Contents 1 Languages 2 Classification 2.1 Relation to Austronesian languages on Taiwan 2.2 Internal classification 2.2.1 Blust (1993) 2.2.2 Malayo-Sumbawan 2.2.3 Greater North Borneo 2.2.4 Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian 3 References 4 External links


Languages[edit] The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken by about 230 million people and include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Sundanese, Javanese, Buginese, Balinese, Acehnese; and also the Oceanic languages, including Tolai, Gilbertese, Fijian, and Polynesian languages such as Hawaiian, Māori, Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan. Malay is also the native language in Singapore and Brunei. The Philippine languages are spoken by around 100 million people and include Tagalog (Filipino), Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Central Bikol, Waray, and Kapampangan, each with at least three million speakers. In Northern Borneo, the most widely spoken language is Kadazan-Dusun, with over 200,000+ speakers and Lundayeh Language is the one of the minority language in the southerwest of Sabah and in the northern of Sarawak.


Classification[edit] Relation to Austronesian languages on Taiwan[edit] The Malayo-Polynesian languages share several phonological and lexical innovations with the eastern Formosan languages, including the leveling of proto-Austronesian *t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, a shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima "five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages. However, it does not align with any one branch. A 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database suggests the closest connection is with Paiwan, though it only assigns that connection a 75% confidence level. Internal classification[edit] Malayo-Polynesian consists of a large number of small local language clusters, with the one exception being Oceanic, the only large group which is universally accepted; its parent language Proto Oceanic has been reconstructed in all aspects of its structure (phonology, lexicon, morphology and syntax). All other large groups within Malayo-Polynesian are controversial. Blust (1993)[edit] The most influential proposal for the internal subgrouping of the Malayo-Polynesian languages was made Robert Blust who presented several papers advocating a division into two major branches, viz. Western Malayo-Polynesian and Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.[2] Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian is widely accepted as a subgroup, although some objections have been raised against its validity as a genetic subgroup.[3][4] On the other hand, Western Malayo-Polynesian is now generally held (including by Blust himself) to be an umbrella term without genetic relevance. Taking into account the Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian hypothesis, the Malayo-Polynesian languages can be divided into the following subgroups (proposals for larger subgroups are given below):[5] Philippine languages Batanic languages Northern Luzon languages Central Luzon languages Northern Mindoro languages Greater Central Philippine languages Kalamian languages South Mindanao (also called Bilic languages) Sangiric languages Minahasan languages Umiray Dumaget language Manide-Inagta languages Ati language Sama–Bajaw languages North Bornean languages Northeast Sabahan languages Southwest Sabahan languages North Sarawak languages Kayan–Murik languages Land Dayak languages Barito languages (including Malagasy) Moken language Malayo-Chamic languages Northwest Sumatran languages (probably including the abberant Enggano language) Rejang language Lampung language Sundanese language Javanese language Madurese language Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages Celebic languages South Sulawesi languages Palauan language Chamorro language Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages Central Malayo-Polynesian languages Sumba–Flores languages Flores–Lembata languages Selaru languages Kei–Tanimbar languages Aru languages Central Maluku languages Timoric languages (also called Timor–Babar languages) Kowiai language Teor-Kur language Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages South Halmahera–West New Guinea languages Oceanic languages (approximately 450 languages) The position of the recently "rediscovered" Nasal language (spoken on Sumatra) is still unclear, but it shares most features of its lexicon and phonological history with either Lampung or Rejang.[6] Malayo-Sumbawan[edit] The Malayo-Sumbawan languages are a proposal by Adelaar (2005) which unites the Malayo-Chamic languages, the Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages, Madurese and Sundanese into a single subgroup based on phonological and lexical evidence.[7] Malayo-Sumbawan Malayo-Chamic-BSS Malayic languages Chamic languages Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages Sundanese Madurese Greater North Borneo[edit] The Greater North Borneo hypothesis, which unites all languages spoken on Borneo except for the Barito languages together with the Malayo-Chamic languages, Rejang and Sundanese into a single subgroup, was first proposed by Blust (2010) and further elaborated by Smith (2017).[8][9] The Greater North Borneo subgroup is based solely on lexical evidence. Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian[edit] Zobel (2002) proposes a Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian subgroup, based on putative shared innovations in the Austronesian alignment and syntax found throughout Indonesia apart from much of Borneo and the north of Sulawesi. This subgroup comprises the languages of the Greater Sunda Islands (Malayo-Chamic, Northwest Sumatran, Lampung, Sundanese, Javanese, Madurese, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa) and most of Sulawesi (Celebic, South Sulawesi), Palauan, Chamorro and the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages.[10] This hypothesis is one of the few attempts to link certain Western Malayo-Polynesian languages with the Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages in a higher intermediate node, but has received little further scholarly attention.


