Of The United StatesHistory Of The Socialist Movement In The United StatesHistory Of The Southern United StatesCategory:History Of The United States By StateAmerican FrontierTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesLGBT History In The United StatesHistory Of Women In The United StatesPortal:United StatesTemplate:History Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:History Of The United StatesCategory:History Of MexicoHistory Of MexicoCoat Of Arms Of MexicoPre-Columbian MexicoSpanish Conquest Of The Aztec EmpireNew SpainMexican War Of IndependenceFirst Mexican EmpireFirst Mexican RepublicCentralist Republic Of MexicoTexas RevolutionPastry WarSecond Federal Republic Of MexicoLa ReformaReform WarFrench Intervention In MexicoSecond Mexican EmpireHistory Of MexicoPorfiriatoMexican RevolutionTen Tragic DaysPlan Of GuadalupeTampico AffairUnited States Occupation Of VeracruzCristero WarMaximatoMexican Oil ExpropriationMexican MiracleMexico 68La Década PerdidaEconomic History Of MexicoChiapas ConflictMexican Peso CrisisHistory Of MexicoMexican Drug WarTimeline Of Mexican HistoryPortal:MexicoTemplate:History Of MexicoTemplate Talk:History Of MexicoUnited StatesSecond Federal Republic Of MexicoMexicoTexas AnnexationRepublic Of TexasTexas RevolutionKingdom Of SpainSpanish EmpireTreaty Of CórdobaFirst Mexican EmpireFirst Mexican RepublicNative Americans In The United StatesTexiansAntonio López De Santa Anna1824 Constitution Of MexicoTexas RevolutionU.S. CongressJames K. PolkNueces RiverRio GrandeZachary TaylorThornton AffairThornton AffairUnited States CongressSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoPacific OceanAlta CaliforniaPacific SquadronUnited States NavyPacific OceanBaja California TerritoryWinfield ScottMexican ArmyMexico CityVeracruz (city)Gulf Of MexicoTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoMexican CessionAlta CaliforniaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoTexasTerritorial Expansion Of The United StatesPacific Coast Of The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Whig Party (United States)American Revolutionary WarQuasi-WarFranceBarbary WarsUnited Kingdom Of Great Britain And IrelandWar Of 1812American Indian WarsSlavery In The United StatesAmerican Civil WarEnlargeTexasEnlargeComancheriaMexicoMexican IndependenceSpainPresidioIndigenous AmericansComancheComanche–Mexico WarsApache–Mexico WarsApacheUnited States ArmyAlta CaliforniaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoSanta Fe TrailUnited StatesNavajoTexasMexican TexasComancheriaEast TexasSlave StateTexas RevolutionRepublic Of TexasManifest DestinyEnlargeFirst Mexican RepublicAlta CaliforniaWaddy Thompson Jr.John TylerOregon Boundary DisputeGeorge Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl Of AberdeenRichard PakenhamLord PalmerstonRobert PeelLittle EnglanderCalifornioUnited StatesUnited Kingdom Of Great Britain And IrelandPío PicoRepublic Of TexasTexas AnnexationTexas RevolutionEnlargeRepublic Of TexasMoses AustinStephen F. AustinTejanoComancheLouisiana PurchaseVicente GuerreroAntonio López De Santa AnnaCoahuila Y TejasStephen F. AustinBattle Of The AlamoTexian ArmySam HoustonBattle Of San JacintoTexiansUnited States CongressRio GrandeTreaties Of VelascoTexan Santa Fe ExpeditionZachary TaylorNueces RiverFifty-Four Forty Or FightOregon CountryOregon TreatyJohn C. FrémontSanta Cruz County, CaliforniaSalinas ValleyFremont Peak (California)California BattalionCalifornia RepublicJohn SlidellAlta CaliforniaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoPacific OceanMexican War Of IndependenceJosé Joaquín De HerreraMariano Paredes Y ArrillagaEnlargeAntonio López De Santa AnnaAntonio López De Santa AnnaCaudillosValentín Gómez FaríasPastry WarLucas AlamánMusketBrown BessNapoleonic WarsCaplock MechanismColt WalkerRevolversMaria Josefa ZozayaEnlargeValentín Gómez FaríasMonarchistsMonarchFrench Intervention In MexicoVeracruzList Of U.S. Army, Navy, And Volunteer Units In The Mexican–American WarEnlargeMexico CityNational Palace (Mexico)Los AngelesJohn L. O'SullivanMexico City National CemeteryAmerican Battle Monuments CommissionNueces StripNueces RiverRio GrandeTreaties Of VelascoFort BrownMatamoros, TamaulipasGeneral Santa AnnaThornton AffairUlysses S. GrantPersonal Memoirs Of Ulysses S. GrantEnlargeCharles A. May2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States)Battle Of Resaca De La PalmaSiege Of Fort TexasBattle Of Palo AltoHorse ArtilleryBattle Of Palo AltoResaca (channel)Battle Of Resaca De La PalmaHand To Hand CombatUnited States CavalryWikipedia:Citation NeededTemplate:Campaignbox Texas CampaignTemplate Talk:Campaignbox Texas CampaignTexas CampaignThornton AffairSiege Of Fort TexasBattle Of Palo AltoBattle Of Resaca De La PalmaEnlargeCasus BelliUnited States CongressWhig Party (United States)John Quincy AdamsMariano Paredes (President Of Mexico)Congress Of MexicoAntonio López De Santa AnnaValentín Gómez FaríasTimeline Of Events