Contents 1 History 2 Corporate overview 2.1 Facts and figures 2.2 Business model 2.3 Headquarters 2.4 Board of directors 2.5 Global operations 3 Products 3.1 International menu variations 4 Restaurants 4.1 Types of restaurants 4.1.1 McDrive 4.1.2 McCafé 4.1.3 "Create Your Taste" restaurants 4.1.4 Other 4.1.5 Special diet 4.1.6 Playgrounds 4.1.7 McDonald's Next 4.2 2006 redesign 4.3 Smoking ban 5 Treatment of employees 5.1 Automation 5.2 Wages 5.2.1 Strikes 5.3 Working conditions 6 Animal welfare standards 7 Marketing and advertising 7.1 Space exploration 7.2 Children's advertising 7.3 Sports awards and honors 8 Charity 8.1 McHappy Day 8.2 McDonald's Monopoly donation 8.3 McRefugee 9 Criticism 9.1 Company responses to criticism 9.2 Environmental record 9.3 Legal cases 9.3.1 Malaysia 9.3.2 Australia 9.3.3 United Kingdom 9.3.4 United States 9.4 Use of genetically modified food 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History Main article: History of McDonald's The oldest operating McDonald's restaurant is the third one built, opening in 1953. It is located at 10207 Lakewood Blvd. at Florence Ave. in Downey, California (at 33°56′50″N 118°07′06″W / 33.9471°N 118.1182°W / 33.9471; -118.1182) The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California (at 34°07′32″N 117°17′41″W / 34.1255°N 117.2946°W / 34.1255; -117.2946) but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; Ray Kroc made changes to the brothers business that modernized it. The brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier.[citation needed]. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger who was referred to as "Speedee". In 1962 the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot. The symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children.[10] Ray Kroc joined the chain in 1954 and built it into an eventually global franchise, making it the most successful fast food corporation in the world On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, 1961 McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol. But before the double arches, McDonald's used the a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U.S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955. This was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was eventually torn down (1971, according to Juan Pollo) and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, and a McDonald's and Route 66 museum.[11] With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, and consumer responsibility.

Corporate overview Facts and figures McDonald's corporate logo used from November 18, 1968, to 2006. It still exists at some restaurants By 1993, McDonald's had sold more than 100 billion hamburgers. The once widespread restaurant signs that boasted the number of sales, such as this one in Harlem, were left at "99 billion" because there was space for only two digits. The McDonald's in Northport, Alabama commemorates U.S. President Ronald Reagan's visit McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day.[12][13] McDonald's operates 36,899 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 375,000 people as of the end of 2016.[8][12] There are currently a total of 5,669 company-owned locations and 31,230 franchised locations, which includes 21,559 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 6,300 locations licensed to developmental licensees, and 3,371 locations licensed to foreign affiliates, primarily Japan.[8] Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange.[14][15] Until December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza, and it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.[16] Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years,[17] making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats.[18][19] In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years.[20] In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997.[21] In the United States, it is reported that drive-throughs account for 70 percent of sales.[22][23] McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, which was 59 more than what they planned to open.[24][25] This move was also the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.[25] Business model The company currently owns all the land, valued at an estimated $16 to $18 billion, on which its restaurants are situated.[citation needed] The company earns a significant portion of its revenue from rental payments from franchisees. These rent payments rose 26 percent between 2010 and 2015, accounting for one-fifth of the company's total revenue at the end of the period.[26] In recent times, there have been calls to spin off the company's US holdings into a potential real estate investment trust, but the company announced at its investor conference on November 10, 2015, that this would not happen. The CEO, Steve Easterbrook discussed that pursuing the REIT option would pose too large a risk to the company's business model.[27] The McDonald's logo painted on the tail of a Crossair McDonnell Douglas MD-83 in 1999. The United Kingdom and Ireland business model is different from the U.S, in that fewer than 30 percent of restaurants are franchised, with the majority under the ownership of the company. McDonald's trains its franchisees and management at Hamburger University in Oak Brook, Illinois.