Contents 1 History 2 Properties and bonding 3 Chemical reactions 3.1 Acid-base reactions 3.2 Combustion 3.3 Reactions with halogens 4 Uses 4.1 Fuel 4.1.1 Natural gas 4.1.2 Liquefied natural gas 4.1.3 Liquid methane rocket fuel 4.2 Chemical feedstock 5 Generation 5.1 Geological routes 5.2 Biological routes 5.3 Industrial routes 5.3.1 Power to methane 5.3.2 Laboratory synthesis 5.3.3 On Mars 6 Occurrence 6.1 Alternative sources 6.2 Atmospheric methane 6.3 Clathrates 7 Anaerobic oxidation of methane 8 Safety 9 Extraterrestrial methane 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links


History[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2013) In November 1776, methane was first scientifically identified by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in the marshes of Lake Maggiore straddling Italy and Switzerland. Volta was inspired to search for the substance after reading a paper written by Benjamin Franklin about "flammable air".[7] Volta collected the gas rising from the marsh, and by 1778 had isolated the pure gas.[8] He also demonstrated that the gas could be ignited with an electric spark.[8] The name "methane" was coined in 1866 by the German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann.[9] The name was derived from methanol.


Properties and bonding[edit] Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C–H bonds. Its electronic structure is described by four bonding molecular orbitals (MOs) resulting from the overlap of the valence orbitals on C and H. The lowest energy MO is the result of the overlap of the 2s orbital on carbon with the in-phase combination of the 1s orbitals on the four hydrogen atoms. Above this energy level is a triply degenerate set of MOs that involve overlap of the 2p orbitals on carbon with various linear combinations of the 1s orbitals on hydrogen. The resulting "three-over-one" bonding scheme is consistent with photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. At room temperature and standard pressure, methane is a colorless, odorless gas.[10] The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is achieved by the addition of an odorant, usually blends containing tert-butylthiol, as a safety measure. Methane has a boiling point of −161 °C (−257.8 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere.[11] As a gas it is flammable over a range of concentrations (5.4–17%) in air at standard pressure. Solid methane exists in several modifications. Presently nine are known.[12] Cooling methane at normal pressure results in the formation of methane I. This substance crystallizes in the cubic system (space group Fm3m). The positions of the hydrogen atoms are not fixed in methane I, i.e. methane molecules may rotate freely. Therefore, it is a plastic crystal.[13]


Chemical reactions[edit] The primary chemical reactions of methane are combustion, steam reforming to syngas, and halogenation. In general, methane reactions are difficult to control. Partial oxidation to methanol, for example, is challenging because the reaction typically progresses all the way to carbon dioxide and water even with an insufficient supply of oxygen. The enzyme methane monooxygenase produces methanol from methane, but cannot be used for industrial-scale reactions.[14] Acid-base reactions[edit] Like other hydrocarbons, methane is a very weak acid. Its pKa in DMSO is estimated to be 56.[15] It cannot be deprotonated in solution, but the conjugate base with methyllithium is known. A variety of positive ions derived from methane have been observed, mostly as unstable species in low-pressure gas mixtures. These include methenium or methyl cation CH+ 3, methane cation CH+ 4, and methanium or protonated methane CH+ 5. Some of these have been detected in outer space. Methanium can also be produced as diluted solutions from methane with superacids. Cations with higher charge, such as CH2+ 6 and CH3+ 7, have been studied theoretically and conjectured to be stable.[16] Despite the strength of its C–H bonds, there is intense interest in catalysts that facilitate C–H bond activation in methane (and other lower numbered alkanes).[17] Combustion[edit] Methane burns easily. Methane's heat of combustion is 55.5 MJ/kg.[18] Combustion of methane is a multiple step reaction. The following equations are part of the process, with the net result being CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O (ΔH = −891 kJ/mol, at standard conditions) CH4+ M* → CH3 + H + M CH4 + O2 → CH3 + HO2 CH4 + HO2 → CH3 + 2 OH CH4 + OH → CH3 + H2O O2 + H → O + OH CH4 + O → CH3 + OH CH3 + O2 → CH2O + OH CH2O + O → CHO + OH CH2O + OH → CHO + H2O CH2O + H → CHO + H2 CHO + O → CO + OH CHO + OH → CO + H2O CHO + H → CO + H2 H2 + O → H + OH H2 + OH → H + H2O CO + OH → CO2 + H H + OH + M → H2O + M* H + H + M → H2 + M* H + O2 + M → HO2 + M* The species M* signifies an energetic third body, from which energy is transferred during a molecular collision. Formaldehyde (HCHO, or H 2CO) is an early intermediate (reaction 7). Oxidation of formaldehyde gives the formyl radical (HCO; reactions 8–10), which then give carbon monoxide (CO) (reactions 11, 12 & 13). Any resulting H2 oxidizes to H2O or other intermediates (reaction 14, 15). Finally, the CO oxidizes, forming CO2 (reaction 16). In the final stages (reactions 17–19), energy is transferred back to other third bodies. The overall reaction rate is a function of the concentration of the various entities during the combustion process. The higher the temperature, the greater the concentration of radical species, and the more rapid the combustion process.[19] Reactions with halogens[edit] Given appropriate conditions, methane reacts with halogens as follows: X2 + UV → 2 X• X• + CH4 → HX + CH3• CH3• + X2 → CH3X + X• where X is a halogen: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). This mechanism for this process is called free radical halogenation. It is initiated with UV light or some other radical initiator. A chlorine atom is generated from elemental chlorine, which abstracts a hydrogen atom from methane, resulting in the formation of hydrogen chloride. The resulting methyl radical, CH3•, can combine with another chlorine molecule to give methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and a chlorine atom. This chlorine atom can then react with another methane (or methyl chloride) molecule, repeating the chlorination cycle.[20] Similar reactions can produce dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and, ultimately, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), depending upon reaction conditions and the chlorine to methane ratio.