Leading To The American Civil WarSlavery In The United StatesNorthwest OrdinanceKentucky And Virginia ResolutionsBattle Of Negro FortMissouri CompromiseTariff Of AbominationsNat Turner's Slave RebellionNullification CrisisUnited States V. The AmistadPrigg V. PennsylvaniaTexas AnnexationWilmot ProvisoManifest DestinyUnderground RailroadNashville ConventionCompromise Of 1850Fugitive Slave Act Of 1850Uncle Tom's CabinKansas–Nebraska ActOstend ManifestoBleeding KansasCaning Of Charles SumnerDred Scott V. SandfordThe Impending Crisis Of The SouthJohn Brown's Raid On Harpers FerryUnited States Presidential Election, 1860Crittenden CompromiseConfederate States Of AmericaStar Of The WestCorwin AmendmentBattle Of Fort SumterTemplate:Events Leading To American Civil WarTemplate Talk:Events Leading To American Civil WarEnlargeAbraham LincolnU.S. House Of RepresentativesSectionalismOrigins Of The American Civil WarWhig Party (United States)Democratic Party (United States)Manifest DestinyJohn L. O'SullivanEnlargeFrederick DouglassSlave PowerJohn Quincy AdamsMassachusettsFrederick DouglassJoshua GiddingsAbraham LincolnSpot ResolutionsThomas CorwinRobert ToombsEnlargeHenry David ThoreauCivil Disobedience (Thoreau)Abolitionism In The United StatesHenry David ThoreauCivil Disobedience (Thoreau)David WilmotWilmot ProvisoEnlargeRichard Caton WoodvilleGeorge Wilkins KendallCarl NebelZachary TaylorWikipedia:Citation NeededMexican–American War CampaignsUnited States Department Of WarStephen W. KearnyJefferson Barracks Military PostFort LeavenworthJohn D. SloatJohn E. WoolMonterreyWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalCapture Of Santa FeTaos RevoltTemplate:Campaignbox New Mexico And Arizona CampaignTemplate Talk:Campaignbox New Mexico And Arizona CampaignCapture Of Santa FeCapture Of Tucson (1846)Battle Of El BrazitoTaos RevoltBattle Of CañadaFirst Battle Of MoraBattle Of Embudo PassSecond Battle Of MoraSiege Of Pueblo De TaosRed River Canyon AffairLas Vegas AffairCienega AffairEnlargeAnnexationNew MexicoUnited States ArmyGeneralStephen W. KearnyFort LeavenworthKansasArmy Of The West (1846)Santa Fe De Nuevo MéxicoAlta CaliforniaManuel ArmijoCatholic PriestDiego ArchuletaManuel Antonio ChavesChihuahua (state)United StatesNew Mexico TerritoryU.S. Provisional Government Of New MexicoKearny CodeAlta CaliforniaCaliforniaSterling PriceCharles BentSanta Fe, New MexicoChristmasPuebloan PeoplesTaos, New MexicoTaos RevoltPablo MontoyaTomás RomeroPuebloan PeoplesCharles BentKit CarsonArroyo Hondo, New MexicoSanta Fe, New MexicoMountain ManJohn David AlbertThomas Tate TobinMora, New MexicoCeran St. VrainBattle Of CañadaBattle Of Embudo PassTaos PuebloSiege Of Pueblo De TaosFirst Battle Of MoraSecond Battle Of MoraRed River Canyon AffairLas Vegas AffairCienega AffairWikipedia:Citation NeededConquest Of CaliforniaTemplate:Campaignbox California CampaignTemplate Talk:Campaignbox California CampaignConquest Of CaliforniaBattle Of ChinoBattle Of MontereySiege Of Los AngelesBattle Of Dominguez RanchoBattle Of NatividadBattle Of San PasqualBattle Of Rio San GabrielBattle Of La MesaEnlargePresidio Of SonomaThomas O. LarkinMonterey, CaliforniaJosé CastroJohn C. FrémontGreat BasinSonoma, CaliforniaWilliam B. IdeBear Flag RevoltSan FranciscoCalifornia BattalionJohn D. SloatUnited States Marine CorpsRobert F. StocktonSan DiegoLos AngelesPío PicoCalifornioJosé María FloresSiege Of Los AngelesBattle Of Dominguez RanchoStephen W. KearnyNew MexicoSonoran DesertColorado RiverLancerAndrés PicoBattle Of San PasqualSan Luis ObispoSan Gabriel River (California)Battle Of Rio San GabrielBattle Of La MesaRanchCahuenga PassTreaty Of CahuengaTemplate:Pacific Coast CampaignTemplate Talk:Pacific Coast CampaignPacific Coast CampaignBombardment Of GuaymasBattle Of MulegeBombardment Of Punta SombreroBattle Of La PazBattle Of San José Del CaboSiege Of La PazSiege Of San José Del CaboSkirmish Of Todos SantosPacific Coast CampaignEnlargeUSS Independence (1814)Launch (boat)GuaymasMazatlánBaja California TerritoryGulf Of CaliforniaMazatlánLa Paz, Baja California SurGuaymasManuel Pineda MunozBattle Of MulegeBattle Of La PazBattle Of San José Del CaboSiege Of La PazSiege Of San José Del CaboHenry S. BurtonSkirmish Of Todos SantosEnlargeZachary TaylorBrownsville, TexasAntonio López De Santa AnnaGoliad MassacreMatamoros, TamaulipasCamargo, TamaulipasMonterreyBattle Of MonterreyPedro De AmpudiaEnlargeBattle Of MonterreyCarl NebelEnlargeBattle Of Buena VistaSiege Of BéxarMouse-holingJefferson DavisBattle Of Buena VistaUte PeopleZuni PeopleMoquisNavajo PeopleAlexander William DoniphanChihuahua CityWilliam Gilpin (governor)ParrasComancheApacheJosiah GreggFirst Battle Of TabascoMatthew C. PerryTabascoGrijalva RiverVillahermosaTabascoEnlargeSecond Battle Of TabascoSecond Battle Of TabascoMosquito FleetGrijalva RiverLanding ForceVillahermosaDavid Dixon PorterCaste War Of YucatanJefferson DavisEnlargeBattle Of ChurubuscoNathaniel CurrierSaint Patrick's