References[edit] ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malayo-Polynesian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Blust, R. (1993). Central and Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Oceanic Linguistics, 32(2), 241-293. ^ Ross, Malcolm (2005), "Some current issues in Austronesian lingustics", in D.T. Tryon, ed., Comparative Austronesian Dictionary, 1, 45-120. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ^ Donohue, M., & Grimes, C. (2008). Yet More on the Position of the Languages of Eastern Indonesia and East Timor. Oceanic Linguistics, 47(1), 114-158. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander, and Himmelmann, Nikolaus. 2005. The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge. ^ Anderbeck, Karl; Aprilani, Herdian (2013). The Improbable Language: Survey Report on the Nasal Language of Bengkulu, Sumatra. SIL Electronic Survey Report. SIL International. ^ Adelaar, A. (2005). Malayo-Sumbawan. Oceanic Linguistics, 44(2), 357-388. ^ Blust, R. (2010). The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics, 49(1), 44-118. ^ Smith, Alexander. 2017. The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification. PhD Dissertation: University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. ^ Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), 2002. The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University.


External links[edit] Language portal 2008 Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database analysis History.com Encyclopedia: Malayo-Polynesian Languages v t e Austronesian languages Malayo-Polynesian Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian Sunda-Sulawesi Malayo-Sumbawan Sundanese Baduy Sundanese Madurese Kangean Madurese Malayo-Chamic Aceh–Chamic Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat) Malayic Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Johore-Riau Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi' Bali–Sasak Balinese Sasak Sumbawa Northwest Sumatran Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing Lampungic Lampung Nyo Lampung Api Komering Celebic ? Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lawa Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae' Talondo' Taman Toraja-Sa'dan Ulumanda' Moken Moken dialects Javanese Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese Unclassified Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian Central Malayo-Polynesian Sumba–Flores Bima Sumba-Manggarai Sumba Hawu ? Dhao ? Kambera Mamboru Anakalangu Wanukaka Pondok Baliledo Wejewa Lamboya Kodi Gaura Ende-Manggarai Komodo Manggarai Riung Rembong Rajong Kepo' Wae Rana Palu'e Ende-Li'o Nage Ke'o Ngad'a Rongga So'a Flores-Lembata Kedang Sika-Lamaholot Sika Lamaholotic Lamatuka Lewo Eleng Levuka South Lembata Lamaholot Alorese Lamalera Lewotobi Adonara Ile Ape Mingar Selaru Selaru Seluwasan Kei-Tanimbar Kei Fordata Yamdena Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Aru Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir Timor-Babar Timoric ? Kemak Tukudede Mambai Idalaka Dawan Amarasi Helong Bilba Dengka Lole Ringgou Dela-Oenale Termanu Tii Tetum Bekais Wetar Galoli Luang Makuva Babar West Damar ? Dawera-Daweloor North Babar Dai Masela Serili Southeast Babar Emplawas Imroing Tela'a Unclassified Naueti Kairui Waimoa Midiki Kowiai Kowiai Central Maluku ? Teor-Kur West Central Maluku Ambelau Buru Lisela Moksela † Sula Mangole Taliabo East Central Maluku {Navbox Banda Bati Geser Watubela Bobot Masiwang Hoti † Benggoi Salas Liana Nunusaku Kayeli † Nuaulu Huaulu Manusela Wemale Yalahatan Piru Bay ? Asilulu Luhu Manipa Wakasihu Boano (Moluccas) Sepa-Teluti Paulohi Kaibobo Hitu Tulehu Laha Seit-Kaitetu Kamarian † Haruku Amahai Nusa Laut Saparua Latu Eastern Malayo-Polynesian linkages Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages Borneo-Philippine Philippine Northern Philippine Batanic (Bashiic) ? Itbayat Ivatan Yami Northern Luzon Ilokano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta † Central Luzon Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambali Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Northern Mindoro Alangan Iraya Tadyawan Greater Central Philippine ? Southern Mindoro Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid Central Philippine Tagalog Visayan Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Kinaray-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Ati Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon Kinabalian Onhan Porohanon Ratagnon Romblomanon Surigaonon Bikol Central Bikol Albay Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bisakol Masbatenyo South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Unclassified Sulod Mansakan Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka Palawan Aborlan Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano Mindanao Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kinamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon Gorontalo- Mongondow Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan Kalamian Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa Bilic Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray Sangiric Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan Minahasan Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea Unclassified Umiray Dumaget Manide-Inagta Inagta Alabat Manide Bornean North Bornean Sabahan Ida'an Bonggi Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kinamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong Unclassified Dumpas Molbog North Sarawakan Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong Unclassified Bintulu Melanau-Kajang Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak † Kayan-Murik Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik Land Dayak Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau Barito Malagasy Bushi Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung Sama-Bajaw ? Abaknon Bajaw Sama Pangutaran Sama Formosan Rukaic Rukai Tsouic Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa Northern Formosan Atayalic Atayal Seediq Northwest Formosan Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza Favorlang † East Formosan Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Siraya † Southern Puyuma Paiwan Bunun Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status v t e Formosan languages Rukaic Rukai Tsouic Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa Northern Formosan Atayalic Atayal Seediq Northwest Formosan Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza † Favorlang † East Formosan Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Sakizaya Siraya † Taivoan † Nataoran Southern Puyuma Paiwan Bunun Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status v t e Borneo–Philippine languages Philippine Northern Philippine Batanic (Bashiic) ? Itbayat Ivatan Yami Northern Luzon Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta † Central Luzon Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Northern Mindoro Alangan Iraya Tadyawan Greater Central Philippine ? Southern Mindoro Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid Central Philippine Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon Unclassified Sulod Mansakan Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka Palawan Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano Mindanao Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon Gorontalo-Mongondow Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan Kalamian Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa Bilic Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray Sangiric Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan Minahasan Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea Unclassified Umiray Dumaget Ati Manide-Inagta Inagta Alabat Manide Bornean North Bornean Sabahan Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong Unclassified Dumpas North Sarawakan Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong Unclassified Bintulu Melanau-Kajang Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak † Kayan-Murik Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik Land Dayak Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau Barito Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung Sama-Bajaw ? Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status v t e Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages Malayo-Sumbawan Sundanese Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy) Madurese Kangean Madurese Malayo-Chamic Chamic Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat) Malayic Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi' Bali–Sasak Balinese Sasak Sumbawa Northwest Sumatran Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue Batak Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing Lampungic Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering Celebic (Disputed) Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu South Sulawesi Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’ Moken Moken dialects Javanese Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages) Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar Unclassified Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan v t e Micronesian languages Nuclear Micronesian Chuukic-Pohnpeic Pohnpeic Mokilese Ngatikese Pingelapese Pohnpeian Chuukic Carolinian Chuukese Mapia Mortlockese Namonuito Pááfang Puluwatese Satawalese Sonsorolese Tanapag Tobian Ulithian Woleaian Others Kiribati Kosraean Marshallese Non-Nuclear Nauruan v t e Fijian–Polynesian languages Polynesian East Marquesic Hawaiian Mangerevan Marquesan Tahitic Austral Māori Moriori Penrhyn Rakahanga-Manihiki Rarotongan Tahitian Tuamotuan Other Rapa Rapa Nui West Samoic Niuatoputapu Pukapuka Samoan Tokelauan Ellicean Kapingamarangi Nukumanu Nukuoro Nukuria Ontong Java Sikaiana Takuu Tuvaluan Vaeakau-Taumako Futunic Anuta Emae Futunan Futuna-Aniwan Mele-Fila Pukapukan Rennellese Tikopia Wallisian West Uvean Tongic Niuafoʻou Niuean Tongan Fijian East Fijian Gone Dau Lauan Lomaiviti West Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Western Fijian Other Rotuman Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malayo-Polynesian_languages&oldid=822931536" Categories: Formosan languagesMalayo-Polynesian languagesOceanian cultureLanguages of Southeast Asia


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Southeast AsiaPacificLanguage FamilyAustronesian LanguagesProto-Malayo-Polynesian LanguageWestern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesCentral-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesISO 639-5Glottolog{{{mapalt}}}Philippine LanguagesYami LanguageTaiwanBornean LanguagesSunda–Sulawesi LanguagesChamorro LanguageCentral Malayo-PolynesianHalmahera–Cenderawasih LanguagesOceanic LanguagesOceanic LanguagesAdmiralty Islands LanguagesYapese LanguageSt Matthias LanguagesWestern Oceanic LanguagesTemotu LanguagesSoutheast Solomonic LanguagesSouthern Oceanic LanguagesMicronesian LanguagesCentral Pacific LanguagesSunda–Sulawesi LanguagesPalauan LanguageChamorro LanguagePapuan LanguagesAustronesian LanguagesAustronesian PeopleSoutheast AsiaPacific OceanAsiaMalagasy LanguageMadagascarIndian OceanSanskritArabicHinduismBuddhismIslamAffixReduplicationWiki-wikiMalay LanguageIndonesian LanguageMalaysian LanguageSundanese LanguageJavanese LanguageBuginese LanguageBalinese LanguageAcehnese LanguageOceanic LanguagesTolai LanguageGilbertese LanguageFijian LanguagePolynesian LanguagesHawaiian LanguageMāori LanguageSamoan LanguageTahitian LanguageTongan LanguagePhilippine LanguagesTagalog LanguageFilipino LanguageCebuano LanguageIlokano LanguageHiligaynon LanguageCentral Bikol LanguageWaray LanguageKapampangan LanguageKadazan-Dusun LanguageLun Bawang LanguageSabahSarawakFormosan LanguagesProto-Austronesian LanguagePaiwan LanguageOceanic LanguagesProto-Oceanic LanguageRobert BlustCentral-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesWestern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesCentral-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesPhilippine LanguagesBatanic LanguagesNorthern Luzon LanguagesCentral Luzon LanguagesNorthern Mindoro LanguagesPhilippine LanguagesKalamian LanguagesSouth Mindanao LanguagesSangiric LanguagesMinahasan LanguagesUmiray Dumaget LanguagePhilippine LanguagesAti LanguageSama–Bajaw LanguagesBornean LanguagesSabahan LanguagesSabahan LanguagesNorth Sarawak LanguagesKayan–Murik LanguagesLand Dayak LanguagesBarito LanguagesMalagasy LanguageMoken LanguageMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesNorthwest Sumatran LanguagesEnggano LanguageRejangese LanguageLampung LanguageSundanese LanguageJavanese LanguageMadurese LanguageBali-Sasak-Sumbawa LanguagesCelebic LanguagesSouth Sulawesi LanguagesPalauan LanguageChamorro LanguageCentral–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesSumba–Flores LanguagesFlores–Lembata LanguagesSelaru LanguagesKei–Tanimbar LanguagesAru LanguagesCentral Maluku LanguagesTimoric LanguagesKowiai LanguageTeor-Kur LanguageSouth Halmahera–West New Guinea LanguagesOceanic LanguagesNasal LanguageSumatraLampung LanguagesRejangese LanguageMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesBali-Sasak-Sumbawa LanguagesMadurese LanguageSundanese LanguageMalayic LanguagesChamic LanguagesBali-Sasak-Sumbawa LanguagesSundanese LanguageMadurese