[28][29] In other countries, McDonald's restaurants are operated by joint ventures of McDonald's Corporation and other, local entities or governments.[30] According to Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in eight workers in the U.S. have at some time been employed by McDonald's. Employees are encouraged by McDonald's Corp. to maintain their health by singing along to their favorite songs in order to relieve stress, attending church services in order to have a lower blood pressure, and taking two vacations annually in order to reduce risk for myocardial infarction.[31] Fast Food Nation also states that McDonald's is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S., as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and apples. The selection of meats McDonald's uses varies to some extent based on the culture of the host country.[32] Headquarters McDonald's Plaza, located in Oak Brook, Illinois, is the headquarters of McDonald's The McDonald's headquarters complex, McDonald's Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook.[33] McDonald's moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the Chicago Loop in 1971.[34] On June 13, 2016, McDonald's confirmed plans to move its global headquarters to Chicago's West Loop neighborhood in the Near West Side. The 608,000-square-foot structure will be built on the former site of Harpo Productions (where the Oprah Winfrey Show and several other Harpo productions taped) and open in early 2018.[4][5] Board of directors As of November 2014, the board of directors had the following members:[35] Andrew J. McKenna, chairman Susan E. Arnold, operating executive of Global Consumer & Retail Group of The Carlyle Group Robert A. Eckert, operating partner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe Enrique Hernandez Jr., president and CEO of Inter-Con Security Jeanne P. Jackson, president of product and merchandising for Nike, Inc. Richard H. Lenny, operating partner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe Walter E. Massey, president of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago Cary D. McMillan, CEO of True Partners Consulting LLC Sheila A. Penrose, non-executive chairman of Jones Lang LaSalle John W. Rogers Jr, chairman and CEO of Ariel Investments Roger W. Stone, chairman and CEO of KapStone Paper and Packaging Don Thompson, president and CEO Miles D. White, chairman and CEO of Abbott Laboratories On March 1, 2015, after being chief brand officer of McDonald's and its former head in the UK and northern Europe, Steve Easterbrook became CEO, succeeding Don Thompson, who stepped down on January 28, 2015. Global operations See also: List of countries with McDonald's restaurants and International availability of McDonald's products Countries with McDonald's restaurants, showing their first year with its first restaurant McDonald's on Nathan Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong. McDonald's has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the "McDonaldization" of society. The Economist newspaper uses the "Big Mac Index": the comparison of a Big Mac's cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies' purchasing power parity. Switzerland has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2015, while the country with the least expensive Big Mac is India[36][37] (albeit for a Maharaja Mac—the next cheapest Big Mac is Hong Kong).[38] McDonald's, Paulista Avenue, São Paulo, Brazil Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a McDonald's had gone to war with another.[39][40] However, the "Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention" is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, NATO's bombing of Serbia in 1999, the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia war. McDonald's suspended operations in its corporate-owned stores in Crimea after Russia annexed the region in 2014.[41] On August 20, 2014, as tensions between the United States and Russia strained over events in Ukraine, and the resultant U.S. sanctions, the Russian government temporarily shut down four McDonald's outlets in Moscow, citing sanitary concerns. The company has operated in Russia since 1990 and at August 2014 had 438 stores across the country.[42] On August 23, 2014, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich ruled out any government move to ban McDonald's and dismissed the notion that the temporary closures had anything to do with the sanctions.[43] McDonald's, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Chennai, India Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A group of anthropologists in a study entitled Golden Arches East[44] looked at the impact McDonald's had on East Asia and Hong Kong, in particular. When it opened in Hong Kong in 1975, McDonald's was the first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions. McDonald's has taken to partnering up with Sinopec, the second largest oil company in the People's Republic of China, as it takes advantage of the country's growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous drive-thru restaurants.[45] McDonald's has opened a McDonald's restaurant and McCafé on the underground premises of the French fine arts museum, The Louvre.[46] The company stated it would open vegetarian-only restaurants in India by mid-2013.[47] Foreign restaurants are banned in Bermuda, with the exception of KFC, which was present before the current law was passed. Therefore, there are no McDonald's in Bermuda.[48][unreliable source?] On January 9, 2017, 80% of the franchise rights in the mainland China and in Hong Kong were sold for US$2.080 billion to a consortium of CITIC Limited (for 32%) and private equity funds managed by CITIC Capital (for 20%) and Carlyle (for 20%), which CITIC Limited and CITIC Capital would also formed a joint venture to own the stake.[49]

