Contents 1 History 2 Geography 2.1 Natural hazards 2.2 Climate 2.3 Cityscape 2.4 Parks 3 Government and politics 3.1 Local Government Units (LGU) 3.2 Districts 3.3 Future expansion 4 Demographics 4.1 Poverty, housing and urban slums 5 Economy 5.1 Central Business Districts 5.2 Shopping 5.3 Tourism 6 Culture and contemporary life 6.1 Arts 6.2 Sports 7 Human resources 7.1 Education 7.2 Public health 7.3 Public safety 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.1.1 Roads and highways 8.1.2 Railway systems 8.1.3 Air 8.1.4 Buses 8.1.5 Ferry 8.2 Utilities 9 See also 10 References 11 External links


History[edit] See also: History of Manila Further information: Capital of the Philippines Map of Manila province (1898) A historical province known as Manila encompassed territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities. This included the well-known Pasig River delta settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig, Pateros, and the fortified polity of Cainta. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines,[clarification needed] with Manila (Intramuros) serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served as the capital from 1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States. The province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities. The Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, and cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government. The creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Manila, Pandacan, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed. The establishment of Quezon City meant the demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, the loss of more than 100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. Later on, Quezon City was eventually declared as the national capital on 1948. The tile was re-designated back to Manila in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the almost uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.[10] During the war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila that was established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No. 824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was also created to manage the region.[9] On June 2, 1978, through Presidential Decree No. 1396, the metropolitan area was declared the National Capital Region of the Philippines.[11] When Metro Manila was established, there were four cities, Manila, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and the thirteen municipalities of Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. At present, all of these municipalities except for one have become an independent charted city, only Pateros remains as a municipality. The flood brought by Typhoon Ketsana (Tropical Storm Ondoy) in 2009 caused 484 deaths in Metro Manila alone. President Ferdinand Marcos appointed his wife, First Lady Imelda Marcos as the first governor of Metro Manila. She launched the City of Man campaign. The Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, Metropolitan Folk Arts Theater, Philippine International Convention Center, Coconut Palace and healthcare facilities such as the Lung Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart Center, and the Kidney Center of the Philippines are all constructed precisely for this purpose. President Marcos was overthrown in a non-violent revolution along EDSA, which lasted three days in late February 1986. The popular uprising, now known as the People Power Revolution, made international headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".[12] In 1986, President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order No. 392, reorganizing and changing the structure of the Metropolitan Manila Commission and renamed it to the Metropolitan Manila Authority. Mayors in the metropolis chose from among themselves the chair of the agency. Later on, it was again reorganized in 1995 through Republic Act 7924, creating the present-day Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. The chairperson of the agency will be appointed by the President and should not have a concurrent elected position such as mayor. Former Laguna province governor Joey Lina was the last to serve as the Officer-In-Charge governor of Metro Manila.[13] By late 2014, then-MMDA Chairman Francis Tolentino proposed that San Pedro, Laguna be included in Metro Manila as its 18th member city.[14]


Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Manila Drainage map of the Pasig-Marikina River system Metro Manila is located in the southwestern portion of Luzon. The region lies along the flat alluvial lands extending from the mouth of the Pasig River in the west to the higher rugged lands of Marikina Valley in the east. The region is geographically divided into 4 zones: the Coastal Margin, Guadalupe Plateau, Marikina Valley, and the Laguna Lowlands. The Coastal Margin that faces the Manila Bay possesses resources for offshore fisheries and fishpond development. The various reclamation projects in the area are meant for mixed-use urban development. The Guadalupe Plateau is the most adaptable to urban development activities not only because of its solid geographical foundations but also because of its existing infrastructure links with the rest of Luzon. The Marikina Valley has fertile land suitable for crop cultivation while the Marikina River provides water for industrial uses and discharge. The Laguna Lowlands is not only suitable for agriculture and aquaculture but also for industrial activity.[15] Natural hazards[edit] Metro Manila is exposed to multiple natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, and typhoons. It is surrounded by active faults including the Marikina Valley Fault System. Other distant faults such as the Philippine Faults, Lubang Faults, Manila Trench and Casiguran Faults, are a threat as well.[16] Flooding is recurrent every year especially in low-lying areas. Around five to seven typhoons hit Manila yearly. Manila was ranked as the second riskiest capital city after Tokyo to live in according to Swiss Re.[17] Climate[edit] Metro Manila, Philippines Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D     27     28 19     4     28 18     10     29 19     60     32 21     109     34 22     215     33 23     346     32 24     398     32 24     323     32 24     272     31 22     163     30 21     96     29 19 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D     1.1     82 66     0.2     82 64     0.4     84 66     2.4     90 70     4.3     93 72     8.5     91 73     14     90 75     16     90 75     13     90 75     11     88 72     6.4     86 70     3.8     84 66 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches According to the Köppen climate classification, there are two climates in Metro Manila. Most of the region has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) while the northeastern part of the region that lies on the foothills of Sierra Madre has a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that temperatures are hot year-round, rarely going below 21°C or above 39°C. Temperature extremes have ranged from 17.5°C on January 11, 1914,[18] to 39.6°C on May 7, 1915.[19] Humidity levels are usually very high all year round. Manila has a distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.[20] Climate data for Metro Manila Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 33 (91) 33 (91) 35 (95) 37 (99) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 37 (99) 37 (99) 37 (99) 36 (97) 34 (93) 38 (100) Average high °C (°F) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 32 (90) 34 (93) 33 (91) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 31 (88) 30 (86) 29 (84) 30.8 (87.5) Average low °C (°F) 19 (66) 18 (64) 19 (66) 21 (70) 22 (72) 23 (73) 24 (75) 24 (75) 24 (75) 22 (72) 21 (70) 19 (66) 21.3 (70.3) Record low °C (°F) 14 (57) 14 (57) 14 (57) 15 (59) 17 (63) 18 (64) 19 (66) 19 (66) 19 (66) 18 (64) 17 (63) 15 (59) 18 (64) Average precipitation mm (inches) 27 (1.06) 4 (0.16) 10 (0.39) 60 (2.36) 109 (4.29) 215 (8.46) 346 (13.62) 398 (15.67) 323 (12.72) 272 (10.71) 163 (6.42) 96 (3.78) 2,023 (79.64) Source: WeatherSpark Cityscape[edit] The skyline of the Makati Central Business District (2013) The skyline of Ortigas Center (2016) The skyline of Bonifacio Global City (2016) The skyline of the City of Manila from the Manila Bay (2008) Parks[edit] See also: List of parks in Metro Manila Commemoration of 119th Philippine Independence Day at Rizal Park Quezon Memorial Circle (2015) There are two national parks in Metro Manila which is managed by the National Parks and Development Committee (NPDC), the Rizal Park and Paco Park in the City of Manila. NPDC used to manage Fort Santiago in Intramuros and the Quezon Memorial National Park in Quezon City. A tripartite agreement between the Quezon City Government, the National Historical Institute and the NPDC transferred the management of Quezon Memorial National Park to the Quezon City Government while the maintenance of Fort Santiago was transferred to Intramuros Administration.[21] The region has three protected areas, namely the Rizal Park, Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center and the Manila Bay Beach Resort.[22] Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is considered as the largest urban park in Asia with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres).[23] The park along with the historic walled area of Intramuros are designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise zone according to the Tourism Act of 2009.[24] Paco Park is a recreational garden which was once the city's municipal cemetery built by the Dominicans during the Spanish colonial period.[25] Filipino Landscape Architect IP Santos, the "Father of Philippine Landscape Architecture", was commissioned to do the design of converting the former cemetery into a park. Manila Zoo is the oldest zoo in Asia, which was founded on 1959. It is the home to more than a thousand animals from different 90 species including the 40-year-old elephant, Mali. The zoo has an average of 4,000 visitors weekly. An estimated 40,000 tourists visits the zoo each month.[26] La Mesa Ecopark is a 33-hectare well-developed sanctuary around the La Mesa Watershed. It was established through a joint partnership between the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, ABS-CBN, and the Quezon City Government. La Mesa Ecopark, along with the Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center, are important nature reserves in the Philippines. The Las Piñas-Parañaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area (LPPCHEA) was declared as a critical habitat by the Government of the Philippines in 2007[27] and was listed by the Ramsar Convention as a Wetland of International Importance in 2013.[28] LPPCHEA is composed of the Freedom Island in Parañaque and the Long Island in Las Piñas that covers 175 hectares and features a mangrove forest of eight species, tidal mudflats, secluded ponds with fringing salt-tolerant vegetation, a coastal lagoon, and a beach.[29]