Uses[edit] Methane is used in industrial chemical processes and may be transported as a refrigerated liquid (liquefied natural gas, or LNG). While leaks from a refrigerated liquid container are initially heavier than air due to the increased density of the cold gas, the gas at ambient temperature is lighter than air. Gas pipelines distribute large amounts of natural gas, of which methane is the principal component. Fuel[edit] Methane is used as a fuel for ovens, homes, water heaters, kilns, automobiles,[21][22] turbines, and other things. It combusts with oxygen to create heat, as demonstrated by a British inventor in a 1974 film of the National Film Board of Canada.[23] Natural gas[edit] Main article: natural gas Methane is important for electricity generation by burning it as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam generator. Compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, methane produces less carbon dioxide for each unit of heat released. At about 891 kJ/mol, methane's heat of combustion is lower than any other hydrocarbon but the ratio of the heat of combustion (891 kJ/mol) to the molecular mass (16.0 g/mol, of which 12.0 g/mol is carbon) shows that methane, being the simplest hydrocarbon, produces more heat per mass unit (55.7 kJ/g) than other complex hydrocarbons. In many cities, methane is piped into homes for domestic heating and cooking. In this context it is usually known as natural gas, which is considered to have an energy content of 39 megajoules per cubic meter, or 1,000 BTU per standard cubic foot. Methane in the form of compressed natural gas is used as a vehicle fuel and is claimed to be more environmentally friendly than other fossil fuels such as gasoline/petrol and diesel.[22] Research into adsorption methods of methane storage for use as an automotive fuel has been conducted.[24] Liquefied natural gas[edit] Main article: Liquefied natural gas Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing, and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa or 3.6 psi) by cooling it to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F).[citation needed] LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60% that of diesel fuel.[25] This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport. LNG, when it is not highly refined for special uses, is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It is also beginning to be used in LNG-fueled road vehicles. For example, trucks in commercial operation have been achieving payback periods of approximately four years on the higher initial investment required in LNG equipment on the trucks and LNG infrastructure to support fueling.[26] However, it remains more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas. As of 2002[update], the relatively higher cost of LNG production and the need to store LNG in more expensive cryogenic tanks had slowed widespread commercial use.[27] Liquid methane rocket fuel[edit] In a highly refined form, liquid methane is used as a rocket fuel.[28] Though methane has been investigated for decades, no production methane engines have yet been used on orbital spaceflights.[29] Methane is reported to offer the advantage over Kerosene of depositing less carbon on the internal parts of rocket motors, reducing the difficulty of re-use of boosters. Since the 1990s, a number of Russian rockets using liquid methane have been proposed.[30][31] One 1990s Russian engine proposal was the RD-192, a methane/LOX variant of the RD-191.[31] In 2005, US companies, ORBITEC (Orbital Technologies Corporation, now part of Sierra Nevada Corporation as of 2014) and XCOR Aerospace, developed a demonstration liquid oxygen/liquid methane rocket engine and a larger 7,500 pounds-force (33 kN)-thrust engine in 2007 for potential use as the CEV lunar return engine, before the CEV program was later cancelled.[32][33][34] More recently the American private space company SpaceX announced in 2012 an initiative to develop liquid methane rocket engines,[35] including initially, the very large Raptor rocket engine.[36] Raptor is being designed to produce 4.4 meganewtons (1,000,000 lbf) of thrust with a vacuum specific impulse (Isp) of 363 seconds and a sea-level Isp of 321 seconds,[37] and began component-level testing in 2014.[38] In February 2014, the Raptor engine design was shown to be of the highly efficient and theoretically more reliable full-flow staged combustion cycle type, where both propellant streams—oxidizer and fuel—are completely in the gas phase before they enter the combustion chamber. Prior to 2014, only two full-flow rocket engines had ever progressed sufficiently to be tested on test stands, but neither engine completed development or flew on a flight vehicle.[37] In 2016, a development Raptor engine was tested.[39] In October 2013, the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, a state-owned contractor for the Chinese space program, announced that it had completed a first ignition test on a new LOX methane rocket engine. No engine size was provided.[40] In September 2014, another American private space company—Blue Origin— publicly announced that they were into their third year of development work on a large methane rocket engine. The new engine, the Blue Engine 4, or BE-4, has been designed to produce 2,400 kilonewtons (550,000 lbf) of thrust. While initially planned to be used exclusively on a Blue Origin proprietary launch vehicle, it will now be used on a new United Launch Alliance (ULA) engine on a new launch vehicle that is a successor to the Atlas V. ULA indicated in 2014 that they will make the maiden flight of the new launch vehicle no earlier than 2019.[41] One advantage of methane is that it is abundant in many parts of the solar system and it could potentially be harvested on the surface of another solar-system body (in particular, using methane production from local materials found on Mars[42] or Titan), providing fuel for a return journey.[28][43] By 2013, NASA's Project Morpheus had developed a small restartable LOX methane rocket engine with 5,000 pounds-force (22 kN) thrust and a specific impulse of 321 seconds suitable for inspace applications including landers. Small LOX methane thrusters 5–15 pounds-force (22–67 N) were also developed suitable for use in a Reaction Control System (RCS).[44][45] SpaceNews is reporting in early 2015 that the French space agency CNES is working with Germany and a few other governments and will propose a LOX/methane engine on a reusable launch vehicle by mid-2015,[needs update] with flight testing unlikely before approximately 2026.[46] Chemical feedstock[edit] Although there is great interest in converting methane into useful or more easily liquefied compounds, the only practical processes are relatively unselective. In the chemical industry, methane is converted to synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by steam reforming. This endergonic process (requiring energy) utilizes nickel catalysts and requires high temperatures, around 700–1100 °C: CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 Related chemistries are exploited in the Haber-Bosch Synthesis of ammonia from air, which is reduced with natural gas to a mixture of carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. Methane is also subjected to free-radical chlorination in the production of chloromethanes, although methanol is a more typical precursor.[47] Other commercially viable processes that use methane as a chemical feedstock include, the catalytic oxidation of methane into methanol[48] based on the oxidative coupling of methane, and the direct reaction of methane with sulfur trioxide to produce methanesulfonic acid.[49][50]