Products Main article: List of McDonald's products A typical "eat-in" McDonald's meal as sold in Hong Kong, consisting of French fries, a soft drink, and a "main product" - in this case, a McSpicy Chicken Fillet. Condiments are supplied in small packets; such a packet of tomato ketchup is seen in the foreground. McDonald's predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken, chicken sandwiches, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. In most markets, McDonald's offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. On a seasonal basis, McDonald's offers the McRib sandwich. Some speculate the seasonality of the McRib adds to its appeal.[50] Products are offered as either "eat-in" (where the customer opts to eat in the restaurant) or "take-out" (where the customer opts to take the food for consumption off the premises). "Eat-in" meals are provided on a plastic tray with a paper insert on the floor of the tray. "Take-out" meals are usually delivered with the contents enclosed in a distinctive McDonald's-branded brown paper bag. In both cases, the individual items are wrapped or boxed as appropriate. Since Steve Easterbrook became CEO of the company, McDonald's has streamlined the menu which in the United States contained nearly 200 items. The company has also looked to introduce healthier options, and removed high-fructose corn syrup from hamburger buns. The company has also removed artificial preservatives from Chicken McNuggets,[51] replacing chicken skin, safflower oil and citric acid found in Chicken McNuggets with pea starch, rice starch and powdered lemon juice.[52] International menu variations See also: McDonald's products (international) A McDonald's Ebi Feast meal sold at branches in Singapore, November 2013. McDonald's is known for tailoring its menus in different markets to cater to local tastes Restaurants in several countries, particularly in Asia, serve soup. This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious prohibition of beef consumption in India) or to make available foods with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of McRice in Indonesia, or Ebi (prawn) Burger in Singapore and Japan). In Germany and some other Western European countries, McDonald's sells beer. In New Zealand, McDonald's sells meat pies, after the local affiliate partially relaunched the Georgie Pie fast food chain it bought out in 1996. In the United States, after limited trials on a regional basis, McDonald's plans to offer an all-day breakfast menu whenever its restaurants are open, although eggs cannot be cooked at the same time on the same equipment as hamburgers due to different temperature requirements.[citation needed]

Restaurants The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Types of restaurants Counter service in a McDonald's restaurant in Dukhan, Qatar Most standalone McDonald's restaurants offer both counter service and drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating.[53] Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or "McDrive" as it is known in many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for, and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently combined;[53] it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following the lead of other fast-food chains. The first such restaurant in Britain opened at Fallowfield, Manchester in 1986.[54] McDrive In some countries, "McDrive" locations near highways offer no counter service or seating.[55] In contrast, locations in high-density city neighborhoods often omit drive-through service.[56] There are also a few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer a "Walk-Thru" service in place of Drive-Thru.[57] McCafé Main article: McCafé A Montevideo McCafé McCafé is a café-style accompaniment to McDonald's restaurants and is a concept created by McDonald's Australia (also known, and marketed, as "Macca's" in Australia), starting with Melbourne in 1993.[58] As of 2016, most McDonald's in Australia have McCafés located within the existing McDonald's restaurant. In Tasmania, there are McCafés in every restaurant, with the rest of the states quickly following suit.