BattalionCalifornia Gold RushEnlargeSaint Patrick's BattalionSaint Patrick's BattalionCatholicismIrish PeopleGermansCanadaEnglish PeopleFrench PeopleItaliansPolesScottish PeopleSpanish PeopleSwiss PeopleMexican PeopleCatholic ChurchBattle Of ChurubuscoJon RileyTemplate:Mexico City CampaignTemplate Talk:Mexico City CampaignSiege Of VeracruzBattle Of Cerro GordoBattle Of ContrerasBattle Of ChurubuscoBattle Of Molino Del ReyBattle Of ChapultepecBattle For Mexico CityEnlargeBattle Of ChapultepecEnlargeEnlargeWinfield ScottVeracruz, VeracruzSiege Of VeracruzRobert E. LeeGeorge MeadeUlysses S. GrantJames LongstreetThomas "Stonewall" JacksonMortar (weapon)Matthew C. PerryYellow FeverBattle Of Cerro GordoDragoonsBattle Of Cerro GordoKirby SmithEnlargeBattle Of Molino Del ReyBattle Of ContrerasBattle Of ChurubuscoBattle Of Molino Del ReyBattle Of ChapultepecBattle For Mexico CityMexico CityEnlargeChapultepec CastleNiños HéroesJoaquín ReaSiege Of Puebla (1847)Joseph LaneBattle Of HuamantlaManuel De La Peña Y PeñaJosé Joaquín De HerreraJoaquín ReaGuerrillaXalapaRío Frío De JuárezPerote, VeracruzLas Vigas De Ramírez, VeracruzPuente Nacional, VeracruzJoseph LaneAtlixcoIzucar De MatamorosAffair At Galaxara PassCeledonio Dómeco De JarautaZacualtipanTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoEnlargeMexican CessionGadsden PurchaseCaste War Of YucatánTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoNicholas TristPlenipotentiaryCaliforniaNevadaUtahNew MexicoArizonaColoradoTexasOklahomaKansasWyomingUnited States DollarRatificationNational IntelligencerEnlargeTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoJefferson DavisSam HoustonThomas Jefferson RuskDaniel S. DickinsonStephen A. DouglasEdward A. HanneganThomas Hart Benton (senator)John C. CalhounHerschel V. JohnsonLewis CassJames Murray MasonAmbrose Hundley SevierGeorge Edmund BadgerDaniel WebsterMexican CessionTexas AnnexationGila RiverNathan CliffordLuis De La Rosa OteizaRobert LetcherGadsden PurchaseEnlargeMexico CityGadsden PurchaseAlta CaliforniaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasTohono O'odhamPima PeoplePuebloan PeoplesNavajo PeopleApacheCivil Law (legal System)Law Of SpainReception StatuteCommunity PropertyTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoMexican CessionManifest DestinyRalph Waldo EmersonUnited States Presidential Election, 1848Mary LyonEmily DickinsonWilliam Austin DickinsonBattle Of ChapultepecUnited States House Of RepresentativesMajor GeneralZachary TaylorCongressmanAbraham LincolnSpot ResolutionsIllinoisEnlargeUlysses S. GrantAmerican Civil WarU.S. Military AcademyUlysses S. GrantGeorge B. McClellanWilliam T. ShermanGeorge MeadeWilliam RosecransAmbrose BurnsideConfederate States Of AmericaRobert E. LeeStonewall JacksonJames LongstreetJoseph E. JohnstonBraxton BraggSterling PriceConfederate States Of AmericaJefferson DavisPresident Of The United StatesUlysses S. GrantUnited States ArmySecond Lieutenant (United States)Personal Memoirs Of Ulysses S. GrantAmerican Civil WarRalph Waldo EmersonEnlargeZachary TaylorWinfield ScottWhig Party (United States)Nathaniel CurrierWilmot ProvisoTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoNicholas TristAlta CaliforniaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoGadsden PurchaseIndian WarsWikipedia:No Original ResearchWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeBattle Of ChapultepecRamón AlcarazIgnacio RamírezGuillermo PrietoJosé María IglesiasFrancisco UrquidiAlbert RamseyChapultepec ParkNiños HéroesBattle Of ChapultepecHarry S. TrumanMoment Of SilenceList Of Battles Of The Mexican–American WarChristopher WernerReconquista (Mexico)Republic Of Texas–United States RelationsTexas AnnexationTerritories Of MexicoHistory Of MexicoHistory Of New MexicoHistory Of The United StatesList Of Conflicts In The United StatesList Of Wars Involving The United StatesList Of Wars Involving MexicoMexico–United States RelationsWayback MachineCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCalifornia Historical Society QuarterlyUniversity Of California PressDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8160-4932-7EnlargeAlbert J. BeveridgeWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8040-0633-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8263-0631-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0312866852International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1595230010International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8061-4140-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8262-1132-3Norman, OklahomaUniversity Of Oklahoma PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8061-2964-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8061-3279-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780313303517International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8160-4932-7Kenneth C. DavisHoward ZinnA People's History Of The United StatesGeorge L. RivesCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/99946-41-25-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4191-5736-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780313384370International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1932714286International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-57607-059-XCategory:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListK. Jack BauerInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8032-6107-1Bernard DeVotoInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780307592699Pritzker Military LibraryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8061-4140-9Damon R. EubankInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7734-6495-7The American Historical ReviewAmerican Historical AssociationDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0786474707International Standard Serial NumberPacific Historical ReviewUniversity Of California PressDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORJSTORPacific Historical ReviewUniversity Of California PressDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-385-09423-XInternational Standard Serial NumberThe American Historical ReviewAmerican Historical AssociationDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORJSTORInternational Standard Serial NumberRamón Eduardo RuizJosefina Zoraida VázquezUnited States Army Center Of Military HistoryJohn Hill HewittTemplate:United States Intervention In Latin AmericaTemplate Talk:United States Intervention In Latin AmericaLatin America–United States RelationsMonroe DoctrinePlatt AmendmentRoosevelt CorollaryBig Stick IdeologyGood Neighbor PolicyDollar DiplomacyBanana WarsSpanish–American WarBorder War (1910–19)United States Involvement In The Mexican RevolutionParaguay ExpeditionFirst Occupation Of CubaPanama–Colombia SeparationHay–Bunau-Varilla TreatySecond Occupation Of CubaHistory Of HondurasUnited States Occupation Of NicaraguaUnited States Occupation Of VeracruzUnited States Occupation Of HaitiUnited States Occupation Of The Dominican Republic (1916–24)American Occupation Of The Dominican Republic (1965–66)Invasion Of GrenadaUnited States Invasion Of PanamaCovert Operation1954 Guatemalan Coup D'étatBay Of Pigs InvasionCuban ProjectProject FUBELT1973 Chilean Coup D'état2002 Venezuelan Coup D'état Attempt2004 Haitian Coup D'étatCuban Missile CrisisUnited States Involvement In Regime Change In Latin AmericaForeign Policy Of The United StatesLatin America–United States RelationsTemplate:Mexico TopicsTemplate Talk:Mexico TopicsMexicoIndex Of Mexico-related ArticlesHistory Of MexicoPre-Columbian MexicoColonial MexicoMexican War Of IndependenceFirst Mexican EmpireFirst Mexican RepublicCentralist Republic Of MexicoTexas RevolutionPastry WarSecond Federal Republic Of MexicoReform WarFrench Intervention In MexicoSecond Mexican EmpirePorfirio DíazMexican RevolutionCristero WarMaximatoInstitutional Revolutionary PartyMexican MiracleChiapas ConflictMexican Drug WarGeography Of MexicoBorders Of MexicoList Of Cities In MexicoClimate Of MexicoList Of Earthquakes In MexicoExtreme Points Of MexicoForests Of MexicoList Of Islands Of MexicoMetropolitan Areas Of MexicoList Of Mountain Peaks Of MexicoMexican Protected Natural AreasList Of Rivers Of MexicoStates Of MexicoTerritorial Evolution Of MexicoTime In MexicoList Of Volcanoes In MexicoWater Resources In MexicoList Of Wettest Tropical Cyclones By CountryPolitics Of MexicoAdministrative Divisions Of MexicoCongress Of The UnionSenate Of The Republic (Mexico)Chamber Of Deputies (Mexico)Constitution Of MexicoElections In MexicoFederal Government Of MexicoForeign Relations Of MexicoHuman Rights In MexicoIntersex Rights In MexicoLGBT Rights In MexicoLaw Of MexicoLaw Enforcement In MexicoMexican Armed ForcesList Of Political Parties In MexicoPresident Of MexicoCabinet Of MexicoSupreme Court Of Justice Of The NationList Of Mexican State LegislaturesEconomy Of MexicoAgriculture In MexicoAutomotive Industry In MexicoBank Of MexicoList Of Companies Of MexicoEconomic History Of MexicoEnergy In MexicoIrrigation In MexicoMexican Labor LawNorth American Free Trade AgreementOil Reserves In MexicoMexico Pension PlanMexican PesoPetroleum Industry In MexicoScience And Technology In MexicoList Of Mexican States By GDPList Of Mexican States By UnemploymentMexican Stock ExchangeTelecommunications In MexicoTourism In MexicoTransportation In MexicoWater Scarcity In MexicoCategory:Mexican SocietyCorruption In MexicoCrime In MexicoDemographics Of MexicoEducation In MexicoHealth Care In MexicoImmigration To MexicoMexican Nationality LawMexicansPoverty In MexicoReligion In MexicoList Of Mexican States By Human Development IndexWater Supply And Sanitation In MexicoOportunidadesWomen In MexicoCulture Of MexicoArchitecture Of MexicoMexican ArtVisual Arts Of MexicoCinema Of MexicoMexican CuisineList Of Mexican FlagsFolktales Of MexicoMexican Handcrafts And Folk ArtLanguages Of MexicoMexican LiteratureNational