Generation[edit] See also: Biogeochemistry Geological routes[edit] There are two main routes for geological methane generation, organic (thermogenic), and inorganic (abiotic, meaning non-living). Thermally generated methane, is referred to as thermogenic, originating from deeper sedimentary strata. Thermogenic methane (CH4) formation occurs due to the break-up of organic matter, forced by elevated temperatures and pressures. This type of methane is considered to be the primary methane type in sedimentary basins, and from an economical perspective the most important source of natural gas. Thermogenic methane components are generally considered to be relic (from an earlier time). Generally, formation of thermogenic methane (at depth), can occur through organic matter break-up, or organic synthesis, both ways can involve microorganisms (methanogenesis) but may also occur inorganically. The involved anaerobic and aerobic processes can also consume methane, with and without microorganisms.The more important source of methane at depth (crystalline bedrock) is abiotic. Abiotic means that the methane formation took place involving inorganic compounds, without biological activity, magmatic or created at low temperatures and pressures through water-rock reactions.[51][52] Biological routes[edit] Main article: methanogenesis Naturally occurring methane is mainly produced by microbial methanogenesis.[citation needed] This multistep process is used by microorganisms as an energy source. The net reaction is CO2 + 8 H+ + 8 e− → CH4 + 2 H2O The final step in the process is catalyzed by the enzyme Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase. Methanogenesis is a form of anaerobic respiration used by organisms that occupy landfill, ruminants (e.g., cattle), and the guts of termites. It is uncertain whether plants are a source of methane emissions.[53][54][55] Industrial routes[edit] There are many technological methane production methods. Methane created from biomass in industrial plants via biological route is called biogas. A more synthetic method to produce methane is hydrogenating carbon dioxide through the Sabatier process. Methane is also a side product of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide in the Fischer–Tropsch process, which is practiced on a large scale to produce longer-chain molecules than methane. Example of large-scale coal-to-methane gasification is the Great Plains Synfuels plant, started in 1984 in Beulah, North Dakota as a way to develop abundant local resources of low-grade lignite, a resource that is otherwise very hard to transport for its weight, ash content, low calorific value and propensity to spontaneous combustion during storage and transport. Methane as natural gas has been so abundant that synthetic production of it has been limited to special cases and as of 2016 covers only minor fraction of the methane used. Power to methane[edit] Main article: Power to gas § Power to methane This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Power to methane is a technology that uses electrical power to produce hydrogen from water by electrolysis and uses the Sabatier reaction to combine hydrogen with carbon dioxide to produce methane. As of 2016, this is mostly under development and not in large-scale use. Theoretically, the process could be used as a buffer for excess and off-peak power generated by highly fluctuating wind generators and solar arrays. The conversion efficiency of power to methane is 49–65%, and full power–methane–power cycle is 30–38%. Laboratory synthesis[edit] Methane can be produced by the destructive distillation of acetic acid in the presence of soda lime or similar. Acetic acid is decarboxylated in this process. Methane can be prepared from aluminium carbide by reaction with water or strong acids. It is also made by reducing a solution of methanol and concentrated hydrochloric acid with iron powder, giving water and ferrous chloride as byproducts. On Mars[edit] Methane has been proposed as a possible rocket propellant on future Mars missions due in part to the possibility of synthesizing it on the planet by in situ resource utilization.[56] An adaptation of the Sabatier methanation reaction may be used with a mixed catalyst bed and a reverse water-gas shift in a single reactor to produce methane from the raw materials available on Mars, utilizing water from the Martian subsoil and carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere.[42] Methane could also be produced by a non-biological process called serpentinization[a] involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine, which is known to be common on Mars.[57]


Occurrence[edit] Methane was discovered and isolated by Alessandro Volta between 1776 and 1778 when studying marsh gas from Lake Maggiore. It is the major component of natural gas, about 87% by volume. The major source of methane is extraction from geological deposits known as natural gas fields, with coal seam gas extraction becoming a major source (see Coal bed methane extraction, a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit, while enhanced coal bed methane recovery is a method of recovering methane from non-mineable coal seams). It is associated with other hydrocarbon fuels, and sometimes accompanied by helium and nitrogen. Methane is produced at shallow levels (low pressure) by anaerobic decay of organic matter and reworked methane from deep under the Earth's surface. In general, the sediments that generate natural gas are buried deeper and at higher temperatures than those that contain oil. Methane is generally transported in bulk by pipeline in its natural gas form, or LNG carriers in its liquefied form; few countries transport it by truck. Alternative sources[edit] Testing Australian sheep for exhaled methane production (2001), CSIRO Apart from gas fields, an alternative method of obtaining methane is via biogas generated by the fermentation of organic matter including manure, wastewater sludge, municipal solid waste (including landfills), or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Rice fields also generate large amounts of methane during plant growth. Methane hydrates/clathrates (ice-like combinations of methane and water on the sea floor, found in vast quantities) are a potential future source of methane. Cattle belch methane accounts for 16% of the world's annual methane emissions to the atmosphere.