Government and politics[edit] Further information: Administrative divisions of Metro Manila See also: Metropolitan Manila Development Authority MMDA Headquarters (2012) Malacañan Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. The Batasang Pambansa Complex is the seat of the House of Representatives. The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) is the agency responsible for the delivery of public services in Metro Manila. Its services are limited to traffic management and garbage collection. A bill was introduced in 2014 proposing the creation of a new governing body in Metro Manila to be known as the Metropolitan Manila Regional Administration (MMRA). Unlike the MMDA which is limited to being an administrative coordinating body, the proposed MMRA will have police and other typical municipal powers and is more akin to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[30][31] Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, is the seat of the Government of the Philippines. All the main offices of the executive departments of the country are in Metro Manila. The Department of Agrarian Reform, Department of Agriculture, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Housing Authority and Philippine Coconut Authority has their main offices based around Quezon Memorial Circle in Quezon City. Manila, the capital city of the country, is the home to the Malacañan Palace, the official office and residence of the President of the Philippines. The city is also the home of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Important national institutions based in Manila are the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways. Meanwhile, the Department of Science and Technology is based in Taguig while the Department of Tourism has its headquarters in Makati. Important economic and financial institutions headquartered in the region are the Asian Development Bank, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Development Bank of the Philippines, Land Bank of the Philippines and the National Economic and Development Authority. The main office of the Government Service Insurance System in Pasay serves as home to the Senate of the Philippines. Meanwhile, the House of Representatives of the Philippines, is based in the Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City along with the Sandiganbayan. The Coconut Palace once served as the official office and residence of the Vice President of the Philippines in 2010 - 2016. The Quezon City Reception House now serves this purpose since 2016. Local Government Units (LGU)[edit] The political and administrative boundaries of the National Capital Region has not changed since its formation in 1975 as a public corporation under Presidential Decree No. 824. They are composed of sixteen independent cities, classified as highly urbanized cities, and one independent municipality: Pateros. Primary local government units of Metro Manila, 2012 City or municipality Population (2015)[2] Area[a] Density Incorporated (city) km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi Caloocan 7001123000000000000♠12.3% 1,583,978 53.33 20.59 30,000 78,000 1962 Las Piñas 7000460000000099999♠4.6% 588,894 32.02 12.36 18,000 47,000 1997 Makati 7000450000000000000♠4.5% 582,602 27.36 10.56 27,000 70,000 1995 Malabon 7000280000000099999♠2.8% 365,525 15.96 6.16 23,000 60,000 2001 Mandaluyong 7000300000000000000♠3.0% 386,276 11.06 4.27 35,000 91,000 1994 City of Manila 7001138000000000000♠13.8% 1,780,148 42.88 16.56 42,000 110,000 1571 Marikina 7000350000000000000♠3.5% 450,741 22.64 8.74 20,000 52,000 1996 Muntinlupa 7000390000000000000♠3.9% 504,509 41.67 16.09 12,000 31,000 1995 Navotas 7000190000000000000♠1.9% 249,463 11.51 4.44 22,000 57,000 2007 Parañaque 7000520000000000000♠5.2% 664,822 47.28 18.25 14,000 36,000 1998 Pasay 7000320000000000000♠3.2% 416,522 18.64 7.20 23,000 60,000 1947 Pasig 7000590000000000000♠5.9% 755,300 31.46 12.15 24,000 62,000 1995 Pateros 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 63,840 1.76 0.68[b] 36,000 93,000 Not a city Quezon City 7001228000000000000♠22.8% 2,936,116 165.33 63.83 18,000 47,000 1939 San Juan 6999900000000000000♠0.9% 122,180 5.87 2.27 21,000 54,000 2007 Taguig 7000630000000000000♠6.3% 804,915 45.18 17.44 18,000 47,000 2004 Valenzuela 7000480000000000000♠4.8% 620,422 45.75 17.66 14,000 36,000 1998 Total 12,877,253 619.57 239.22 21,000 54,000 ^ Land area figures are from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia.[32][33] ^ Land area of Pateros from the Municipality of Pateros official government website.[34] Districts[edit] Unlike other administrative regions in the Philippines, Metro Manila is not composed of provinces. Instead, the region is divided into four geographic areas called "districts."[35] The districts have their district centers at the four original cities in the region: the city-district of Manila (Capital District), Quezon City (Eastern Manila), Caloocan (Northern Manila, also informally known as CAMANAVA), and Pasay (Southern Manila).[36] The districts serve mainly to organize the region's local government units for fiscal and statistical purposes. Districts of Metro Manila Districts of Metro Manila District Cities/Municipality Population (2015) Area Capital District (1st District) Manila 1,780,148 42.88 km2 (16.56 sq mi) Eastern Manila District (2nd District) Mandaluyong Marikina Pasig Quezon City San Juan 4,650,613 236.36 km2 (91.26 sq mi) Northern Manila District (CAMANAVA) (3rd District) Caloocan Malabon Navotas Valenzuela 2,819,388 126.42 km2 (48.81 sq mi) Southern Manila District (4th District) Las Piñas Makati Muntinlupa Parañaque Pasay Pateros Taguig 3,626,104 208.28 km2 (80.42 sq mi) Metro Manila 12,876,253 619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi) Sources: Population[2] Land area[37][38] Pateros area[39] Future expansion[edit] There is a high clamor for the inclusion of San Pedro, Laguna in Metro Manila. Support groups from the local government and non-government organizations are striving to incorporate San Pedro into Metro Manila. No government agency has yet to take action on the proposal.[40][41]


Demographics[edit] Population of the National Capital Region Year Pop. ±% p.a. 1980 5,925,884 —     1990 7,948,392 +2.98% 1995 9,454,040 +3.30% 2000 9,932,560 +1.06% 2007 11,553,427 +2.11% 2010 11,855,975 +0.95% 2015 12,877,253 +1.59% Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[42][43][2] Metro Manila has a population of 7007128772530000000♠12,877,253 according to the 2015 national census. Its total urban area, composing of the urban agglomeration which refers to the continuous urban expansion of Metro Manila into the provinces of Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna and Batangas has an estimated population of 7007241000000000000♠24,100,000 as of 2015.[3] It is the most populous and densely populated region in the Philippines, the 7th most populous metropolitan area in Asia, and the 3rd most populous urban area in the world. The most populous cities in Metro Manila are Quezon City (2,936,116), Manila (1,780,148), Caloocan (1,583,978), Taguig (804,915), Pasig (755,300), Parañaque (665,822), Valenzuela (620,422), Las Piñas (588,894), Makati (582,602) and Muntinlupa (504,509). Poverty, housing and urban slums[edit] See also: Slums in Manila The Smokey Mountain Development and Reclamation Project is an example of in-city relocation housing for informal settler families in Tondo, City of Manila. In 2014, there are an estimated four million slum dwellers living in Metro Manila. Homelessness is also a major problem in Metro Manila.[44] However, these are being addressed by creating in-city relocation housing, and by relocating informal settler families in low-density housing built in the nearby provinces of Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal. During the American occupation, housing policies in Manila dealt with the problem of sanitation and concentration of settlers around business areas. Among those implemented were business codes and sanitation laws in slum areas in the 1930s. During this period and until the 1950s, new communities were opened for relocation. Among these were Projects 1 − 8 in Diliman, Quezon City and the Vitas tenement houses in Tondo. The government implemented the Public Housing Policy in 1947 that established the People’s Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC). A few years later, it put up the Slum Clearance Committee which, with the help of the PHHC, relocated thousands of families from Tondo and Quezon City to Sapang Palay in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan in the 1960s. During the time of President Ferdinand Marcos, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank supported the programs for the "development of relocation" and "on-site development." Carmona and Dasmariñas in Cavite and San Pedro in Laguna opened as relocation sites. Along with the establishment of the National Housing Authority, Presidential Decree 772 made squatting a crime, making the Philippines one of only two countries (the other is South Africa) where squatting is a crime. The government formulated the National Shelter Program which became the over-all framework for dealing with housing needs of all income classes. Imelda Marcos held both the position as Governor of Metro Manila and as Minister of Human Settlements and Ecology or MHSE until the downfall of the dictatorship in 1986. The MHSE, through loans from the World Bank, initiated the Bagong Lipunan Improvement of Sites and Services (BLISS) housing projects not only in Metro Manila but also in other provinces. From 1960 to 1992, the government transferred some 328,000 families to resettlement sites 25−40 km from Metro Manila. According to the Asian Coalition on Housing Rights, during Corazon C. Aquino’s time, the government would bring some 100,000 persons to relocation sites yearly. During the said period, Sapang Palay and Carmona had a 60% abandonment rate. Congress enacted RA 7279 or the Urban Development and Housing Act (UDHA) in 1992. The law gave a new name for the squatters: informal settlers. Essentially, UDHA gives protection for big private ownership of land in the urban areas, ensuring that these are protected from illegal occupants. The law also widened the scope of private sector participation in the National Shelter Program (NSP). In the middle of the Arroyo administration’s term, infrastructure projects of the government led to the demolition of hundreds of thousands of families (from along railways, C4 road, C5 road, and from Fort Bonifacio). During the same period, new relocation sites in Bulacan, Valenzuela and Caloocan opened. Under the PNoy administration, 556,526 families in Metro Manila have to be brought to relocation sites not only to solve the problem of flooding but also to give way to infrastructure projects and private real estate developments.