[53] After upgrading to the new McCafé look and feel, some Australian restaurants have noticed up to a 60 percent increase in sales. At the end of 2003, there were over 600 McCafés worldwide. "Create Your Taste" restaurants From 2015–2016, McDonald's tried a new gourmet burger service/restaurant concept based on other gourmet restaurants such as Shake Shack and Grill'd. It was rolled out for the first time in Australia during the early months of 2015 and expanded to China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Arabia and New Zealand, with ongoing trials in the US market. In dedicated "Create Your Taste" (CYT) kiosks, customers could choose all ingredients including type of bun and meat along with optional extras. In late 2015 the Australian CYT service introduced CYT salads. After a person had ordered, McDonald's advised that wait times were between 10–15 minutes. When the food was ready, trained crew ('hosts') brought the food to the customer's table. Instead of McDonald's usual cardboard and plastic packaging, CYT food was presented on wooden boards, fries in wire baskets and salads in china bowls with metal cutlery. A higher price applied. In November 2016, Create Your Taste was replaced by a "Signature Crafted Recipes" program designed to be more efficient and less expensive.[59] Other Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores,[60] while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may be located in a shopping mall. Other McDonald's are located in Walmart stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which may have services found at truck stops.[61] In Sweden, customers who order a happy meal can use the meal's container for a pair of happy goggles.[62] The company created a game for the goggles known as "Slope Stars.[62]" McDonald's predicts happy goggles will continue in other countries.[62] In the Netherlands, McDonald's has introduced McTrax that doubles as a recording studio; it reacts to touch.[62] They can create their own beats with a synth and tweak sounds with special effects.[62] Special diet A kosher Express McDonald's outlet in the Malha Mall in Jerusalem This section needs expansion with: Details of other McDonald's restaurants where special dietry requirements are catered for. You can help by adding to it. (November 2015) The first kosher McDonald's was established in 1997 at the Abasto de Buenos Aires mall in Buenos Aires, Argentina. There are also many kosher branches in Israel.[63][64] Playgrounds A McDonald's in Panorama City, Los Angeles, California with a Playplace designed to promote a family-friendly image This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2014) McDonald's playgrounds are called McDonald's PlayPlace. Some McDonald's in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in the US, with many more being constructed soon after. McDonald's Next McDonald's Next in Admiralty, Hong Kong McDonald's Next use open-concept design and offer "Create Your Taste" digital ordering. The concept store also offering free mobile device charging and table service after 6:00 pm. The first store opened in Hong Kong in December 2015.[65] 2006 redesign An American McDonald's in Mount Pleasant, Iowa in June 2008; this is an example of the "new" look of American McDonald's restaurants In 2006, McDonald's introduced its "Forever Young" brand by redesigning all of its restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.[66][67] The goal of the redesign is to be more like a coffee shop, similar to Starbucks. The design includes wooden tables, faux-leather chairs, and muted colors; the red was muted to terracotta, the yellow was shifted to golden for a more "sunny" look, and olive and sage green were also added. To create a warmer look, the restaurants have less plastic and more brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow. Many restaurants now feature free Wi-Fi and flat-screen TVs. Other upgrades include double drive-thrus, flat roofs instead of the angled red roofs, and replacing fiber glass with wood. Also, instead of the familiar golden arches, the restaurants now feature "semi-swooshes" (half of a golden arch), similar to the Nike swoosh.[68] Smoking ban McDonald's began banning smoking in 1994 when it banned smoking within its 1,400 wholly owned restaurants.[69]

Treatment of employees A kiosk for placing orders at the Denton House McDonald's in Long Island, New York A McDonald's employee takes an order in the Philippines Automation Since the late 1990s, McDonald's has attempted to replace employees with electronic kiosks which would perform actions such taking orders and accepting money. In 1999, McDonald's first tested "E-Clerks" in suburban Chicago, Illinois, and Wyoming, Michigan, with the devices being able to "save money on live staffers" and attracting larger purchase amounts than average employees.[70] In 2013, the University of Oxford estimated that in the succeeding decades, there was a 92% probability of food preparation and serving to become automated in fast food establishments.[71] By 2016, McDonald's "Create Your Taste" electronic kiosks were seen in some restaurants internationally where customers could custom order meals. As employees pushed for higher wages in the late-2010s, some believed that fast food companies such as McDonald's would use the devices to cut costs for employing individuals.[72] Wages On August 5, 2013, The Guardian revealed that 90 percent of McDonald's UK workforce are on zero hour contracts, making it possibly the largest such private sector employer in the country.