[58] One study reported that the livestock sector in general (primarily cattle, chickens, and pigs) produces 37% of all human-induced methane.[59] Early research has found a number of medical treatments and dietary adjustments that help slightly limit the production of methane in ruminants.[60][61] A 2009 study found that at a conservative estimate, at least 51% of global greenhouse gas emissions were attributable to the life cycle and supply chain of livestock products, meaning all meat, dairy, and by-products, and their transportation.[62] More recently, a 2013 study estimated that livestock accounted for 44 percent of human-induced methane and 14.5 percent of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions.[63] Many efforts are underway to reduce livestock methane production and trap the gas to use as energy.[64] Paleoclimatology research published in Current Biology suggests that flatulence from dinosaurs may have warmed the Earth.[65] Atmospheric methane[edit] Main article: Atmospheric methane Methane concentrations up to December 2017 (Mauna Loa) Methane is created near the Earth's surface, primarily by microorganisms by the process of methanogenesis. It is carried into the stratosphere by rising air in the tropics. Uncontrolled build-up of methane in the atmosphere is naturally checked – although human influence can upset this natural regulation – by methane's reaction with hydroxyl radicals formed from singlet oxygen atoms and with water vapor. It has a net lifetime of about 10 years,[66] and is primarily removed by conversion to carbon dioxide and water. In addition, there is a large (but unknown) amount of methane in methane clathrates in the ocean floors as well as the Earth's crust. In 2010, methane levels in the Arctic were measured at 1850 nmol/mol, a level over twice as high as at any time in the 400,000 years prior to the industrial revolution. Historically, methane concentrations in the world's atmosphere have ranged between 300 and 400 nmol/mol during glacial periods commonly known as ice ages, and between 600 and 700 nmol/mol during the warm interglacial periods. Recent research suggests that the Earth's oceans are a potentially important new source of Arctic methane.[67] Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 34 compared to CO2 over a 100-year period, and 72 over a 20-year period.[68][69] The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases (these gases don't include water vapor which is by far the largest component of the greenhouse effect).[6] Clathrates[edit] Methane is essentially insoluble in water, but it can be trapped in ice forming a similar solid. Significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of Earth at large depths. Estimates consider up to 15,000 gigatonnes of carbon may be stored in the form of clathrates (hydrates) in the ocean floor, not accounting for abiotic methane, a relatively newly discovered source of methane, formed below the ocean floor, in the earth crust.[70] It has been suggested, that today's methane emission regime from the ocean floor, is potentially similar to that during the PETM.[71] Arctic methane release from permafrost and methane clathrates is an expected consequence and further cause of global warming.[72][73][74]


Anaerobic oxidation of methane[edit] There is a group of bacteria that drive methane oxidation with nitrite as the oxidant, the anaerobic oxidation of methane.[75]


Safety[edit] Methane is nontoxic, yet it is extremely flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is violently reactive with oxidizers, halogen, and some halogen-containing compounds. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below about 16% by displacement, as most people can tolerate a reduction from 21% to 16% without ill effects. The concentration of methane at which asphyxiation risk becomes significant is much higher than the 5–15% concentration in a flammable or explosive mixture. Methane off-gas can penetrate the interiors of buildings near landfills and expose occupants to significant levels of methane. Some buildings have specially engineered recovery systems below their basements to actively capture this gas and vent it away from the building. Methane gas explosions are responsible for many deadly mining disasters.[76] A methane gas explosion was the cause of the Upper Big Branch coal mine disaster in West Virginia on April 5, 2010, killing 29.[77]


Extraterrestrial methane[edit] Methane has been detected or is believed to exist on all planets of the solar system and most of the larger moons. With the possible exception of Mars, it is believed to have come from abiotic processes. Mercury – the tenuous atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane.[78] Venus – the atmosphere contains a large amount of methane from 60 km (37 mi) to the surface according to data collected by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Neutral Mass Spectrometer[79] Moon – traces are outgassed from the surface[80] Methane (CH4) on Mars – potential sources and sinks. Mars – the Martian atmosphere contains 10 nmol/mol methane.[81] The source of methane on Mars has not been determined. Recent research suggests that methane may come from volcanoes, fault lines, or methanogens,[82] that it may be a byproduct of electrical discharges from dust devils and dust storms,[83] or that it may be the result of UV radiation.[84] In January 2009, NASA scientists announced that they had discovered that the planet often vents methane into the atmosphere in specific areas, leading some to speculate this may be a sign of biological activity below the surface.[85] Studies of a Weather Research and Forecasting model for Mars (MarsWRF) and related Mars general circulation model (MGCM) suggests that methane plume sources may be located within tens of kilometers, which is within the roving capabilities of future Mars rovers.[86] Methane measurements in Mars' atmosphere by the Curiosity rover. The Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars in August 2012, can distinguish between different isotopologues of methane;[87] but even if the mission determines that microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, it probably resides far below the surface, beyond the rover's reach.[88] Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument is capable of tracking the presence of methane over time to determine whether it is constant, variable, seasonal, or random, providing further clues about its source.[89] The first measurements with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) indicated that there is less than 5 ppb of methane at the landing site.[90][91][92][93] The Mars Trace Gas Mission orbiter planned for launch in 2016 would further study Mars' methane[94][95] and its decomposition products such as formaldehyde and methanol. Alternatively, these compounds may instead be replenished by volcanic or other geological means, such as serpentinization.[57] On July 19, 2013, NASA scientists reported finding "not much methane" (i.e., "an upper limit of 2.7 parts per billion of methane") around the Gale Crater where the Curiosity rover landed in August 2012.