Economy[edit] Makati CBD is the principal central business district of the Philippines. The National Capital Region accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines in 2013.[8] Furthermore, it has the highest per capita GDP of the country at ₱183,747.[45] The employment rate of NCR is at 89.6% as of 2012[update].[46] According to Brookings Institution, the 2014 share of output by industry in Metro Manila is as follows: trade and tourism: 31.4%, business/finance: 28.6%, local/non-market: 15.6%, manufacturing: 12.5%, transportation: 4.9%, construction: 4%, utilities: 2.8%, and commodities: 0.3%.[47] Metro Manila will add 1.85 million square meters of office spaces between 2015 and 2017 in the central business districts in Makati, Taguig, and Quezon City as more global firms such as Google and HSBC seeks to outsource business process in the Philippines.[48] The vacancy rate for office spaces remains low, at less 3% in the year-end of 2014.[49] Manila remains as the least expensive capital city in the Asia-Pacific to occupy prime office space at an average rent of $22 per square meter per month.[50] Metro Manila makes it to the "Global Top 30" cities according to property consultancy firm Jones Lang Lasalle, citing its economic scale, vast population, large gross domestic product and BPO specialization as its competitive edge.[51] Furthermore, the region ranks 3rd for the top business process outsourcing global destinations, next to Bangalore and Mumbai.[52] The region's retail sector remains strong, bolstered by remittances abroad, BPOs, and its tourism sector.[53] Historically, the main business district of the metropolis was Binondo, where commercial trading flourished since the 15th century. By the 1960s, economic activities shifted from Binondo to Makati. It transformed Makati it into one of the leading financial centers in Asia. Still, Binondo remained as a cultural and financial center because of the vast Chinese population residing and doing business in the area. The minimum wage of Metro Manila is at ₱481 ($10.77) for non-agricultural workers and at ₱444 ($9.94) for those working in the agricultural sector,[54][55] the highest minimum wage among all the 17 regions of the country.[56] Central Business Districts[edit] Ortigas Center is regarded as one of the three most important central business districts in Metro Manila, the other two are the Makati CBD and the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig. Ayala Avenue, looking westward, in the Makati Central Business District. The Makati, Entertainment City and Bay City Skylines from The Manila Bay. Metro Manila has many central business districts (CBD), which categorizes it under the multiple nuclei model in human geography terms. The most prominent CBDs are the Makati Central Business District, Bonifacio Global City, Ortigas Center, Binondo, and Alabang. The region also has plenty of mixed-use developments owned and developed by private corporations such as the Ayala Corporation, Eton Properties, Megaworld Corporation and SM Prime Holdings. Makati, the sixteenth most populous city in the Philippines, is the premier business and commercial center of the Philippines. The Central Business District is the headquarters to most of the multinational corporations residing in the Philippines as well as the country's biggest commercial firms and BPO companies.[57] The Central Business District has an office stock of 1.1 million square meters of Grade A and premium office space.[58] It is the home to the tallest skyscrapers in the region as well as in the country. Bonifacio Global City is the newest business district of Manila and is the premier financial and lifestyle center of the metropolis. It is located in the north-western part of Taguig City. It used to be a military base known as Fort Bonifacio. The Bases and Conversion Development Authority (BCDA) privatized the property and its income from the sale was intended to be used for the modernization of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Upon its privatization, the place was transformed it into a business hub featuring numerous tourist attractions such as The Mind Museum, high-end shops, towering office skyscrapers, and luxurious lofts and condominiums. Bonifacio Global City will soon overtake the Makati Central Business District as the premier financial center of the country in the future. One of the reasons for it is that the Philippine Stock Exchange will relocate its headquarters in BGC. Also, it has more spaces and land for future developments. It is also the most active business district, generating over 50 percent of the growth in property market and has more available space for rent or lease and sale than Makati.[58] Ortigas Center is the central business district located in Mandaluyong and Pasig, with a small portion of it located in Quezon City. Landmarks in Ortigas include the EDSA Shrine, Shangri-La Plaza and the SM Megamall. Furthermore, The Medical City has its main campus in Ortigas Center. Important financial and national institutions headquartered in Ortigas are the Asian Development Bank, Union Bank of The Philippines and the National Economic and Development Authority. Ortigas is also the home to the headquarters of San Miguel Corporation, Jollibee Foods Corporation, Lopez Group of Companies and The Manila Electric Company. Main Central Business Districts Central Business District Image City/Municipality Area Makati Central Business District Makati Around 100 hectares (250 acres) Ortigas Center Shared between Pasig, Mandaluyong and Quezon City 100 hectares (250 acres) Bonifacio Global City Taguig 240 hectares (590 acres) Binondo City of Manila 66 hectares (160 acres) Alabang Muntinlupa 806 hectares (1,990 acres) Mixed-use Developments Name Image City/Municipality Area Developer Cost Reference(s) Araneta Center Quezon City 35 hectares (86 acres) The Araneta Group Arca South Taguig 74 hectares (180 acres) Ayala Land ₱80 billion Aseana City Parañaque 204 hectares (500 acres) Aseana Holdings Inc. Ayala Center Makati Ayala Land Bay City Reclamation Project (Boulevard 2000) Shared between Pasay and Parañaque 200 hectares + 210 hectares + 73 hectares + 173 hectares[59] 626 hectares (1,550 acres) Philippine Reclamation Authority Capitol Commons Pasig 10 hectares (25 acres) Ortigas & Company ₱25-60 billion Century City Makati 3.4 hectares (8.4 acres) Century Properties Circuit Makati Makati 21 hectares (52 acres) Ayala Land The Cloverleaf Quezon City Ayala Land Eastwood City Quezon City 17 hectares (42 acres) Megaworld Corporation Entertainment City Parañaque 40 hectares (99 acres) PAGCOR Eton Centris Quezon City 12 hectares (30 acres) Eton Properties Greenfield District Mandaluyong 15 hectares (37 acres) Greenfield Development Corporation Newport City Pasay 25 hectares (62 acres) Megaworld Corporation Neopolitan Business Park Quezon City 22.29 hectares (55.1 acres) Asia Pacific Group of Companies Riverbanks Center Marikina 23 hectares (57 acres) Riverbanks Development Corporation Robinsons Cybergate Mandaluyong 25 hectares (62 acres) Robinsons Land Corporation Rockwell Center Makati 15.5 hectares (38 acres) Rockwell Land San Lazaro Tourism and Business Park City of Manila 16 hectares (40 acres) Manila Jockey Club Investments Corp. Triangle Park (Quezon City Central Business District) Quezon City 250 hectares (620 acres) Quezon City Government U.P.-Ayala Land TechnoHub Quezon City 38 hectares (94 acres) Ayala Land ₱6 billion Upcoming Mixed-use Developments Name City/Municipality Area Developer Cost Status Arcovia City Pasig 12.3 hectares (30 acres) Megaworld Corporation ₱35 billion Pre-construction Circulo Verde Pasig 10-12 hectares (30 acres) Ortigas & Company ₱30 billion Pre-construction New Manila Bay–City of Pearl City of Manila 407.43 hectares (1,006.8 acres) UAA Kinming Planning stage Ortigas East Pasig 16 hectares (40 acres) Ortigas & Company ₱50 billion Pre-construction South Park District Muntinlupa 6.6 hectares (16 acres) Ayala Land ₱12 billion Under construction Vertis North Quezon City 29 hectares (72 acres) Ayala Land ₱65 billion Under construction Shopping[edit] See also: List of shopping malls in Metro Manila Aerial view of the SM Mall of Asia Complex (2016) Global Blue ranked Manila as one of the "Best Shopping Destinations" in Asia.