[73] A study released by Fast Food Forward conducted by Anzalone Liszt Grove Research showed that approximately 84 percent of all fast food employees working in New York City in April 2013 had been paid less than their legal wages by their employers.[74] From 2007 to 2011, fast food workers in the US drew an average of $7 billion of public assistance annually resulting from receiving low wages.[75] The McResource website advised employees to break their food into smaller pieces to feel fuller, seek refunds for unopened holiday purchases, sell possessions online for quick cash, and to "quit complaining" as "stress hormone levels rise by 15 percent after ten minutes of complaining."[76] In December 2013, McDonald's shut down the McResource website amidst negative publicity and criticism. McDonald's plans to continue an internal telephone help line through which its employees can obtain advice on work and life problems.[77] Liberal thinktank the Roosevelt Institute accuses some McDonald's restaurants of actually paying less than the minimum wage to entry positions due to 'rampant' wage theft.[78] In South Korea, McDonald's pays part-time employees $5.50 an hour and is accused of paying less with arbitrary schedules adjustments and pay delays.[79] In late 2015, Anonymous aggregated data collected by Glassdoor suggests that McDonald's in the United States pays entry-level employees between $7.25 an hour and $11 an hour, with an average of $8.69 an hour. Shift managers get paid an average of $10.34 an hour. Assistant managers get paid an average of $11.57 an hour.[80] McDonald's CEO, Steve Easterbrook, currently earns an annual salary of $1,100,000.[81] Strikes See also: Fast food worker strikes Fast food workers on strike outside of a McDonald's in St. Paul, Minnesota. McDonald's workers have on occasions decided to strike over pay, with most of the employees on strike seeking to be paid $15.00.[82] When interviewed about the strikes occurring, former McDonald's CEO Ed Rensi stated: "It's cheaper to buy a $35,000 robotic arm than it is to hire an employee who's inefficient making $15 an hour bagging french fries" with Rensi explaining that increasing employee wages could possibly take away from entry-level jobs.[83] However, according to Easterbrook, increasing wages and benefits for workers saw a 6% increase in customer satisfaction when comparing 2015's first quarter data to the first quarter of 2016, with greater returns seen as a result.[83] In September 2017, two British McDonald's stores agreed to a strike over zero hours contracts for staff. Picket lines were formed around the two stores in Crayford and Cambridge. The strike was supported by the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn.[84][85] Working conditions In March 2015, McDonald's workers in 19 US cities filed 28 health and safety complaints with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration which allege that low staffing, lack of protective gear, poor training and pressure to work fast has resulted in injuries. The complaints also allege that, because of a lack of first aid supplies, workers were told by management to treat burn injuries with condiments such as mayonnaise and mustard.[86] The Fight for $15 labor organization aided the workers in filing the complaints.[87]

Animal welfare standards In 2015, McDonald's pledged to stop using eggs from battery cage facilities by 2025. Since McDonald's purchases over 2 billion eggs per year or 4 percent of eggs produced in the United States, the switch is expected to have a major impact on the egg industry and is part of a general trend toward cage-free eggs driven by consumer concern over the harsh living conditions of hens.[88][89] The aviary systems from which the new eggs will be sourced are troubled by much higher mortality rates, as well as introducing environmental and worker safety problems.[90] The high hen mortality rate, which is more than double that of battery cage systems, will require new research to mitigate. The facilities also have higher ammonia levels due to faeces being kicked up into the air. Producers raised concerns about the production cost, which is expected to increase by 36 percent.[91] McDonald's continues to source pork from facilities that use gestation crates, and in 2012 pledged to phase them out.[92]

Marketing and advertising Main article: McDonald's advertising McDonald's has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games.[93] Television has played a central role in the company's advertising strategy.[94] To date, McDonald's has used 23 different slogans in United States advertising, as well as a few other slogans for select countries and regions.[95] Space exploration McDonald's and NASA explored an advertising agreement for a planned mission to the asteroid 449 Hamburga; however, the spacecraft was eventually cancelled.[96] Children's advertising Main articles: Ronald McDonald and McDonaldland Sports awards and honors See also: Category:McDonald's High School All-Americans McDonald's is the title sponsor of the McDonald's All-American Game, all-star basketball games played each year for American and Canadian boys' and girls' high school basketball graduates.