[96][97][98] On September 19, 2013, from further measurements by Curiosity, NASA scientists reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a value of 6999180000000000000♠0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit), and as a result, concluded that the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars is reduced.[99][100][101] On 16 December 2014, NASA reported the Curiosity rover detected a "tenfold spike", likely localized, in the amount of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Sample measurements taken "a dozen times over 20 months" showed increases in late 2013 and early 2014, averaging "7 parts of methane per billion in the atmosphere." Before and after that, readings averaged around one-tenth that level.[102][103] Jupiter – the atmosphere contains 3000 ± 1000 ppm methane[104] Saturn – the atmosphere contains 4500 ± 2000 ppm methane[105] Enceladus – the atmosphere contains 1.7% methane[106] Iapetus[citation needed] Titan – the atmosphere contains 1.6% methane and thousands of methane lakes have been detected on the surface.[107] In the upper atmosphere, methane is converted into more complex molecules including acetylene, a process that also produces molecular hydrogen. There is evidence that acetylene and hydrogen are recycled into methane near the surface. This suggests the presence either of an exotic catalyst, possibly an unknown form of methanogenic life.[108] Methane showers, probably prompted by changing seasons, have also been observed.[109] On October 24, 2014, methane was found in polar clouds on Titan.[110][111] Polar clouds, made of methane, on Titan (left) compared with polar clouds on Earth (right). Uranus – the atmosphere contains 2.3% methane[112] Ariel – methane is believed to be a constituent of Ariel's surface ice Miranda[citation needed] Oberon – about 20% of Oberon's surface ice is composed of methane-related carbon/nitrogen compounds Titania – about 20% of Titania's surface ice is composed of methane-related organic compounds[citation needed] Umbriel – methane is a constituent of Umbriel's surface ice Neptune – the atmosphere contains 1.5 ± 0.5% methane[113] Triton – Triton has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere with small amounts of methane near the surface.[114][115] Pluto – spectroscopic analysis of Pluto's surface reveals it to contain traces of methane[116][117] Charon – methane is believed present on Charon, but it is not completely confirmed[118] Eris – infrared light from the object revealed the presence of methane ice[119] Halley's Comet Comet Hyakutake – terrestrial observations found ethane and methane in the comet[120] Extrasolar planets – methane was detected on extrasolar planet HD 189733b; this is the first detection of an organic compound on a planet outside the solar system. Its origin is unknown, since the planet's high temperature (700 °C) would normally favor the formation of carbon monoxide instead.[121] Research indicates that meteoroids slamming against exoplanet atmospheres could add hydrocarbon gases such as methane, making the exoplanets look as though they are inhabited by life, even if they are not.[122] Interstellar clouds[123] The atmospheres of M-type stars.[124]


See also[edit] Sustainable development portal 2007 Zasyadko mine disaster Abiogenic petroleum origin Aerobic methane production Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic respiration Arctic methane emissions Biogas Coal Oil Point seep field Energy density Gas Global Methane Initiative Greenhouse gas Halomethane, halogenated methane derivatives. Industrial gas Lake Kivu (more general: limnic eruption) List of straight-chain alkanes Methanation Methane clathrate, ice that contains methane. Methane (data page) Methane on Mars: atmosphere Methane on Mars: climate Methanogen, archaea that produce methane. Methanogenesis, microbes that produce methane. Methanotroph, bacteria that grow with methane. Methyl group, a functional group related to methane. Thomas Gold


Notes[edit] ^ There are many serpentinization reactions. Olivine is a solid solution between forsterite and fayalite whose general formula is (Fe,Mg)2SiO4. The reaction producing methane from olivine can be written as: Forsterite + Fayalite + Water + Carbonic acid → Serpentine + Magnetite + Methane , or (in balanced form): 18 Mg2SiO4 + 6 Fe2SiO4 + 26 H2O + CO2 → 12 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 4 Fe3O4 + CH4


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External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Methane. Look up methane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Methane at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) International Chemical Safety Card 0291 Gas (Methane) Hydrates -- A New Frontier – United States Geological Survey Catalytic conversion of methane to more useful chemicals and fuels: a challenge for the 21st century – Catalysis Today CDC – Handbook for Methane Control in Mining v t e Alkanes Methane (CH 4) Ethane (C 2H 6) Propane (C 3H 8) Butane (C 4H 10) Pentane (C 5H 12) Hexane (C 6H 14) Heptane (C 7H 16) Octane (C 8H 18) Nonane (C 9H 20) Decane (C 10H 22) Undecane (C 11H 24) Dodecane (C 12H 26) Tridecane (C 13H 28) Tetradecane (C 14H 30) Pentadecane (C 15H 32) Hexadecane / Cetane (C 16H 34) Heptadecane (C 17H 36) Octadecane (C 18H 38) Nonadecane (C 19H 40) Icosane (C 20H 42) Higher alkanes List of alkanes v t e Fuel gas Types Manufactured fuel gas (History) Coal gas Coal gasification Underground coal gasification Biogas Blast furnace gas Blau gas Gasification Landfill gas Mond gas Pintsch gas Producer gas 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chloride Sodium iodide Sulfur monohydride Sulfur monoxide Titanium oxide Triatomic Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium isocyanide Amino radical Carbon dioxide Carbonyl sulfide CCP radical Chloronium Diazenylium Dicarbon monoxide Disilicon carbide Ethynyl radical Formyl radical Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) Hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) Hydrogen sulfide Hydroperoxyl Iron cyanide Isoformyl Magnesium cyanide Magnesium isocyanide Methylene radical N2H+ Nitrous oxide Nitroxyl Ozone Phosphaethyne Potassium cyanide Protonated molecular hydrogen Sodium cyanide Sodium hydroxide Silicon carbonitride c-Silicon dicarbide Silicon naphthalocyanine Sulfur dioxide Thioformyl Thioxoethenylidene Titanium dioxide Tricarbon Water Four atoms Acetylene Ammonia Cyanic acid Cyanoethynyl Cyclopropynylidyne Formaldehyde Fulminic acid HCCN Hydrogen peroxide Hydromagnesium isocyanide Isocyanic acid Isothiocyanic acid Ketenyl Methylene amidogen Methyl radical Propynylidyne Protonated carbon dioxide Protonated hydrogen cyanide Silicon tricarbide Thioformaldehyde Tricarbon monoxide Tricarbon sulfide Thiocyanic acid Five atoms Ammonium ion Butadiynyl Carbodiimide Cyanamide Cyanoacetylene Cyanoformaldehyde Cyanomethyl Cyclopropenylidene Formic acid Isocyanoacetylene Ketene Methane Methoxy radical Methylenimine