[60][61] Metro Manila is home to some of the largest shopping malls in the world, three of which are in the top 10. SM Megamall in Mandaluyong ranks as the 3rd largest shopping mall in the world, followed by SM City North EDSA in Quezon City bagging the 4th place. Meanwhile, SM Mall of Asia in Pasay ranks as the 9th largest shopping mall in world. Other shopping malls in Metro Manila in the list of the largest shopping malls in Metro Manila are the Ever Gotesco Commonwealth Center, Festival Supermall, Greenbelt, Market! Market!, SM Aura Premier, SM Southmall and TriNoma. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Manila Gate of Fort Santiago at the historic walled area of Intramuros, City of Manila. (2013) San Agustin Church, which was built in 1604 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tourism is a vital industry of the region. Metro Manila is the main gateway to the Philippines. Trade and tourism represents 31.4% of share of NCR's output by industry according to Brookings Institution.[47] Metro Manila welcomed 974,379 overnight visitors in 2012, making it the top overnight tourist destination of the country.[62] Manila is visited by the majority of international tourists coming to the country registering a total of 3,139,756 arrivals in 2012.[63] Metro Manila has opened 4,612 hotel rooms in 2015. It is also expected to exceed the 3,500 annual addition of hotel rooms in the next two years.[64][65][66] Gambling in Metro Manila has also become a popular tourist attraction in the region. Metro Manila is a popular gaming destination in Asia,[67] rivaling other major gaming destinations such as Macau and Singapore.[68][69] There are around 20 casinos in the metropolis,[70] featuring luxurious casino hotels and integrated resorts. Its thriving local gambling market makes Manila attractive to casino operators.[71] Popular gaming destinations are Entertainment City in Bay City, Parañaque which contains the City of Dreams Manila and Solaire Resort & Casino, and Newport City in Pasay.[72] Okada Manila is one of Metro Manila's integrated casino resort and hotel complex. Intramuros is the historic walled area within the modern City of Manila. Originally, it was considered to be Manila itself at the time when the Philippines was under the Spanish Empire colonial rule. Owing to its history and cultural value, Intramuros and Rizal Park were designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise zone in the Tourism Act of 2009.[24] Intramuros is managed by the Intramuros Administration. The architecture of Intramuros reflects the Spanish colonial style and the American neoclassical architectural style, since the Philippines was a colony of Spain and the United States before it was granted its independence in 1946. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation in Intramuros and nearby places[73] such as Binondo, Ermita and the Rizal Park. Popular tourist destinations in Intramuros include the Baluarte de San Diego, Club Intramuros Golf Course, Cuartel de Santa Lucia, Fort Santiago, Manila Cathedral, Palacio Arzobispal, Palacio de Santa Potenciana, Palacio del Gobernador, Plaza Mexico, Plaza de Roma, San Agustin Church and its newest tourist attraction, the Ayuntamiento de Manila.[74] Some of the country's oldest schools are founded in Intramuros, these are the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), and Ateneo de Manila University (1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952. Other prominent educational institutions include the Manila High School and the University of the City of Manila.


Culture and contemporary life[edit] See also: List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Metro Manila and Annual events in Metro Manila Metro Manila is widely celebrated in popular lore, frequently the setting for mostly Filipino books, movies, and television programs. Flores de Mayo is widely celebrated throughout all the places in Metro Manila. The yearly Metro Manila Film Festival, inaugurated in 1966, is the forerunner of all Philippine film festivals. Arts[edit] Main article: List of museums in Metro Manila The Tanghalang Pambansa at the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex (2007) "Spoliarium", displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines Metro Manila is the home to the National Museum of the Philippines, the national museum of the country. It operates a chain of museums located in the grounds of Rizal Park just outside Intramuros, such as the National Museum of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum of Natural History. The National Museum complex occupies the place and buildings that were a part of a new capital center proposed by Daniel Burnham in 1901. Prominent museums in Metro Manila include the Ayala Museum, Bahay Tsinoy, Casa Manila, Lopez Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Manila, The Mind Museum, Museo Pambata, Museo Valenzuela, Museum of Philippine Political History, Pasig City Museum and the Rizal Shrine. Museums established by educational institutions are the Ateneo Art Gallery, Jorge B. Vargas Museum and Filipiniana Research Center, Museum of Contemporary Art and Design,[75] UP Museum of a History of Ideas, and the UST Museum of Arts and Sciences. The national theater of the Philippines, known as the "Tanghalang Pambansa", is situated on a 62-hectare (150-acre) cultural center called the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex. The complex is located between the cities of Manila and Pasay. Aside from the CCP, other popular performing arts venue include Cuneta Astrodome, Mall of Asia Arena, Rizal Park, Quezon Memorial Circle and Smart Araneta Coliseum. Other venues used are the UPFI Film Center and UP Theater in the University of the Philippines Diliman. The famed Manila Metropolitan Theater, also known as The Met, was constructed in 1931 and was known as the "Grand Dame" among all the Art Deco theaters of Manila. Years of neglect forces its closure in 1996. The Met will be restored through a tripartite agreement with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the National Museum of the Philippines and the Escuela Taller. Sports[edit] A Philippine Basketball Association game held at the Mall of Asia Arena. The National Capital Region is the home to the headquarters of the ASEAN Basketball League, Baseball Philippines, Philippine Basketball Association, Philippine Super Liga, Shakey's V-League and the Philippines Football League. Collegiate leagues based in the National Capital Region are the Colleges and Universities Sports Association, National Athletic Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities, National Collegiate Athletic Association, National Capital Region Athletic Association, State Colleges and Universities Athletic Association, Universities and Colleges Athletic Association, University Athletic Association of the Philippines, Women's National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Men's National Collegiate Athletic Association. Two national sports complex is located in the region, the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and the PhilSports Complex. The Wack Wack Golf and Country Club has hosted major tournaments such as the Philippine Open and the World Cup. Prominent sporting venues in Metro Manila include the Smart Araneta Coliseum, Mall of Asia Arena, Filoil Flying V Arena and the Cuneta Astrodome. The Greater Manila Area is also home to the Philippine Arena, the world's largest indoor arena.[76] It is located in Bocaue, Bulacan and it has a maximum capacity of 55,000 people.[77] Metro Manila's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball. Another popular sport in the city are cue sports, and billiard halls are found in many places. Baseball, volleyball, football and swimming are also widely played sports. NCR has been the champion of the Palarong Pambansa for 13 straight years.[78] Manila Storm are a rugby league team training out of Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing home matches at the Southern Plains Field, Calamba, Laguna. The Metro Manila area is also home to a number of rugby union teams such as the Alabang Eagles, Makati Mavericks, Manila Nomads Sports Club and the Manila Hapons.