Charity See also: Ronald McDonald House Charities McHappy Day A Ronald McDonald House collection box in Framingham, Massachusetts McHappy Day is an annual event at McDonald's, where a percentage of the day's sales go to charity. It is the signature fundraising event for Ronald McDonald House Charities.[97] In 2007, it was celebrated in 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, the United States, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay. According to the Australian McHappy Day website, McHappy Day raised $20.4 million in 2009. The goal for 2010 was $20.8 million.[98] McDonald's Monopoly donation In 1995, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital received an anonymous letter postmarked in Dallas, Texas, containing a $1 million winning McDonald's Monopoly game piece. McDonald's officials came to the hospital, accompanied by a representative from the accounting firm Arthur Andersen, who examined the card under a jeweler's eyepiece, handled it with plastic gloves, and verified it as a winner.[99] Although game rules prohibited the transfer of prizes, McDonald's waived the rule and has made the annual $50,000 annuity payments, even after learning that the piece was sent by an individual involved in an embezzlement scheme intended to defraud McDonald's (see McDonald's Monopoly). McRefugee See also: McRefugee McRefugees are poor people in Hong Kong, Japan, and China who use McDonald's 24-hour restaurants as a temporary hostel. One in five of Hong Kong's population lives below the poverty line. The rise of McRefugees was first documented by photographer Suraj Katra in 2013.[100]

Criticism A PETA activist dressed as a chicken confronts the manager of the Times Square McDonald's over the company's animal welfare standards In 1990, activists from a small group known as London Greenpeace (no connection to the international group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets entitled What's wrong with McDonald's?, criticizing its environmental, health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in several countries.[101] In the late 1980s, Phil Sokolof, a millionaire businessman who had suffered a heart attack at the age of 43, took out full-page newspaper ads in New York, Chicago, and other large cities accusing McDonald's menu of being a threat to American health, and asking them to stop using beef tallow to cook their french fries.[102] Despite the objections of McDonald's, the term "McJob" was added to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in 2003.[103] The term was defined as "a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement".[104] In 2001, Eric Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation included criticism of the business practices of McDonald's. Among the critiques were allegations that McDonald's (along with other companies within the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits at the expense of people's health and the social conditions of its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald's advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on McDonald's. In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely Hindu and Buddhist, successfully sued McDonald's for misrepresenting its French fries as vegetarian, when they contained beef broth.[105] Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary film Super Size Me claimed that McDonald's food was contributing to the increase of obesity in society and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered, McDonald's announced that it was eliminating the super size option, and was creating the adult Happy Meal. Screenshot from McDonald's Video Game In 2006, an unsanctioned McDonald's Video Game by Italian group Molleindustria was released online. It is parody of the business practices of the corporate giant, taking the guise of a tycoon style business simulation game. In the game, the player plays the role of a McDonald's CEO, choosing whether or not to use controversial practices like genetically altered cow feed, plowing over rainforests, and corrupting public officials. McDonald's issued a statement distancing itself from the game.[106] In January 2014, it was reported that McDonald's was accused of having used a series of tax maneuvers to avoid taxes in France. The company confirmed that tax authorities had visited McDonald's French headquarters in Paris but insisted that it had not done anything wrong, saying, "McDonald's firmly denies the accusation made by L'Express according to which McDonald's supposedly hid part of its revenue from taxes in France."[107] Company responses to criticism Discreet shopfront in historic Stratford-upon-Avon In response to public pressure, McDonald's has sought to include more healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its recruitment posters: "Not bad for a McJob".