Monuments Of MexicoMusic Of MexicoNational Symbols Of MexicoPublic Holidays In MexicoRadio In MexicoSport In MexicoTelevision In MexicoList Of World Heritage Sites In MexicoOutline Of MexicoIndex Of Mexico-related ArticlesBook:MexicoCategory:MexicoPortal:MexicoTemplate:Armed Conflicts Involving The United States Armed ForcesTemplate Talk:Armed Conflicts Involving The United States Armed ForcesUnited States Armed ForcesShays' RebellionWhiskey RebellionFries's Rebellion1838 Mormon WarDorr RebellionBleeding KansasUtah WarAmerican Civil WarAmerican Indian WarsBrooks–Baxter WarRange WarLincoln County WarJohnson County WarCoal Creek WarHomestead StrikeBattle Of Blair MountainBonus ArmyBattle Of Athens (1946)American Revolutionary WarQuasi-WarFirst Barbary WarWar Of 1812Second Barbary WarFirst Sumatran ExpeditionSecond Sumatran ExpeditionIvory Coast ExpeditionFirst Fiji ExpeditionSecond Opium WarSecond Fiji ExpeditionFormosa ExpeditionUnited States Expedition To KoreaSpanish–American WarPhilippine–American WarBoxer RebellionBanana WarsBorder War (1910–19)World War IAllied Intervention In The Russian Civil WarWorld War IIKorean WarVietnam WarU.S. Invasion Of The Dominican RepublicUS Invasion Of GrenadaLebanese Civil WarUnited States Invasion Of PanamaGulf WarSomali Civil WarOperation Deliberate ForceNATO Bombing Of YugoslaviaWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarWar In North-West Pakistan2011 Military Intervention In LibyaMilitary Intervention Against ISILAmerican-led Intervention In Iraq (2014–present)American-led Intervention In The Syrian Civil WarAmerican Military Intervention In CameroonAmerican Intervention In Libya (2016–present)List Of Conflicts In The United StatesList Of Wars Involving The United StatesTimeline Of United States Military OperationsLength Of U.S. Participation In Major WarsUnited States Territorial AcquisitionsMilitary History Of The United StatesCovert United States Foreign Regime Change ActionsUnited States Military Casualties Of WarPeace MovementList Of Anti-war OrganizationsConscientious ObjectorWar On TerrorTemplate:California HistoryTemplate Talk:California HistoryHistory Of CaliforniaHistory Of California Before 1900Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaHistory Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900California TrailMexican–American WarCalifornioCalifornia RepublicHistory Of California Before 1900California Gold RushCalifornia In The American Civil WarHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentCalifornia Water WarsHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentCategory:History Of CaliforniaHistory Of California's State Highway SystemMaritime History Of CaliforniaSpanish Missions In CaliforniaRanchos Of CaliforniaHistory Of Slavery In CaliforniaHistory Of Rail Transportation In CaliforniaEtymology Of CaliforniaHistory Of The San Fernando ValleyList Of Counties In CaliforniaHistory Of Alameda County, CaliforniaHistory Of Alpine County, CaliforniaHistory Of Amador County, CaliforniaHistory Of Calaveras County, CaliforniaHistory Of Colusa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Contra Costa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Del Norte County, CaliforniaHistory Of El Dorado County, CaliforniaHistory Of Fresno County, CaliforniaHistory Of Glenn County, CaliforniaHistory Of Humboldt County, CaliforniaHistory Of Imperial County, CaliforniaHistory Of Inyo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Kern County, CaliforniaHistory Of Kings County, CaliforniaHistory Of Lake County, CaliforniaHistory Of Lassen County, CaliforniaHistory Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaHistory Of Madera County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mariposa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mendocino County, CaliforniaHistory Of Merced County, CaliforniaHistory Of Modoc County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mono County, CaliforniaHistory Of Monterey County, CaliforniaHistory Of Napa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Nevada County, CaliforniaHistory Of Orange County, CaliforniaHistory Of Placer County, CaliforniaHistory Of Plumas County, CaliforniaHistory Of Riverside County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sacramento County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Benito County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Bernardino County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Diego County, CaliforniaHistory Of San FranciscoHistory Of San Joaquin County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Luis Obispo County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Mateo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Barbara County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clara County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Cruz County, CaliforniaHistory Of Shasta County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sierra