Human resources[edit] Education[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Metro Manila University of the Philippines Diliman is the flagship campus of the University of the Philippines since 1949. The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in Asia. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila has been the center of education. The University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) and Ateneo de Manila University (1859) are some of the oldest educational institutions that was established during the colonial period. The University of the Philippines, along with seven other State Universities and Colleges (SUC), namely the Eulogio "Amang" Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina Polytechnic College, Philippine Normal University, Philippine State College of Aeronautics, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Rizal Technological University and the Technological University of the Philippines, are based in Metro Manila. Manila's University Belt form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in the Philippines, making Manila the center for higher learning in the country. Prominent secondary schools in Metro Manila include the Philippine Science High School in Diliman, Quezon City, the national science school of the Philippines and the Manila Science High School in Ermita, the forerunner of all the science schools in the country. Primary and secondary education is in the region is governed by the Department of Education-National Capital Region (DepEd-NCR). Meanwhile, the higher educational institutions are under the CHED-National Capital Region. NCR has the highest literacy rate among all the regions of the Philippines, with 99.2% in 2008. Literacy rate for males is at 99.0% while literacy rate for females is at 99.4%.[79] For the school year of 2008–2009, Metro Manila has 511 public elementary schools and 220 public secondary schools. There are 309 tertiary (public and private) institutions as of the year-end of 2009. For the said school year, enrollment in public elementary schools is at 1,219,333, public secondary schools at 661,019 and 687,096 for tertiary (public and private) institutions.[46] Public health[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila St. Luke's Medical Center – Global City in Taguig, named as one of the best hospitals in the world. Healthcare in NCR is mostly provided by private corporations. 72% of Metro Manila's hospitals are privately owned. As of 2009[update], the region has 179 hospitals. Quezon City has the most number of hospitals while Valenzuela and Pateros do not have any.[80] In 2008, government health workers in NCR comprises 590 doctors, 498 dentists, 4,576 nurses, and 17,437 midwives. Furthermore, Metro Manila has 27,779 beds with a ratio of 2.47 per 1,000 population as of 2008[update].[81] NCR has the lowest malnutrition rate among all the regions in the country.[82] The headquarters of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, and the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines are in NCR. The main office of the Department of Health, the national health department, is also in the region. NCR is designated by the Department of Health as the pioneer of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.[83] However, lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its growth.[84] Under the Philippine Medical Tourism Program, there are 16 participating hospitals (private and public) in Metro Manila with a total number of 6,748 beds as of 2013[update].[85] Five out of six hospitals in the country accredited by the Joint Commission International are in the region, these are the Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Makati Medical Center, St. Luke's Medical Center – Global City, St. Luke's Medical Center – Quezon City and The Medical City.[86] East Avenue in Quezon City is the location of prominent national health centers: the Lung Center of the Philippines, National Kidney and Transplant Institute, and the Philippine Heart Center. Other national special hospital in Metro Manila include the Philippine Orthopedic Center in Quezon City, and the National Center for Mental Health in Mandaluyong. The Philippine General Hospital, the country's premier state-owned tertiary hospital is located at the City of Manila. The St. Luke's Medical Center which operates in Quezon City and Taguig, is a private tertiary referral hospital cited as one of the best hospitals in the world.[87][88] Public safety[edit] Camp Crame is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police The Philippine National Police is responsible for law enforcement in the country. Its headquarters is located at Camp Crame along Bonny Serrano Avenue, Quezon City. The National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) is the regional branch of PNP that operates in NCR. Its headquarters is located at Camp Bagong Diwa in Bicutan, Taguig. Under the supervision of NCRPO, Metro Manila is divided into five police districts. The five police districts are the Northern Police District (Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela), Eastern Police District (Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, San Juan), Manila Police District (City of Manila), Southern Police District (Las Piñas, Makati, Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Pasay, Taguig, and Pateros) and Quezon City Police District (Quezon City).[89] Metro Manila has the highest rate of crime in the country in 2014, with 59,448 crimes reported (excluding crimes reported in barangay level) with 25,353 of these crimes committed against persons.[90] Following criticisms of high crime rate in Metro Manila, the Philippine National Police launched a relentless anti-crime drive that resulted in the decrease of crimes in the metropolis.[91][92] As of March 2015 Metro Manila's crime rate is down by 50%. From an average of 919 crimes reported weekly, it has gone down to 412. Recorded robberies and theft also decreased by 63 in just a month.[93] All the 159 police community precincts of Metro Manila will be using the electronic blotter system in recording crimes starting June 2015.[94] The Bureau of Fire Protection National Capital Region provides fire protection and technical rescue as well as emergency medical services to the metropolis. It is broadly organized into five firefighting districts: Manila, Quezon City, District II, District III and District IV. The headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines is located at Camp Aguinaldo, along with the Department of National Defense, in Murphy, Quezon City. Aside from Camp Aguinaldo, other military bases situated in the region are Camp Atienza and Fort Bonifacio. The Philippine Army has their headquarters at Fort Bonifacio, Taguig. The Villamor Air Base in Ninoy Aquino International Airport is the home to the headquarters of the Philippine Air Force while the headquarters of the Philippine Navy is located at Roxas Boulevard, Malate, Manila. The Philippine Coast Guard is headquartered at Port Area (Manila South Harbor), City of Manila.Its Coast Guard NCR District also has its headquarters in the city and has another Coast Guard Station in Pasig. It also has a base in Taguig and maintains several detachments located in Navotas, Parañaque, Tangos, Vitas, Manila North Harbor, Manila South Harbor and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.[95] In 2012, the AFP Joint Task Force-National Capital Region was launched to ensure peace and stability in Metro Manila, bearing the same function of the deactivated National Capital Regional Command, although it operates on a much smaller size than its predecessor.[96]


Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Metro Manila See also: Metro Manila Dream Plan According to the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board, public ridership in Metro Manila composes of the following: 46% of the people go around by jeepneys, 32% by private vehicle, 14% by bus, and 8% use the railway system.[97] Transportation development in Metro Manila follows the Metro Manila Dream Plan, which consists of building short-term to long-term infrastructure lasting up to 2030 and addressing its issues on traffic, land use and environment.[98][99] Roads and highways[edit] Main article: List of roads in Metro Manila A flyover at EDSA on its intersection with Quezon Avenue. The roads of Metro Manila is built around the City of Manila. Roads are classified as local, national or subdivision roads. There are ten radial roads branching out from the city. Also there are five circumferential roads forming a series of concentric semi-circular arcs around Manila. The circumferential and radial roads are systems of interconnected roads, bridges and highways. A problem with the circumferential roads are the missing road links. These are the roads that are not constructed (yet) to give way for development due to Metro Manila's rapid urbanization. The metropolis is resolving this problem through the completion of missing road links or through the construction of connector roads. An important circumferential road is the Circumferential Road 4, the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more popularly known as EDSA. It traverses the cities of Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City and Caloocan. MRT Line 3 follows the alignment of EDSA, from Taft Avenue in Pasay up to TriNoma, terminating before it reaches Caloocan. Circumferential Road 5 serves the people near the regional limits of Metro Manila and also serves as an alternate route for Circumferential Road 4. Prominent radial road include the Radial Road 1, composed of Roxas Boulevard and the Manila-Cavite Expressway (Coastal Road) that connects Metro Manila to Cavite, Radial Road 3 or the South Luzon Expressway that connects