[108] The word McJob, first attested in the mid-1980s[103] and later popularized by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and little security. McDonald's disputes this definition of McJob. In 2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan "Would you like a career with that?" on Irish television, asserting that its jobs have good prospects. In an effort to respond to growing consumer awareness of food provenance, the fast-food chain changed its supplier of both coffee beans and milk. UK chief executive Steve Easterbrook said: "British consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing, and ethics of the food and drink they buy".[109] In a bid to tap into the ethical consumer market,[110] McDonald's switched to using coffee beans taken from stocks that are certified by the Rainforest Alliance, a conservation group. Additionally, in response to pressure, McDonald's UK started using organic milk supplies for its bottled milk and hot drinks, although it still uses conventional milk in its milkshakes, and in all of its dairy products in the United States.[111] According to a report published by Farmers Weekly in 2007, the quantity of milk used by McDonald's could have accounted for as much as 5 percent of the UK's organic milk output.[112] McDonald's announced on May 22, 2008, that, in the United States and Canada, it would switch to using cooking oil that contains no trans fats for its french fries, and canola-based oil with corn and soy oils, for its baked items, pies and cookies, by year's end.[113][114] With regard to acquiring chickens from suppliers who use CAK/CAS methods of slaughter, McDonald's says that it needs to see more research "to help determine whether any CAS system in current use is optimal from an animal welfare perspective."[115] Environmental record In April 2008, McDonald's announced that 11 of its Sheffield, England restaurants have been engaged in a biomass trial that had cut its waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, wastes from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services and were used to produce energy at a power plant. McDonald's plans to expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the United States will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard anytime soon.[116] In addition, in Europe, McDonald's has been recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for its diesel trucks.[117] McDonald's has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce containers for some of its products. The environmental benefits of this technology are controversial, with critics noting that biodegradation is slow, produces greenhouse gases and that contamination of traditional plastic waste streams with bioplastics can complicate recycling efforts.[118] In 1990, McDonald's worked with the Environmental Defense Fund to stop using "clam shell" shaped styrofoam food containers to house its food products.[119] 20 years later, McDonald's announced they would try replacing styrofoam coffee cups with an alternative material.[120] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald's continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials.[121] McDonald's reports that it is committed towards environmental leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by addressing water management issues within the restaurant.[122] In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25 percent in its restaurants, McDonald's opened a prototype restaurant in Chicago in 2009 with the intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate green ideas, McDonald's designed the Chicago site to save energy by incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and tabletops made from recycled goods.[123] When McDonald's received criticism for its environmental policies in the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress in reducing its use of materials.[124] For instance, an "average meal" in the 1970s—a Big Mac, fries, and a drink—required 46 grams of packaging; today, it requires only 25 grams, allowing a 46 percent reduction.[125] In addition, McDonald's eliminated the need for intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers, saving two million pounds (910 tonnes) of packaging annually.[126] Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by twenty-four million pounds (11,000 tonnes) annually.[127] Legal cases Main article: McDonald's legal cases McDonald's has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has threatened many food businesses with legal action unless it drops the Mc or Mac from trading names. Malaysia On September 8, 2009, McDonald's Malaysian operations lost a lawsuit to prevent another restaurant calling itself McCurry. McDonald's lost in an appeal to Malaysia's highest court, the Federal Court.