LanguageBarito LanguagesMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesRejangese LanguageSundanese LanguageNuclear Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesAustronesian AlignmentSyntaxGreater Sunda IslandsMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesNorthwest Sumatran LanguagesLampung LanguageSundanese LanguageJavanese LanguageMadurese LanguageBali-Sasak-Sumbawa LanguagesCelebic LanguagesSouth Sulawesi LanguagesPalauan LanguageChamorro LanguageCentral–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesWestern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesCentral-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesGlottologMalcolm Ross (linguist)Portal:LanguageTemplate:Austronesian LanguagesTemplate Talk:Austronesian LanguagesAustronesian LanguagesNuclear Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesSunda-Sulawesi LanguagesMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesBaduy LanguageSundanese LanguageKangean LanguageMadurese LanguageAceh–Chamic LanguagesAcehnese LanguageCham LanguageChru LanguageHaroi LanguageJarai LanguageRade LanguageRoglai LanguageTsat LanguageMalayic LanguagesBamayo LanguageBanjar LanguageBrunei MalayBerau Malay LanguageBangka MalayBalau LanguageBengkulu LanguageCol LanguageDuano' LanguageHaji LanguageIban LanguageJambi MalayJakun LanguageKedah MalayKutai MalayKaur 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LanguageMamasa LanguageMamuju LanguageMandar LanguagePanasuan LanguagePannei LanguageSelayar LanguageSeko LanguageTae' LanguageTalondo' LanguageTaman LanguageToraja-Sa'dan LanguageUlumanda' LanguageMoken LanguageJavanese LanguageBanyumasan DialectKawi LanguageOld JavaneseOsing DialectTenggerese DialectChamorro LanguageHukumina LanguagePalauan LanguageCentral-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesSumba–Flores LanguagesBima LanguageSumba LanguagesHawu LanguageDhao LanguageKambera LanguageMamboru LanguageAnakalangu LanguageWanukaka LanguagePondok LanguageBaliledo LanguageWejewa LanguageLamboya LanguageKodi LanguageGaura LanguageKomodo LanguageManggarai LanguageRiung LanguageRembong LanguageRajong LanguageKepo' LanguageWae Rana LanguagePalu'e LanguageEnde-Li'o LanguageNage LanguageKe'o LanguageNgad'a LanguageRongga LanguageSo'a LanguageFlores-Lembata LanguagesKedang LanguageSika LanguageLamatuka LanguageLewo Eleng LanguageLevuka LanguageSouth Lembata LanguageLamaholot LanguageAlorese 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LanguagesIlokano LanguagePangasinan LanguageIbanag LanguageArta LanguageIsnag LanguageAtta LanguageItawis LanguageYogad LanguageCagayan Aeta LanguageGaddang LanguageGa'dang LanguageNorthern Alta LanguageSouthern Alta LanguageIsinai LanguageItneg LanguageKalinga LanguageIfugao LanguageTuwali LanguageBalangao LanguageBontok LanguageKankanaey LanguageIlongot LanguageIbaloi LanguageIwaak LanguageKallahan LanguageKarao LanguageDicamay Agta LanguageCentral Luzon LanguagesKapampangan LanguageAbellen LanguageAmbala LanguageBolinao LanguageBotolan LanguageMag-antsi LanguageMag-indi LanguageMariveleño LanguageSambali LanguageRemontado Agta LanguageNorthern Mindoro LanguagesAlangan LanguageIraya LanguageTadyawan LanguageGreater Central Philippine LanguagesSouthern Mindoro LanguagesBuhid LanguageHanuno'o LanguageTawbuid LanguageCentral Philippine LanguagesTagalog LanguageVisayan LanguagesCebuano LanguageHiligaynon LanguageWaray-Waray LanguageTausug LanguageKinaray-a LanguageAklanon 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LanguageTagabawa LanguageWestern Bukidnon LanguageGorontalo-Mongondow LanguagesBolango LanguageBuol LanguageBintauna LanguageGorontalo LanguageKaidipang LanguageLolak LanguageSuwawa LanguageMongondow LanguagePonosakan LanguageKalamian LanguagesAgutaynen LanguageCalamian Tagbanwa LanguageSouth Mindanao LanguagesBagobo LanguageBlaan LanguageTboli LanguageTiruray LanguageSangiric LanguagesSangirese LanguageTalaud LanguageBantik LanguageRatahan LanguageMinahasan LanguagesTonsawang LanguageTontemboan LanguageTombulu LanguageTondano LanguageTonsea LanguageUmiray Dumaget LanguageInagta Alabat LanguageManide LanguageBornean LanguagesSabahan LanguagesIda'an LanguageBonggi LanguageBrunei Bisaya LanguageTatana LanguageLotud LanguageDusun LanguageKuijau LanguageEastern Kadazan LanguageGana' LanguageKota Marudu Talantang LanguageMomogun LanguageKlias River Kadazan LanguageCoastal Kadazan LanguageYakan LanguageTombonuwo LanguageKinabatangan