Metro Manila to Laguna, Radial Road 6, composed of Aurora Boulevard and Marcos Highway that runs up to Rizal and Radial Road 8 or the North Luzon Expressway that serves as the gateway to the north. The radial and circumferential road system are being supplanted by a new numbered highway system implemented by the Department of Public Works and Highways, and new signage are being placed with its implementation. Expressways are being signed with numbers with the E prefix. National roads are assigned 1 to 3 digit numbers, except for those classified as tertiary national roads. The development of roads, highways and expressways are based on the Metro Manila Dream Plan. Ongoing projects in the dream plan include the rehabilitation of EDSA, Skyway Stage 3 and the construction of the missing road links for the circumferential roads (e.g. Taft Avenue Flyover, Metro Manila Interchange Project Phase IV). Railway systems[edit] Further information: Manila Light Rail Transit System and Manila Metro Rail Transit System The Santolan Station of the LRT Line 2. Metro Manila has three rapid transit lines. The Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT) operates the LRT Line 1 (Green Line) and the LRT Line 2 (Blue Line). On the other hand, the Manila Metro Rail Transit System operates the MRT Line 3 (Yellow Line) which traverses EDSA. The Philippine National Railways operates a commuter rail service in Metro Manila called the PNR Metro South Commuter. Its main terminal, Tutuban, is located in Tondo. The most troublesome metro line is the MRT Line 3 which has been plagued with frequent and severe disruptions. Line 1 has a weekly ridership of 560,000 people,[100] while Line 2 has a weekly ridership of 200,000. While in MRT Line 3 serves roughly 650,000 weekly. In February 2014, a total of 14.06 million passengers took Line 1 while 6.13 million took Line 2.[101] To improve rail transport within the region, several railway projects were undertaken by the national government. The Metro Manila Subway (MMS) is slated to start its construction in 2018 and was expected to be partially completed by 2022. MMS Phase 1 is expected to be completed by 2025. Currently, the MRT Line 7 (Red Line) is under construction. When completed, it will connect Metro Manila to the province of Bulacan. Furthermore, a Common Station, connecting LRT Line 1, MRT Line 3 , the future MRT 7 , and the Future subway is planned, although bureaucracy in the Department of Transportation and Communications, corporate feud and issues related to its proposed location are hindrances of its construction.[102][103][104][105] LRT Line 1 is planned to be extended up to Bacoor in the province of Cavite.[100] A second extension, the LRT Line 6, would link Bacoor with Dasmarinas further along Aguinaldo Highway. The LRT Line 2 East Extension Project is on-going while the proposed West Extension Project is in the planning stage. The east extension will connect Metro Manila to the province of Rizal. The westward extension will increase connectivity to areas of Divisoria and in Pier 4 at the Port of Manila. The West Extension Project will have an interchange with PNR Tutuban Station, which may become the busiest interchange station in the region, adding another 400,000 people from the current 1 million people Tutuban Center attracts.[106] Air[edit] Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3 Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the only airport and the premier gateway in Metro Manila. It is the busiest airport in the Philippines.[107] NAIA has four terminals: Terminal 1, Terminal 2 (which is exclusively used by the Philippine Airlines), Terminal 3 (the newest and largest airport terminal in NAIA) and Terminal 4 (also known as the Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal). The other airport that serves Metro Manila is the Clark International Airport in Angeles, Pampanga which is located 80 kilometers away. Buses[edit] Bus franchises in the region are regulated by the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board. The Express Connect Bus is the express bus system that runs from its dispatch terminal in Fairview up to the central business districts along EDSA. It aims to cut travel time substantially and provide a faster, safer and more convenient bus service to commuters, who are usually caught at the heavy traffic across the metropolis.[108][109] A second express bus link from SM North EDSA, Trinoma and SM Megamall to Makati City opened in December 2015, and by January 2016 was the line on which, for the first time in nearly three decades, a double-decker bus traveled on EDSA, to the delight of motorists, followed by a 3rd link, this time from Robinsons Galleria to the Ayala Center complex in February 2016 and a 4th in March linking the Ayala Center to the Alabang Town Center in Muntinlupa via the Metro Manila Skyway. As of the present express buses also link the Market Market mall and Circuit Makati to both the Nuvali residential township and the Pacita Village complex in San Pedro, both in Laguna, in services launched in 2014 and 2017, respectively (plus an additional service to the UP Town Mall), while intercity express buses have been in operation since 2015 to alleviate traffic on EDSA. Metro Manila will have its bus rapid transit system operational by 2018. The 27.7 kilometer proposed BRT system will traverse Commonwealth Avenue up to the Manila City Hall. The planned BRT system costs ₱4.9 billion ($109.5 million) and will have a fleet of 300 buses and 32 stations.[110][111] Ferry[edit] Main article: Pasig River Ferry Service The Pasig River Ferry Service run by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority is the principal ferry shuttle system of Metro Manila. It traverses the Pasig River from Barangay Pinagbuhatan in Pasig to Plaza Mexico in Intramuros. Although it was referred to as a ferry, it is more akin to a water bus. It has 17 stations, but only 14 are operational. Another ferry route called the Manila-Bataan Ferry was launched on May 10, 2017 and traverses Manila Bay from the Bay Terminal at CCP Complex in Manila to Orion, Bataan. A new ferry route known as the Cavite-Manila Ferry Service that runs between Noveleta, Cavite and Intramuros was launched in January 2018. Utilities[edit] Further information: Water privatization in Metro Manila Water zones for Metro Manila and the surrounding areas. Maynilad Water Services operates in the red areas while Manila Water operates in the blue areas. Meralco is the sole electric distributor of Metro Manila. It generates its power from the National Power Corporation and other independent power producers in Luzon. The Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) was responsible for the supply and delivery of potable water and the sewarage system in Metro Manila. It was privatized in 1997 and the region and its immediate surrounding areas was split into the east and west concession. The winning corporations provides the same function of MWSS. The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone, which is composed of Manila (excluding the southeastern part of the city), Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay and Valenzuela. It also operates in some parts of Makati and Quezon City. Manila Water operates on the east zone, comprising the cities of Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Pateros, San Juan and Taguig. It also operates in large areas of Makati and Quezon City and the southeastern part of Manila, which was excluded from the west zone. For garbage hauling, the region spent ₱4.221 billion ($93.855 million) in 2013. Quezon City spent the most at ₱994.59 million ($22.115 million) while Pateros, NCR's only municipality, spent the least amount of money on garbage at ₱9.478 million ($210,747).[112]


See also[edit] Outline of Metro Manila List of metropolitan areas in Asia Greater Manila Area Imperial Manila Mega Manila Geography portal Asia portal Philippines portal


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Retrieved March 21, 2015.  ^ "PH real estate gets boost from BPOs, hospitality, gaming, retail". Manila Standard Today. March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ Doris Dumlao-Abadilla (May 22, 2015). "Metro Manila makes it to top 30 megacities list". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved May 22, 2015.  ^ "PH real estate gets boost from BPOs, hospitality, gaming, retail". Manila Standard Today. March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ "DOLE approves P15 wage hike in Metro Manila". INQUIRER.net. March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2015.  ^ "Metro Manila minimum wage now at P481". Manila Times. March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2015.  ^ "Good news but… Metro Manila minimum pay up by P15". INQUIRER.net. March 19, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ "Working in the Philippines". Make it Makati. Retrieved March 5, 2015.  ^ a b Roderick T. dela Cruz (January 3, 2015). "Fort Bonifacio eclipsing Makati CBD". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved March 20, 2015.  ^ "Programs & Projects: Reclamation". Philippine Reclamation Authority. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ "The Globe Shopper Index". Global Blue. Retrieved 2013-09-13.  ^ "Manila 11th most attractive shopping destination in Asia Pacific –study". Yahoo! Philippines. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "Metro Manila is top overnight tourist destination–DOT". BusinessMirror. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.  ^ "Visitor Arrival and Profile – 2012" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Retrieved September 13, 2013.  ^ "Hotel groups in race to tap Manila gaming scene". South China Morning Post. March 11, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "Hotel boom in Manila offers hope to domestic tourism". Manila Bulletin. March 7, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2015.  ^ Neil Jerome Morales (March 6, 2015). "Hotel boom in Manila offers hope to Philippine tourism". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "Billion $ paradise – Manila stakes its claim". Macau Business. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2014.  ^ "PAGCOR: Entertainment City is all about entertainment and tourism". ABS-CBNnews.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "Pagcor's Entertainment City seen to draw extra 1-M tourists". Philstar.com Business. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "Economics and morals of gambling". The Manila Times. Retrieved September 17, 2014.  ^ "Glitzy casinos to lure more tourists to Manila". The Malay Mail Online. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "Pagcor lowers license fees for operators". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2014.  ^ Jovic Lee (July 20, 2014). "Intramuros cocheros: Hooves, history and hope for a fare hike". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ Jennifer Ambanta (February 22, 2015). "New tourist attraction to open in Intramuros". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ John Batten. "Manila essence: your guide to city's contemporary art scene". South China Morning Post. Retrieved March 9, 2015.  ^ Newcomb, Tim (August 31, 2011). "Building Bigger: World's Largest Indoor Arena Set for the Philippines". Time. Retrieved July 8, 2013.  ^ "Hanwha E&C Completes World's Largest Indoor Arena Construction in the Philippines". The Korea Bizwire. June 10, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.  ^ "NCR extends Palaro reign to 13 years". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 9, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.  ^ "Education". National Statistics Coordination Board. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ "Profile of Private Hospitals in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Institute for Development Studies. March 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ "The Philippine Health System at a Glance" (PDF). Department of Health. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ "Makati, Taguig lead NCR cities in fight vs malnutrition". Rappler. March 13, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "Medical Tourism, Treatments and Surgery in Manila". World Guides. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ Edgardo S. Tugade (June 1, 2014). "Challenges to PH medical tourism". The Manila Times. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "Medical Tourism in the Philippines: Market Profile, Benchmarking Exercise and S.W.O.T. Analysis" (PDF). Department of Health. September 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ "JCI-Accredited Organizations". Joint Commission International. Retrieved March 21, 2015.  ^ "Hurray for St. Luke's! SLMC-GC chosen as one of the world's most beautiful hospitals". St. Luke's Medical Center. Retrieved February 22, 2013.  ^ "St. Luke's lands on list of world's best hospitals". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved August 21, 2014.  ^ "National Capital Region Police Office". National Capital Region Police Office. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ Francisco Tuyay (June 28, 2014). "Crime incidents up by 44k with highest rate in Metro". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ Non Alquitran (February 17, 2015). "Metro Manila a safer place – Roxas". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ Non Alquitran (March 16, 2015). "Metro Manila crime rate down". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 16, 2015.  ^ Cecille Suerte Felipe (March 5, 2015). "PNP: Metro Manila crime rate drops by 50%". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 6, 2015.  ^ Mikas Matsuzawa (May 7, 2015). "Metro Manila police precincts to use e-blotter system". CNN Philippines. Retrieved May 10, 2015.  ^ "Coast Guard District NCR – Central Luzon". Philippine Coast Guard. Retrieved May 11, 2015.  ^ Alexis Romero (July 12, 2012). "New AFP task force launched". PhilStar.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.  ^ Katerina Francisco (March 5, 2015). "Fixing traffic: Jeeps eyed as feeders to bus routes". Rappler. Retrieved March 5, 2015.  ^ "JICA transport study lists strategies for congestion-free MM by 2030". Japan International Cooperation Agency. September 2, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2015.  ^ Jerry E. Esplanada (April 20, 2014). "Japan presents $57-B 'dream plan' to solve Metro congestion". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 27, 2015.  ^ a b "LRT Line 1 Cavite Extension and Operation & Maintenance". Public-Private Partnership Center. Retrieved March 24, 2015.  ^ Marielle Medina. "Did you know: LRT 1 and 2 ridership". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 24, 2015.  ^ Kris Bayos (February 4, 2015). "Common station at SM North EDSA pushed for LRT1, MRT3, and MRT7". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 24, 2015.  ^ Judith Balea (June 14, 2014). "Why SM is after the MRT-LRT common station". Rappler. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ Mick Basa (November 20, 2014). "DOTC eyeing another LRT-MRT common station". Rappler. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ Danessa O. Rivera (August 1, 2014). "SC stops DOTC, LRTA from building common station in front of Trinoma". GMA News. Retrieved March 26, 2015.  ^ "Tutuban Center may become Manila's busiest station". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 21, 2015.  ^ Darwin G. Amojelar (July 3, 2012). "NAIA is Philippines' busiest airport – NSCB". InterAksyon.com. 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External links[edit] Find more aboutMetro Manilaat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata Metro Manila Development Authority – Official website Geographic data related to Metro Manila at OpenStreetMap Places adjacent to Metro Manila Bulacan province Manila Bay Metro Manila Rizal province Cavite province Laguna de Bay Laguna province − Laguna de Bay Manila portal Philippines portal New Spain portal v t e Metro Manila National Capital Region of the Philippines Manila (capital city) Administrative divisions Caloocan Las Piñas Makati Malabon Mandaluyong Manila Marikina Muntinlupa Navotas Parañaque Pasay Pasig Pateros Quezon City San Juan Taguig Valenzuela Barangays Legislative districts Geography Manila Bay Pasig River Marikina River Laguna de Bay Sierra Madre La Mesa Watershed Reservation Marikina Valley Fault System Rivers and esteros Islands Parks Beaches Bay City Manggahan Floodway Greater Manila Area Mega Manila History Prehistory Rajahnate of Maynila Tondo (historical polity) Namayan Intramuros Province of Manila Manila–Acapulco Galleon British occupation of Manila 1880 Luzon earthquakes Battle of Manila Bay Province of Rizal Greater Manila Area Battle of Manila (1945) Metropolitan Manila Development Authority City of Man People Power Revolution World Youth Day 1995 Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission Rizal Day bombings Typhoon Ketsana Timeline Economy Makati CBD Ortigas Center Bonifacio Global City Philippine Stock Exchange Manila Commodity Exchange Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Tourism Attractions Gambling Entertainment City Mixed-use developments Skyscrapers Public services and utilities Hospitals Manila Electric Company (Meralco) Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System Manila Water Company Maynilad Water Services Education Universities and colleges University Belt Primary and secondary schools International schools Libraries Culture Museums Cultural properties Theaters and concert halls Art Deco theaters Sports venues Public art Historical markers Shopping malls Hotels Cinemas Places of worship Roman Catholic churches Newspapers Television stations Radio stations Annual events Imperial Manila Transportation Public transport Manila Mass Transit Network Stations Line 1 LRMC Line 2 LRTA Line 3 MRTC Line 4 Line 6 Line 7 ULC Mega Manila Subway Metro South Commuter Line PNR Bicutan AGT UP Diliman AGT Airports Manila International Airport Authority Seaport Pasig River Ferry Metrostar Ferry Major roads Road space rationing Metro Manila Dream Plan Outline Index Category Portal Links to related articles Government and Geography v t e Populated places in Metro Manila Cities and municipalities Caloocan Las Piñas Makati Malabon Mandaluyong Manila Marikina Muntinlupa Navotas Parañaque Pasay Pasig Pateros Quezon City San Juan Taguig Valenzuela Barangays and districts Capital District Binondo Ermita Intramuros Malate Paco Pandacan Port Area Quiapo Sampaloc San Andres San Miguel San Nicolas Santa Ana Santa Cruz Santa Mesa Tondo Eastern Manila District Bagong Silangan Bagumbayan Balingasa Barangka Batasan Hills Calumpang Camp Aguinaldo Damayan Greater Lagro Marikina Heights Namayan Onse Payatas Pinyahan San Antonio Santa Cruz South Triangle Socorro Santa Elena Ugong UP Campus UP Village Veterans Village West Triangle Southern Manila District Alabang Ayala Alabang Baclaran Bagumbayan Bambang Bel-Air Village BF Homes Parañaque BF International Village Carmona Central Signal Village Dasmariñas Village Forbes Park Maharlika Village New Lower Bicutan Pinagsama Poblacion, Makati Poblacion, Muntinlupa Putatan San Isidro Singkamas Tunasan Upper Bicutan CAMANAVA District Arkong Bato Bagong Silang Bagumbayan North Bagumbayan South Balangkas Bangkulasi Bignay Bisig Daanghari Dalandanan Isla Karuhatan Lawang Bato Malanday Navotas East Navotas West Northbay Blvd. North Northbay Blvd. South Palasan Pariancillo Villa Polo Punturin San Jose San Rafael Village San Roque Sipac-Almacen Tagalag Tangos North Tangos South Tanza Tinajeros Tugatog Veinte Reales Business districts and commercial areas Central business districts Makati CBD Ortigas Center Bonifacio Global City Secondary business districts Alabang Araneta Center Bay City Binondo Eastwood City Ermita Makati Poblacion Malate San Lazaro Tourism and Business Park Triangle Park Other mixed-use areas Arca South Ayala Center Capitol Commons Century City, Makati Circuit Makati Entertainment City Eton Centris New Manila Bay–City of Pearl Newport City Riverbanks Center Robinsons Cybergate Rockwell Center U.P.