[128] Australia In April 2007, in Perth, Western Australia, McDonald's pleaded guilty to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one of its outlets and was fined A$8,000.[129] In 2016, the Australian Taxation Office revealed that McDonald's Asia-Pacific Consortium had generated $478 million in revenue in 2013–14, but had paid no tax on those earnings whatsoever.[130] United Kingdom McDonald's has defended itself in several cases involving workers' rights.[citation needed] The longest running legal action of all time in the UK was the McLibel case against 2 defendants who criticized a number of aspects of the company. The trial lasted 10 years and called 130 witnesses. The European Court of Human Rights deemed that the unequal resources of the litigants breached the defendants rights to freedom of speech and biased the trial. The result was widely seen as a "PR disaster."[131] United States A famous legal case in the US involving McDonald's was the 1994 decision in Liebeck v. McDonald's Restaurants where Stella Liebeck was awarded several million dollars after she suffered third-degree burns after spilling a scalding cup of McDonald's coffee on herself.[132] Use of genetically modified food In April 2014, it was reported that McDonald's in Europe will use chicken meat that was produced by using genetically modified animal feed. Greenpeace argues that McDonald's saves less than one Eurocent for each chicken burger and goes down a path not desired by its customers.[133]

See also Book: McDonald's Food portal Companies portal Chicago portal Illinois portal Arcos Dorados Holdings List of hamburger restaurants List of restaurant chains The Founder—a 2016 film detailing the creation and controversial business history of McDonald's, that is also a biopic of Ray Kroc MaDonal—a restaurant operating in northern Iraq that copies many features of McDonald's, illicitly Maxime, McDuff & McDo-documentary film about the unionizing of a McDonald's in Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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Further reading Evans, Stephen (April 20, 2004). "McDonald's: The journey to health". BBC News. Retrieved June 30, 2016.  Horovitz, Bruce (May 8, 2014). "McDonald's testing seasoned fries". USA Today. Retrieved June 30, 2016.  Love, John F. (April 1987). "Big Macs, Fries, and Real Estate". Financial Executive (4): 20–6.  Thomas Derdak and Jay P. Pederson, ed. (2004). "McDonald's". International directory of company histories. 67 (3rd ed.). St. James Press. pp. 108–9. ISBN 978-1-55862-512-9.  "McDonald's : Behind The Arches" by John F. Love, paperback July 1, 1995 "Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's" by Ray Kroc, 1977 ISBN 0809282593 "Ray & Joan: The Man Who Made the McDonald's Fortune and the Woman Who Gave It All Away" by Lisa Napoli, 2016 ISBN 1101984953 "Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal" by Eric Schlosser, 2001 ISBN 0395977894

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This Article Is Semi-protected.Macdonald (disambiguation)Two Yellow Arches Joined Together To Form A Rounded Letter M.List Of Business EntitiesPublic CompanyTicker SymbolNew York Stock ExchangeDow Jones Industrial AverageS&P 100S&P 500International Securities Identification NumberRestaurantFast Food RestaurantSan Bernardino, CaliforniaDes Plaines, IllinoisRichard And Maurice McDonaldRay KrocOak Brook, IllinoisUnited StatesChicagoEnrique Hernandez, Jr.ChairmanSteve EasterbrookPresident (corporate Title)Chief Executive OfficerHamburgerChickenFrench FriesSoft DrinkMilkshakeSaladDessertCoffeeBreakfastWrap (food)Earnings Before Interest And TaxesNet IncomeAssetEquity (finance)Template:Infobox McDonald'sTemplate Talk:Infobox McDonald'sFast FoodCompanyRichard And Maurice McDonaldSan Bernardino, CaliforniaUnited StatesHamburgerGolden ArchesPhoenix, ArizonaRay KrocOak Brook, IllinoisChicagoRestaurant ChainCountryCheeseburgerFrench FriesBreakfastSoft DrinkMilkshakeWrap (food)SaladFishSmoothieFruitBBCWalmartHistory Of McDonald'sEnlargeOldest McDonald's RestaurantDowney, CaliforniaRichard And Maurice McDonaldSan Bernardino, CaliforniaFast FoodWhite Castle (restaurant)Wikipedia:Citation NeededRonald McDonaldEnlargeRay KrocGolden ArchesFranchisingRay KrocJuan PolloGlobalizationAmerican WayObesityBusiness EthicsConsumerMoral ResponsibilityEnlargeEnlargeHarlemEnlargeNorthport, AlabamaRonald ReaganDivestmentChipotle Mexican GrillDonatos PizzaAroma CafeBoston MarketSun Capital PartnersS&P 500 Dividend AristocratsWikipedia:Citation NeededReal Estate Investment TrustEnlargeCrossairMcDonnell Douglas MD-83Hamburger UniversityOak Brook, IllinoisIllinoisFast Food NationEric SchlosserChurch ServiceBlood PressureMyocardial InfarctionEnlargeOak Brook, IllinoisOak Brook, IllinoisChicago LoopChicago's West LoopNear West Side, ChicagoHarpo ProductionsOprah WinfreyThe Oprah Winfrey ShowAndrew J. 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