County, CaliforniaHistory Of Siskiyou County, CaliforniaHistory Of Solano County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sonoma County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sutter County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tehama County, CaliforniaHistory Of Trinity County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tulare County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tuolumne County, CaliforniaHistory Of Ventura County, CaliforniaHistory Of Yolo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Yuba County, CaliforniaList Of Cities And Towns In CaliforniaHistory Of Los AngelesHistory Of San DiegoHistory Of San Jose, CaliforniaHistory Of San FranciscoHistory Of Fresno, CaliforniaHistory Of Sacramento, CaliforniaHistory Of Long Beach, CaliforniaHistory Of Oakland, CaliforniaHistory Of Bakersfield, CaliforniaHistory Of Anaheim, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Ana, CaliforniaHistory Of Riverside, CaliforniaHistory Of Stockton, CaliforniaHistory Of Chula Vista, CaliforniaHistory Of Fremont, CaliforniaHistory Of Irvine, CaliforniaHistory Of San Bernardino, CaliforniaHistory Of Modesto, CaliforniaHistory Of Oxnard, CaliforniaHistory Of Fontana, CaliforniaHistory Of Moreno Valley, CaliforniaHistory Of Glendale, CaliforniaHistory Of Huntington Beach, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clarita, CaliforniaHistory Of Garden Grove, CaliforniaHistory Of Oceanside, CaliforniaHistory Of Rancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaHistory Of Ontario, CaliforniaHistory Of Lancaster, CaliforniaHistory Of Elk Grove, CaliforniaHistory Of Palmdale, CaliforniaHistory Of Corona, CaliforniaHistory Of Salinas, CaliforniaHistory Of Pomona, CaliforniaHistory Of Torrance, CaliforniaHistory Of Hayward, CaliforniaHistory Of Escondido, CaliforniaHistory Of Sunnyvale, CaliforniaHistory Of Pasadena, CaliforniaHistory Of Fullerton, CaliforniaHistory Of Orange, CaliforniaHistory Of Thousand Oaks, CaliforniaHistory Of Visalia, CaliforniaHistory Of Simi Valley, CaliforniaHistory Of Concord, CaliforniaHistory Of Roseville, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clara, CaliforniaHistory Of Vallejo, CaliforniaHistory Of Victorville, CaliforniaHistory Of El Monte, CaliforniaHistory Of Berkeley, CaliforniaHistory Of Downey, CaliforniaHistory Of Costa Mesa, CaliforniaHistory Of Inglewood, CaliforniaHistory Of Ventura, CaliforniaHistory Of Fairfield, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Maria, CaliforniaHistory Of Redding, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Monica, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Barbara, CaliforniaHistory Of Chico, CaliforniaHistory Of Merced, CaliforniaHistory Of Napa, CaliforniaHistory Of Yuba City, CaliforniaHistory Of Madera, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Cruz, CaliforniaHistory Of San Rafael, CaliforniaHistory Of Woodland, CaliforniaHistory Of Hanford, CaliforniaHistory Of San Luis Obispo, CaliforniaHistory Of El Centro, CaliforniaHistory Of Lompoc, CaliforniaHistory Of Martinez, CaliforniaHistory Of Hollister, CaliforniaHistory Of Eureka, CaliforniaHistory Of Susanville, CaliforniaHistory Of Ukiah, CaliforniaHistory Of Oroville, CaliforniaHistory Of Red Bluff, CaliforniaHistory Of Auburn, CaliforniaHistory Of Marysville, CaliforniaHistory Of Piedmont, CaliforniaHistory Of Placerville, CaliforniaHistory Of Yreka, CaliforniaHistory Of Crescent City, CaliforniaHistory Of Willows, CaliforniaHistory Of Colusa, CaliforniaHistory Of Sonora, CaliforniaHistory Of Lakeport, CaliforniaHistory Of Jackson, CaliforniaHistory Of Nevada City, CaliforniaHistory Of Alturas, CaliforniaTemplate:United States TopicsTemplate Talk:United States TopicsUnited StatesHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesThirteen ColoniesColonial American Military HistoryContinental CongressAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican FrontierAmerica's Critical PeriodTimeline Of Drafting And Ratification Of The United States ConstitutionFederalist EraWar Of 1812United States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraAmerican Indian WarsGilded AgeProgressive EraAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)Civil Rights MovementSpanish–American WarAmerican ImperialismHistory Of The United States (1865–1918)Roaring TwentiesGreat DepressionMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIUnited States Home Front During World War IIGerman American BundAmerican CenturyCold WarKorean WarSpace RaceSecond-wave FeminismVietnam WarHistory Of The United States (1991–2008)War On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarHistory Of The United States (2008–present)Outline Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States DiscoveriesEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of United States Debt CeilingTimeline Of United States InventionsTimeline Of United States