Propadienylidene Protonated formaldehyde Protonated formaldehyde Silane Silicon-carbide cluster Six atoms Acetonitrile Cyanobutadiynyl radical E-Cyanomethanimine Cyclopropenone Diacetylene Ethylene Formamide HC4N Ketenimine Methanethiol Methanol Methyl isocyanide Pentynylidyne Propynal Protonated cyanoacetylene Seven atoms Acetaldehyde Acrylonitrile Vinyl cyanide Cyanodiacetylene Ethylene oxide Hexatriynyl radical Methylacetylene Methylamine Methyl isocyanate Vinyl alcohol Eight atoms Acetic acid Aminoacetonitrile Cyanoallene Ethanimine Glycolaldehyde Heptatrienyl radical Hexapentaenylidene Methylcyanoacetylene Methyl formate Propenal Nine atoms Acetamide Cyanohexatriyne Cyanotriacetylene Dimethyl ether Ethanol Methyldiacetylene Octatetraynyl radical Propene Propionitrile Ten atoms or more Acetone Benzene Benzonitrile Buckminsterfullerene (C60 fullerene, buckyball) C70 fullerene Cyanodecapentayne Cyanopentaacetylene Cyanotetra-acetylene Ethylene glycol Ethyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl-cyano-diacetylene Methyltriacetylene Propanal n-Propyl cyanide Pyrimidine Deuterated molecules Ammonia Ammonium ion Formaldehyde Formyl radical Heavy water Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen deuteride Hydrogen isocyanide Methylacetylene N2D+ Trihydrogen cation Unconfirmed Anthracene Dihydroxyacetone Ethyl methyl ether Glycine Graphene H2NCO+ Linear C5 Naphthalene cation Phosphine Pyrene Silylidine Related Abiogenesis Astrobiology Astrochemistry Atomic and molecular astrophysics Chemical formula Circumstellar envelope Cosmic dust Cosmic ray Cosmochemistry Diffuse interstellar band Earliest known life forms Extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial liquid water Forbidden mechanism Helium hydride ion Homochirality Intergalactic dust Interplanetary medium Interstellar medium Photodissociation region Iron–sulfur world theory Kerogen Molecules in stars Nexus for Exoplanet System Science Organic compound Outer space PAH world hypothesis Panspermia Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) RNA world hypothesis Spectroscopy Tholin Book:Chemistry Category:Astrochemistry Category:Molecules Portal:Astrobiology Portal:Astronomy Portal:Chemistry v t e Binary compounds of hydrogen Alkali metal hydrides LiH NaH KH RbH CsH Lithium hydride, LiH ionic metal hydride Beryllium hydride Left (gas phase): BeH2 covalent metal hydride Right: (BeH2)n (solid phase) polymeric metal hydride Borane and diborane Left: BH3 (special conditions), covalent metalloid hydride Right: B2H6 (standard conditions), dimeric metalloid hydride Methane, CH4 covalent nonmetal hydride Ammonia, NH3 covalent nonmetal hydride Water, H2O covalent nonmetal hydride Hydrogen fluoride, HF covalent nonmetal hydride Alkaline earth hydrides Monohydrides BeH MgH CaH SrH BaH BeH2 MgH2 CaH2 SrH2 BaH2 Group 13 hydrides Boranes BH3 B2H6 B2H2 B2H4 Alanes AlH3 Al2H6 Gallanes GaH3 Ga2H6 Indiganes InH3 In2H6 Thallanes TlH3 Tl2H6 B2H2 B2H4 B4H10 B5H9 B5H11 B6H10 B6H12 B10H14 B18H22 Group 14 hydrides Linear alkanes CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 more... Linear alkenes C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 more... Linear alkynes C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C9H16 C10H18 more... Silanes SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 Si5H12 Si6H14 Si7H16 Si8H18 Si9H20 Si10H22 more... Silenes Si2H4 Silynes Si2H2 Germanes GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Ge4H10 Ge5H12 Stannanes SnH4 Sn2H6 Plumbanes PbH4 CH CH2 CH3 C2H Cycloalkanes Cycloalkenes Annulenes Many more Pnictogen hydrides Azanes NH3 N2H4 N3H5 N4H6 N5H7 N6H8 N7H9 N8H10 N9H11 N10H12 more... Azenes N2H2 N3H3 N4H4 Phosphanes PH3 P2H4 P3H5 P4H6 P5H7 P6H8 P7H9 P8H10 P9H11 P10H12 more... Phosphenes P2H2 P3H3 P4H4 Arsanes AsH3 As2H4 Stibanes SbH3 Bismuthanes BiH3 HN3 NH radical Hydrogen chalcogenides Polyoxidanes H2O H2O2 H2O3 H2O4 H2O5 H2O6 H2O7 H2O8 H2O9 H2O10 more... Polysulfanes H2S H2S2 H2S3 H2S4 H2S5 H2S6 H2S7 H2S8 H2S9 H2S10 more... Selanes H2Se H2Se2 Tellanes H2Te H2Te2 Polanes PoH2 HO HO2 HO3 H2O+–O– H2S=S (HS)2S+–S– HS HDO D2O T2O Hydrogen halides HF HCl HBr HI HAt Transition metal hydrides ScH2 YH2 YH3 TiH2 ZrH2 HfH2 VH VH2 NbH NbH2 TaH CrH CrH2 CrHx NiH PdHx (x < 1) FeH FeH2 FeH5 CuH ZnH2 CdH2 HgH2 Lanthanide hydrides LaH2 LaH3 CeH2 CeH3 PrH2 PrH3 NdH2 NdH3 SmH2 SmH3 EuH2 GdH2 GdH3 TbH2 TbH3 DyH2 DyH3 HoH2 HoH3 ErH2 ErH3 TmH2 TmH3 YbH2 YbH2.5 LuH2 LuH3 Actinide hydrides AcH2 ThH2 Th4H15 PaH3 UH3 NpH2 NpH3 PuH2 PuH3 AmH2 AmH3 CmH2 Authority control GND: 4169678-5 NDL: 00576602 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Methane&oldid=819275474" Categories: Anaerobic digestionFuel gasFuelsGreenhouse gasesIndustrial gasesMethaneGaseous signaling moleculesHidden categories: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLCS1 maint: Uses authors parameterWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse mdy dates from March 2014Articles without InChI sourceArticles without UNII sourceECHA InfoCard ID from WikidataArticles with changed KEGG identifierChembox having GHS dataChemical articles having a data pageArticles containing unverified chemical infoboxesChembox image size setAll accuracy disputesArticles with disputed statements from October 2017Articles to be expanded from November 2013All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from March 2016Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2002All articles containing potentially dated statementsWikipedia articles in need of updating from January 2016Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017Articles needing additional references from February 2017All articles needing additional referencesArticles with unsourced statements from October 2014Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013Pages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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Methane - Photos and All Basic Informations

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CH4 (disambiguation)ETHANEStereo, Skeletal Formula Of Methane With Some Measurements AddedBall And Stick Model Of MethaneSpacefill Model Of MethanePreferred IUPAC NameChemical NomenclatureCAS Registry NumberJSmolBeilstein DatabaseChEBIChemSpiderECHA InfoCardEuropean Community NumberGmelin DatabaseKEGGMedical Subject HeadingsPubChemRTECSUN NumberInternational Chemical IdentifierSimplified Molecular-input Line-entry SystemChemical FormulaMolar MassOdorDensityMelting PointBoiling PointAqueous SolutionSolubilityEthanolDiethyl EtherBenzeneTolueneMethanolAcetonePartition CoefficientHenry's LawMagnetic SusceptibilityPoint GroupMolecular GeometryDipoleSpecific Heat CapacityStandard Molar EntropyStandard Enthalpy Change Of FormationStandard Enthalpy Change Of CombustionSafety Data SheetMethane (data Page)GHS Hazard PictogramsThe Flame Pictogram In The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (GHS)Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of ChemicalsGHS Hazard StatementGHS Precautionary StatementsNFPA 704NFPA 704NFPA 704NFPA 704NFPA 704Flash