–Ayala Land TechnoHub Vertis North See also: Administrative divisions of Metro Manila v t e City of Manila Capital of the Philippines Topics Seal and coat of arms Geography History Timeline People Public Education Higher Education Public Transport Skyscrapers Timeline Tourism Transportation Government City Mayor City Council City Hall Politics Districts Binondo Ermita Intramuros Malate Paco Pandacan Port Area Quiapo Sampaloc San Andres San Miguel San Nicolas Santa Ana Santa Cruz Santa Mesa Tondo Congressional Districts First District Second District Third District Fourth District Fifth District Sixth District Metro Manila Philippines Book Category Manila portal v t e Quezon City Topics Skyscrapers Transportation Government City Mayor City Hall City Seal Districts First District Second District Third District Fourth District Fifth District Sixth District Places Bagumbayan Cubao Diliman Galas La Loma Loyola Heights New Manila Novaliches Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5 Project 6 Project 7 Project 8 San Francisco del Monte Santa Mesa Heights Santol Tandang Sora Ugong Norte Metro Manila Philippines v t e Valenzuela Topics Public Education Transportation Government City Mayor Districts First District Second District Places Arkong Bato Bagbaguin Balangkas Bignay Bisig Canumay East Canumay West Coloong Dalandanan Gen. T. de Leon Isla Karuhatan Lawang Bato Lingunan Mabolo (San Roque) Malanday Malinta Mapulang Lupa Marulas Maysan Parada Palasan Pariancillo Villa Paso de Blas Pasolo Poblacion Polo Punturin Rincon Tagalag Ugong Veinte Reales Wawang Pulo Metro Manila Philippines Culture and History v t e Visitor attractions in Metro Manila Historical sites Coconut Palace Corregidor (Manila Bay) Intramuros Baluarte de San Diego Fort Santiago Plaza de Roma Malacañang Palace Manila Central Post Office Manila Chinese Cemetery Manila City Hall Manila Hotel Plaza Miranda Religious buildings EDSA Shrine Golden Mosque Las Piñas Church Manila Cathedral Quiapo Church San Agustin Church San Sebastian Church Seng Guan Temple Monuments and memorials Arch of the Centuries Bantayog ng mga Bayani Center Bonifacio Monument Manila American Cemetery People Power Monument Pinaglabanan Shrine Quezon Memorial Shrine Rizal Monument Statue of the Sentinel of Freedom Integrated resorts Entertainment City City of Dreams Manila Okada Manila Solaire Resort & Casino Resorts World Manila Amusement parks DreamPlay Enchanted Kingdom (Laguna) Kidzania Manila Sky Ranch (Cavite) SM by the Bay Star City Parks and recreation Baywalk La Mesa Eco Park Manila Ocean Park Manila Zoo Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center Paco Park Quezon Memorial Circle Rizal Park Museums and galleries Ayala Museum Bahay Tsinoy Casa Manila Lopez Museum Metropolitan Museum The Mind Museum Museo Pambata National Museum of Anthropology National Museum of Fine Arts National Museum of Natural History National Planetarium Rizal Shrine Events and traditions Aliwan Fiesta Black Nazarene Cinemalaya Film Festival Cinemanila International Film Festival La Naval de Manila Manila International Auto Show Metro Manila Film Festival Philippine Fashion Week World Pyro Olympics Events venues Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex Manila Film Center Philippine International Convention Center Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas Tanghalang Pambansa Kia Theater Mall of Asia Arena Meralco Theater Metropolitan Theater Smart Araneta Coliseum SMX Convention Center World Trade Center Metro Manila Shopping Ayala Center Glorietta Greenbelt Bonifacio High Street Divisoria Greenhills Shopping Center Power Plant Mall Quinta Market Robinsons Place Manila SM Mall of Asia v t e Sports teams and leagues based in and around Metro Manila Leagues Baseball Baseball Philippines Basketball Philippine Basketball Association PBA D-League Football Philippines Football League Volleyball Philippine Super Liga Premier Volleyball League Spikers' Turf Collegiate sports CUSA NAASCU NCAA NCRAA SCUAA UCAA UAAP WNCAA MNCAA Basketball PBA All teams PBA D-League All teams ABL Alab Pilipinas Baseball Baseball Philippines Alabang Tigers Forward Taguig Patriots Manila Sharks Football Philippines Football League JP Voltes Kaya Loyola Collegiate sports NCAA All teams UAAP All teams Other topics v t e Metropolitan areas of the Philippines Current metro areas Cebu Davao Manila Proposed existing metro areas Angeles Bacolod Baguio Batangas Cagayan de Oro Dagupan Iloilo–Guimaras Naga Olongapo v t e Regions of the Philippines Luzon I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region Visayas VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas Mindanao IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Former regions NIR – Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog v t e   Administrative divisions of the Philippines Capital Manila (National Capital Region) Island groups Luzon Visayas Mindanao Regions Administrative I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region Autonomous Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Provinces Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay Cities List of cities in the Philippines Municipalities List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines Barangays Lists of barangays by province Poblacion Other subdivisions Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas Historical Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog v t e World's fifty most-populous urban areas Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin) Jakarta (Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila (Metro Manila) Seoul–Incheon (Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou–Foshan (Guangfo) São Paulo Mexico City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima Chengdu Greater London Nagoya (Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley) Quanzhou Authority control GND: 4737271-0 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Metro_Manila&oldid=826457371" Categories: Metro ManilaMetropolitan areas of the PhilippinesCapital districts and territoriesCapitals in AsiaLuzonRegions of the PhilippinesStates and territories established in 19751975 establishments in the PhilippinesHidden categories: All articles lacking reliable referencesArticles lacking reliable references from December 2017All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from June 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksUse mdy dates from October 2017Use American English from October 2017All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishWikipedia page with obscure country or subdivisionCoordinates on WikidataArticles lacking reliable references from October 2017Articles containing Filipino-language textWikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2009Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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ManilaManila (disambiguation)MetropolisRegions Of The PhilippinesClockwise (from Upper Right): Ayala Avenue, Quezon Memorial Shrine, NAIA Terminal 3, Manila Cathedral, Bonifacio Global City, Epifanio De Los Santos Avenue, J. Ruiz LRT StationAyala AvenueQuezon Memorial ShrineNAIA Terminal 3Manila CathedralBonifacio Global CityEpifanio De Los Santos AvenueJ. 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VargasManilaQuezon CityCaloocanPasayLas PiñasMakatiMalabonMandaluyongMarikinaMuntinlupaNavotasParañaquePasigSan Juan, Metro ManilaTaguigValenzuela, PhilippinesPateros, Metro ManilaMunicipalities Of The PhilippinesEnlargeTyphoon KetsanaFerdinand MarcosFirst Spouse Of The PhilippinesImelda MarcosCity Of ManCultural Center Of The Philippines ComplexPhilippine International Convention CenterCoconut PalaceLung Center Of The PhilippinesPhilippine Heart CenterNational Kidney And Transplant InstituteNonviolenceEDSA (road)People Power RevolutionCorazon AquinoMetropolitan Manila Development AuthorityLaguna (province)Joey LinaSan Pedro, LagunaGeography Of ManilaEnlargePasig RiverMarikina RiverLuzonAlluviumPasig RiverManila BayLand ReclamationMarikina RiverAgricultureAquacultureFault (geology)Marikina Valley Fault SystemPhilippine Fault SystemManila TrenchManilaTokyoSwiss ReTemplate:Climate Chart/How To Read A Climate ChartKöppen Climate ClassificationTropical Savanna ClimateSierra Madre (Philippines)Tropical Monsoon ClimateEquatorDry SeasonWet SeasonTyphoonPrecipitationThe Skyline Of The Makati Central Business District (2013)File:Makati At Sunset.jpgSkylineMakati Central Business DistrictThe Skyline Of Ortigas Center (2016)File:ORTIGAS.jpgSkylineOrtigas CenterThe Skyline Of Bonifacio Global City (2016)File:BGC.jpgSkylineBonifacio Global CityThe Skyline Of The City Of Manila From The Manila Bay (2008)File:Manila Skyline 2007.jpgSkylineManilaManila BayList Of Parks In Metro ManilaEnlargeIndependence Day (Philippines)Rizal ParkEnlargeQuezon Memorial CircleList Of National Parks Of The PhilippinesRizal ParkPaco ParkManilaFort SantiagoIntramurosQuezon Memorial CircleQuezon CityQuezon Memorial CircleFort SantiagoIntramuros AdministrationList Of Protected Areas Of The PhilippinesRizal ParkNinoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife CenterRizal ParkUrban ParkAsiaIntramurosPaco ParkLandscape ArchitectIldefonso P. 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