Inventions (before 1890)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1890–1945)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1946–91)Timeline Of United States Inventions (after 1991)Military History Of The United StatesPostage Stamps And Postal History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesUnited States TerritoryCounty (United States)Washington, D.C.Federal EnclaveIndian ReservationTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsLists Of Populated Places In The United StatesU.S. StateList Of Earthquakes In The United StatesList Of Extreme Points Of The United StatesList Of Islands Of The United StatesList Of Mountains Of The United StatesList Of Mountain Peaks Of The United StatesList Of Mountain RangesAppalachian MountainsRocky MountainsNational Park ServiceList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemList Of Regions Of The United StatesEast Coast Of The United StatesWest Coast Of The United StatesGreat PlainsGulf Coast Of The United StatesMid-Atlantic (United States)Midwestern United StatesNew EnglandPacific StatesCentral United StatesEastern United StatesNorthern United StatesNortheastern United StatesNorthwestern United StatesSouthern United StatesSoutheastern United StatesSouthwestern United StatesWestern United StatesList Of Rivers Of The United StatesColorado RiverColumbia RiverMississippi RiverMissouri RiverOhio RiverRio GrandeYukon RiverTime In The United StatesDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesPolitics Of The United StatesFederal Government Of The United StatesCabinet Of The United StatesUnited States Federal Civil ServiceUnited States Federal Executive DepartmentsExecutive Office Of The President Of The United StatesIndependent Agencies Of The United States GovernmentFederal Law Enforcement In The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesPublic Policy Of The United StatesUnited States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesCurrent Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateCurrent Members Of The United States SenatePresident Pro Tempore Of The United States SenateVice President Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesUnited States Courts Of AppealsUnited States District CourtSupreme Court Of The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsCivil Liberties In The United StatesCode Of Federal RegulationsUnited States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesFederal PreemptionSeparation Of Powers Under The United States ConstitutionFederal ReporterUnited States CodeUnited States ReportsUnited States Intelligence CommunityCentral Intelligence AgencyDefense Intelligence AgencyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationNational Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyNational Reconnaissance OfficeNational Security AgencyDirector Of National IntelligenceUniformed Services Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardNational Guard Of The United StatesNOAA Commissioned Officer CorpsUnited States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps51st StatePolitical Status Of Puerto RicoDistrict Of Columbia Statehood MovementElections In The United StatesElectoral College (United States)Foreign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesHawaiian Sovereignty MovementPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesAnti-AmericanismAmerican ExceptionalismAmerican NationalismLocal Government In The United StatesPolitical Parties In The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Republican Party (United States)Third Party (United States)Red States And Blue StatesPurple AmericaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesGovernor (United States)State Legislature (United States)State Court (United States)Uncle SamEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of The United States By SectorAgriculture In The United StatesBanking In The United StatesCommunications In The United StatesEnergy In The United StatesInsurance In The United StatesManufacturing In The United StatesMining In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesForeign Trade Of The United StatesTransportation In The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United States By StateUnited States DollarList Of Exports Of The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetFederal Reserve SystemFinancial Position Of The United StatesLabor Unions In The United StatesNational Debt Of The United StatesSocial Programs In The United StatesTaxation In The United StatesUnemployment In The United StatesWall StreetSociety Of The United StatesCulture Of The United StatesAmericanaArchitecture Of The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesEducation In The United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmerican EnglishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguagePlains Indian Sign LanguageArabic Language In The United StatesChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesSpanish Language In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureMedia Of The United StatesHistory Of American JournalismInternet In The United StatesHistory Of American NewspapersRadio In The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMusic Of The United StatesNaming In The United StatesAmericansAmerican PhilosophyPublic Holidays In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesSexuality In The United StatesSports In The United StatesTheater In The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesAmerican DreamEducational Attainment In The United StatesHomelessness In The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesProfessional And Working Class Conflict In The United StatesStandard Of Living In The United StatesWealth In The United StatesSocial Issues In The United StatesAges Of Consent In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCriticism Of The United States GovernmentDiscrimination In The United StatesAffirmative Action In The United StatesAntisemitism In The United StatesIntersex Rights In The United StatesIslamophobia In The United StatesLGBT Rights In The United StatesRacism In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnvironmental Movement In The United StatesGun Politics In The United StatesHealth Care In The United StatesAbortion In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesObesity In The United StatesTobacco In The United StatesHuman Rights In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesInternational Rankings Of The United StatesNational Security Of The United StatesMass Surveillance In The United StatesTerrorism In The United StatesSeparation Of Church And State In The United StatesOutline Of The United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesBook:United StatesCategory:United StatesPortal:United StatesTemplate:US HistoryTemplate Talk:US HistoryHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPrehistory Of The United StatesPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesAmerica's Critical PeriodHistory Of The United States (1776–89)History Of The United States (1789–1849)History Of The United States (1849–65)History Of The United States (1865–1918)History Of The United States (1918–45)History Of The United States (1945–64)History Of The United States (1964–80)History Of The United States (1980–91)History Of The United States (1991–2008)History Of The United States (2008–present)American CenturyCategory:Histories Of Cities In The United StatesHistory Of The United States ConstitutionDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States Diplomatic HistoryEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of Education In The United StatesHistory Of Immigration To The United StatesHistory Of Medicine In The United StatesHistory Of The United States Merchant MarineMilitary History Of The United StatesMusic History Of The United StatesHistory Of Religion In The United StatesSlavery In The United StatesHistory Of The Southern United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesUnited States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesVoting Rights In The United StatesHistory Of Women In The United StatesCategory:History Of The United StatesPortal:United StatesHelp:Authority ControlNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:Mexican–American WarCategory:1840s ConflictsCategory:1846 In Alta CaliforniaCategory:1846 In MexicoCategory:1846 In The United StatesCategory:1847 In Alta CaliforniaCategory:1847 In MexicoCategory:1847 In The United StatesCategory:1848 In CaliforniaCategory:1848 In MexicoCategory:1848 In The United StatesCategory:Conflicts In 1846Category:Conflicts In 1847Category:Conflicts In 1848Category:History Of United States ExpansionismCategory:InvasionsCategory:Mexican CaliforniaCategory:Mexico–United States RelationsCategory:Presidency Of James K. PolkCategory:Pre-statehood History Of ArizonaCategory:Pre-statehood History Of CaliforniaCategory:Pre-statehood History Of NevadaCategory:Pre-statehood History Of New MexicoCategory:Pre-statehood History Of UtahCategory:Southwestern United StatesCategory:United States Marine Corps In The 18th And 19th CenturiesCategory:Wars Fought In ArizonaCategory:Wars Fought In CaliforniaCategory:Wars Fought In TexasCategory:Wars Involving The United StatesCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:Pages With Login Required References Or SourcesCategory:CS1 Spanish-language Sources (es)Category:Use Mdy Dates From October 2013Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2015Category:Articles Needing Additional References From May 2017Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles That May Contain Original ResearchCategory:Articles That May Contain Original Research From September 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2017Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListCategory:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link