PointAutoignition TemperatureExplosive LimitMethyl IodideDifluoromethaneIodoformCarbon TetrachlorideMethane (data Page)Methane (data Page)Refractive IndexDielectric ConstantMethane (data Page)Methane (data Page)UV/VIS SpectroscopyInfrared SpectroscopyNMR SpectroscopyMass SpectrometryStandard StateWikipedia:WikiProject Chemicals/Chembox ValidationWikipedia:Chemical InfoboxAmerican EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishBritish EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishChemical CompoundChemical FormulaCarbonHydrogenGroup-14 HydrideAlkaneNatural GasEarthFuelGaseousStandard Conditions For Temperature And PressureSea FloorAtmosphere Of EarthAtmospheric MethaneRadiative ForcingGreenhouse GasWikipedia:Accuracy DisputeTalk:MethaneItalian PeopleAlessandro VoltaLake MaggioreItalySwitzerlandBenjamin FranklinAugust Wilhelm Von HofmannMethanolTetrahedral Molecular GeometryCarbon–hydrogen BondCarbonHydrogenRoom TemperatureStandard PressureOdorantTert-butylthiolCelsiusFahrenheitAtmosphere (unit)FlammableStandard PressurePolymorphism (materials Science)Space GroupPlastic CrystalCombustionSteam ReformingSyngasHalogenationMethanolCarbon DioxideWaterMethane MonooxygenaseHydrocarbonDimethyl SulfoxideDeprotonationConjugate BaseMethyllithiumCationMetheniumMethaniumList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesSuperacidCationCatalystsC–H Bond ActivationAlkanesEnlargeHeat Of CombustionCombustionKilo-JouleMole (unit)EnergyFormaldehydeRadical (chemistry)Carbon MonoxideOxidizesEnergyPhysical BodyReaction RateHalogenFluorineChlorineBromineIodineFree Radical HalogenationRadical (chemistry)Methyl ChlorideDichloromethaneChloroformCarbon TetrachlorideLNGPipeline TransportFuelCombustionNational Film Board Of CanadaNatural GasElectricity GenerationGas TurbineBoiler (power Generation)Fossil FuelCarbon DioxideHeat Of CombustionHeatingNatural GasMegajouleBritish Thermal UnitStandard Cubic FootCompressed Natural GasVehicle FuelGasolinePetrolDiesel FuelAdsorptionLiquefied Natural GasNatural GasOdorlessTransparency And TranslucencyToxicityCorrosive SubstanceAsphyxiaLiquefaction Of GasesAcid GasesHeliumHydrocarbonsCondensationWikipedia:Citation NeededCompressed Natural GasEnergy DensityDiesel FuelCryogenicsLNG CarrierNatural Gas VehiclesSemi-trailer TruckPayback PeriodCompressed Natural GasDewar FlaskLiquid Rocket PropellantsRocket FuelOrbital SpaceflightRussiaLOXRD-191XCOR AerospaceLiquid OxygenOrion (Constellation Program)United StatesPrivate SpaceflightSpaceXSpaceX Rocket Engine FamilyRaptor (rocket Engine)Rocket EngineSpecific ImpulseFull-flow Staged CombustionGas PhaseRocket EngineChina Aerospace Science And Technology CorporationChina National Space AdministrationUnited StatesPrivate SpaceflightBlue OriginBE-4Newton (unit)Pound-forceUnited Launch AllianceAtlas V SuccessorAtlas VIn Situ Resource UtilizationMarsTitan (moon)Project MorpheusReaction Control SystemSpaceNews (publication)FranceCNESGermanyGovernmentReusable Launch VehicleWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersSynthesis GasCarbon MonoxideSteam ReformingNickelHaber ProcessCarbon DioxideWaterAmmoniaHalogenationOxidative Coupling Of MethaneSulfur TrioxideMethanesulfonic AcidBiogeochemistryEnlargeAbiotic ComponentStratumMethanogenesisMethanogenesisWikipedia:Citation NeededCoenzyme-B SulfoethylthiotransferaseAnaerobic RespirationLandfillRuminantsBiomassBiogasHydrogenationSabatier ProcessFischer–Tropsch ProcessGreat Plains SynfuelsLigniteCoal AssaySpontaneous CombustionPower To GasWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalPower To GasElectricityElectrolysisSabatier ReactionCarbon DioxideWind GeneratorsSolar PanelEnergy Conversion EfficiencyDestructive DistillationAcetic AcidSoda LimeDecarboxylationAluminium CarbideWaterStrong AcidsMethanolHydrochloric AcidIronFerrous ChlorideIn Situ Resource UtilizationWater-gas Shift ReactionSerpentiniteOlivineAlessandro VoltaMarsh GasLake MaggioreNatural Gas FieldsCoal Seam GasCoal Bed Methane ExtractionCoalEnhanced Coal Bed Methane RecoveryHydrocarbonHeliumNitrogenAnaerobic OrganismDecompositionOrganic MatterSedimentPetroleumPipeline TransportEnlargeCSIROBiogasFermentation (biochemistry)ManureMunicipal Solid WasteRiceMethane ClathrateRuminantsPaleoclimatologyCurrent BiologyFlatulenceDinosaursEarthAtmospheric MethaneEnlargeMethanogenesisStratosphereTropicsHydroxyl RadicalsSinglet OxygenMethane ClathratesCrust(geology)Industrial RevolutionIce AgesInterglacialGreenhouse GasGlobal Warming PotentialRadiative ForcingMethane ClathratePETMArctic Methane ReleasePermafrostGlobal WarmingAnaerobic Oxidation Of MethaneNontoxicExplosiveOxidizerHalogenAsphyxiant GasOxygenAsphyxiaCabin PressurizationLandfillsUpper Big Branch Mine DisasterWest VirginiaSolar SystemLife On Mars (planet)Abiogenic Petroleum OriginMercury (planet)VenusPioneer Venus ProjectMass SpectrometerMoonEnlargeAtmosphere Of MarsMarsAtmosphere Of MarsMole (unit)VolcanoFault LineMethanogenDust DevilDust StormUltravioletRadiationWeather Research And Forecasting ModelMars General Circulation ModelAtmosphere Of MarsExploration Of MarsEnlargeAtmosphere Of MarsCuriosity (rover)Curiosity RoverIsotopologueSample Analysis At MarsSample Analysis At MarsMars Trace Gas MissionFormaldehydeMethanolGale CraterCuriosity RoverAtmospheric MethaneJupiterSaturnEnceladus (moon)Iapetus (moon)Wikipedia:Citation NeededTitan (moon)AcetyleneHydrogenPolar Clouds, Made Of Methane, On Titan (left) Compared With Polar Clouds On Earth (right).File:Titan-Earth-PolarClouds-20141024.jpgPolar Stratospheric CloudEarthUranusAriel (moon)Miranda (moon)Wikipedia:Citation NeededOberon (moon)Titania (moon)Wikipedia:Citation NeededUmbriel (moon)NeptuneTriton (moon)PlutoSpectroscopicCharon (moon)Eris (dwarf Planet)Halley's CometComet HyakutakeEthaneExtrasolar PlanetHD 189733bCarbon MonoxideMeteoroidExtrasolar PlanetInterstellar CloudM-type StarPortal:Sustainable Development2007 Zasyadko Mine DisasterAbiogenic Petroleum OriginAerobic Methane ProductionAnaerobic DigestionAnaerobic RespirationArctic Methane EmissionsBiogasCoal Oil Point Seep FieldEnergy DensityGasGlobal Methane InitiativeGreenhouse GasHalomethaneIndustrial GasLake KivuLimnic EruptionList Of Straight-chain AlkanesMethanationMethane ClathrateMethane (data Page)Atmosphere Of MarsClimate Of MarsMethanogenArchaeaMethanogenesisMicrobesMethanotrophBacteriaMethyl GroupThomas GoldSerpentiniteOlivineSolid SolutionForsteriteFayaliteRoyal Society Of ChemistryDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-85404-182-4Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-08-044103-3Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87765-758-3Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierHelp:CS1 ErrorsDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0534496725BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierIntergovernmental Panel On Climate ChangeBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierEuropean Space AgencyScience (journal)Space.comWired (magazine)Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierScience (journal)BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierScience (journal)New York TimesNASANew York TimesBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierNature (journal)BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierNASANASABibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierRon Miller (artist And Author)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7611-3547-2Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/079234538XThe Periodic Table Of VideosTemplate:AlkanesTemplate Talk:AlkanesAlkaneEthanePropaneButanePentaneHexaneHeptaneOctaneNonaneDecaneUndecaneDodecaneTridecaneTetradecanePentadecaneHexadecaneHeptadecaneOctadecaneNonadecaneIcosaneHigher AlkanesList Of Straight-chain AlkanesTemplate:Fuel GasTemplate Talk:Fuel GasFuel GasHistory Of Manufactured GasCoal GasCoal GasificationUnderground Coal GasificationBiogasBlast Furnace GasBlau GasGasificationLandfill GasMond GasPintsch GasProducer GasRegasificationSyngasWater GasWood GasNatural GasAssociated Petroleum GasCoalbed MethaneCompressed Natural GasHCNGLiquefied Natural GasNatural-gas CondensateSubstitute Natural GasRenewable Natural GasLiquefied Petroleum GasAutogasButanePropaneGas FlameCompressor StationGas CarrierGas HolderGas MeterGasworksNatural-gas ProcessingNatural Gas StorageOdorizerPipeline TransportBunsen BurnerGas BurnerGas EngineGas HeaterGas LightingGas MantleGas StoveGas TurbinePilot LightTemplate:Molecules Detected In Outer SpaceTemplate Talk:Molecules Detected In Outer SpaceList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesMoleculeDiatomic MoleculeAluminium MonochlorideAluminium MonofluorideAluminium(II) OxideArgoniumCarbon MonophosphideCarbon MonosulfideCarbon MonoxideSilicon CarbideCyanogenDiatomic CarbonHydrogen ChlorideHydrogen FluorideHydrogenHydroxyl RadicalIron(II) OxideMethylidyne RadicalNitric OxideNitrogenInterstellar Nitrogen MonohydrideMononitrogen MonosulfideOxygenPhosphorus MononitridePotassium ChlorideSilicon CarbideSilicon NitrideSulfanylSilicon MonosulfideSodium ChlorideSodium IodideSulfanylSulfur MonoxideTitanium OxideNitrous OxideEthanolBuckminsterfullereneTriatomic MoleculeAluminium HydroxideAmino RadicalCarbon DioxideCarbonyl SulfideHalonium IonDiazenyliumDicarbon MonoxideEthynyl RadicalHydrogen CyanideHydrogen IsocyanideHydrogen SulfideHydroperoxylMethylene (compound)DiazenyliumNitrous OxideNitroxylOzoneMethylidynephosphanePotassium CyanideTrihydrogen CationSodium CyanideSodium HydroxideSulfur DioxideThioxoethenylideneTitanium DioxideTricarbonWaterList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetyleneAmmoniaIsocyanic AcidPolyyneFormaldehydeFulminic AcidHydrogen PeroxideIsocyanic AcidThiocyanic AcidMethyl RadicalPropynylidyneProtonateCarbon DioxideProtonateHydrogen Cyanide1,3,5-TrithianeTricarbon MonoxideTricarbon SulfideThiocyanic AcidList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAmmoniumPolyyneCarbodiimideCyanamideCyanoacetyleneCyanomethylCyclopropenylideneFormic AcidKeteneMethoxyProtonateFormaldehydeSilaneGrapheneList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetonitrileCyclopropenoneDiacetyleneEthyleneFormamideKetenimineMethanethiolMethanolMethyl IsocyanidePolyynePropynalProtonateCyanoacetyleneList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetaldehydeAcrylonitrileVinyl CyanideCyanopolyyneEthylene OxideHexatriynyl RadicalPropyneMethylamineMethyl IsocyanateVinyl AlcoholList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetic AcidAminoacetonitrileEthanimineGlycolaldehydePolyynePolyyneMethyl FormateAcroleinList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetamidePolyynePolyyneDimethyl EtherEthanolPolyyneOctatetraynyl RadicalPropenePropionitrileList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAcetoneBenzeneBenzonitrileBuckminsterfullereneC70 FullereneCyanopolyyneCyanopolyyneCyanopolyyneEthylene GlycolEthyl FormateMethyl AcetateCyanopolyynePolyynePropionaldehydeButyronitrilePyrimidineDeuteriumAmmoniaAmmoniumFormaldehydeInterstellar FormaldehydeHeavy WaterHydrogen CyanideHydrogen DeuterideHydrogen IsocyanidePropyneTrihydrogen CationList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAnthraceneDihydroxyacetoneMethoxyethaneGlycineGrapheneCarbonNaphthalenePhosphinePyreneList Of Interstellar And Circumstellar MoleculesAbiogenesisAstrobiologyAstrochemistryAtomic And Molecular AstrophysicsChemical FormulaCircumstellar EnvelopeCosmic DustCosmic RayCosmochemistryDiffuse Interstellar BandEarliest Known Life FormsExtraterrestrial LifeExtraterrestrial Liquid WaterForbidden MechanismHelium Hydride IonHomochiralityIntergalactic DustInterplanetary MediumInterstellar MediumPhotodissociation RegionIron–sulfur World TheoryKerogenMolecules In StarsNexus For Exoplanet System ScienceOrganic CompoundOuter SpacePAH World HypothesisPanspermiaPolycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonRNA World HypothesisSpectroscopyTholinBook:ChemistryCategory:AstrochemistryCategory:MoleculesPortal:AstrobiologyPortal:AstronomyPortal:ChemistryTemplate:Hydrides By GroupTemplate Talk:Hydrides By GroupBinary Compounds Of HydrogenAlkali Metal HydrideLithium HydrideSodium HydridePotassium HydrideRubidium HydrideCaesium HydrideAlkaline Earth HydrideBeryllium MonohydrideMagnesium MonohydrideCalcium MonohydrideBeryllium HydrideMagnesium HydrideCalcium HydrideGroup 13 HydrideBoranesBoraneDiboraneDiborane(2)Diborane(4)Aluminium HydrideGallaneDigallaneIndium TrihydrideThallium HydrideDiborane(2)Diborane(4)TetraboranePentaboranePentaborane(11)HexaboraneHexaborane(12)DecaboraneOctadecaboraneGroup 14 HydrideAlkaneEthanePropaneButanePentaneHexaneHeptaneOctaneNonaneDecaneList Of Straight-chain AlkanesAlkeneEthylenePropene1-ButenePentene1-HexeneHeptene1-OcteneNoneneDeceneAlkeneAlkyneAcetylenePropyne1-Butyne1-Pentyne1-DecyneAlkyneSilanesSilaneDisilaneTrisilaneTetrasilanePentasilaneSilanesSilenesDisileneDisilyneGermaneDigermaneStannanePlumbaneMethylidyne RadicalMethylene (compound)Methyl RadicalEthynyl RadicalCycloalkaneCycloalkeneAnnulenesHydrocarbonGroup 15 HydrideAzaneAmmoniaHydrazineTriazaneAzaneAzo CompoundDiazeneTriazeneTetrazenePhosphineDiphosphaneTriphosphaneDiphosphenesDiphospheneTriphospheneArsineStibineBismuthineHydrazoic AcidNitrogen MonohydrideImidogenGroup 16 HydrideHydrogen PolyoxideProperties Of WaterHydrogen PeroxideTrioxidaneHydrogen TetroxideHydrogen PentoxideHydrogen HexoxideHydrogen HeptoxideHydrogen OctoxideHydrogen NonoxideHydrogen DecoxideHydrogen PolyoxidePolysulfaneHydrogen SulfideHydrogen DisulfideTrisulfanePolysulfaneHydrogen SelenideHydrogen TelluridePolonium HydrideHydroxyl RadicalHydroperoxylThiosulfoxideThiosulfurous AcidSulfanylSemiheavy WaterHeavy WaterTritiated WaterGroup 17 HydrideHydrogen FluorideHydrogen ChlorideHydrogen BromideHydrogen IodideHydrogen AstatideScandium HydrideYttrium HydrideTitanium HydrideZirconium HydrideChromium(I) HydrideChromium(II) HydrideChromium HydridePalladium HydrideIron(I) HydrideIron DihydrideIron PentahydrideCopper HydrideZinc HydrideCadmium HydrideMercury(II) HydrideHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority 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