LanguageSungai LanguageKeningau Murut LanguageOkolod LanguageTagol LanguagePaluan LanguageSelungai Murut LanguageTimugon LanguageBookan LanguageAbai LanguagePapar LanguageKalabakan LanguageSembakung LanguageSerudung LanguageNonukan Tidong LanguageDumpas LanguageMolbog LanguageNorth Sarawakan LanguagesKenyah LanguageSebob LanguageTutoh LanguageUma' Lasan LanguageWahau Kenyah LanguagePenan LanguageKelabit LanguageLengilu LanguageLundayeh LanguageSa'ban LanguageTring LanguageBerawan LanguageBelait LanguageKiput LanguageNarom LanguageTutong LanguageBintulu LanguageMelanau-Kajang LanguagesKajaman LanguageLahanan LanguageSekapan LanguageDaro-Matu LanguageKanowit-Tanjong LanguageMelanau LanguageBukitan LanguagePunan Batu LanguageSian LanguageUkit LanguageBasap LanguageBurusu LanguageBah-Biau Punan LanguageSajau LanguagePunan Merap LanguageBukat LanguageSeru LanguageLelak LanguageKayan–Murik LanguagesBahau LanguageModang LanguageSegai LanguageHovongan LanguageAoheng LanguageAput LanguagePunan Merah LanguageKrio Dayak LanguageMurik Kayan 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LanguagePonosakan LanguageKalamian LanguagesAgutaynen LanguageCalamian Tagbanwa LanguageSouth Mindanao LanguagesBagobo LanguageBlaan LanguageTboli LanguageTiruray LanguageSangiric LanguagesSangirese LanguageTalaud LanguageBantik LanguageRatahan LanguageMinahasan LanguagesTonsawang LanguageTontemboan LanguageTombulu LanguageTondano LanguageTonsea LanguageUmiray Dumaget LanguageAti LanguageInagta Alabat LanguageManide LanguageBornean LanguagesSabahan LanguagesIda'an LanguageBonggi LanguageMolbog LanguageBrunei Bisaya LanguageTatana LanguageLotud LanguageDusun LanguageKuijau LanguageEastern Kadazan LanguageGana' LanguageKota Marudu Talantang LanguageMomogun LanguageKlias River Kadazan LanguageCoastal Kadazan LanguageYakan LanguageTombonuwo LanguageKinabatangan LanguageSungai LanguageKeningau Murut LanguageOkolod LanguageTagol LanguagePaluan LanguageSelungai Murut LanguageTimugon LanguageBookan LanguageAbai LanguagePapar LanguageKalabakan LanguageSembakung LanguageSerudung LanguageNonukan Tidong LanguageDumpas LanguageNorth Sarawakan LanguagesKenyah LanguageSebob LanguageTutoh LanguageUma' Lasan LanguageWahau Kenyah LanguagePenan LanguageKelabit LanguageLengilu LanguageLundayeh LanguageSa'ban LanguageTring LanguageBerawan LanguageBelait LanguageKiput LanguageNarom LanguageTutong LanguageBintulu LanguageMelanau-Kajang LanguagesKajaman LanguageLahanan LanguageSekapan LanguageDaro-Matu LanguageKanowit-Tanjong LanguageMelanau LanguageBukitan LanguagePunan Batu LanguageSian LanguageUkit LanguageBasap LanguageBurusu LanguageBah-Biau Punan LanguageSajau LanguagePunan Merap LanguageBukat LanguageSeru LanguageLelak LanguageKayan–Murik LanguagesBahau LanguageModang LanguageSegai LanguageHovongan LanguageAoheng LanguageAput LanguagePunan Merah LanguageKrio Dayak LanguageMurik Kayan LanguageLand Dayak LanguagesBekati' LanguageSara Bakati' LanguageLara' LanguageBukar Sadong LanguageRejang Language (Indonesia)Biatah LanguageTringgus LanguageJagoi LanguageJangkang LanguageKembayan LanguageSemandang LanguageRibun LanguageBenyadu' LanguageSanggau LanguageBarito LanguagesMalagasy LanguageDeyah LanguageDusun Malang LanguageDusun Witu LanguageMa'anyan LanguagePaku LanguageLawangan LanguageKohin LanguageDohoi LanguageSiang LanguageBakumpai LanguageNgaju LanguageAmpanang LanguageTunjung LanguageSama-Bajaw LanguagesAbaknon LanguageBajaw LanguageSinama LanguagePangutaran Sama LanguageLanguage DeathTemplate:Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesTemplate Talk:Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesNuclear Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesMalayo-Sumbawan LanguagesSundanese LanguageBantenese LanguageBaduy LanguageKangean LanguageMadurese LanguageChamic LanguagesAcehnese LanguageCham LanguageChru LanguageHaroi LanguageJarai LanguageRade LanguageRoglai LanguageTsat LanguageMalayic LanguagesBamayo LanguageBanjar LanguageBrunei MalayBerau Malay LanguageBangka MalayBalau LanguageBengkulu LanguageCol LanguageDuano' LanguageHaji LanguageIban LanguageJambi MalayJakun LanguageKedah MalayKutai 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LanguageMamasa LanguageMamuju LanguageMandar LanguagePanasuan LanguagePannei LanguageSelayar LanguageSeko LanguageTae’ LanguageTalondo’ LanguageTaman LanguageToraja-Sa’dan LanguageUlumanda’ LanguageMoken LanguageJavanese LanguageBanyumasan DialectKawi LanguageOld JavaneseOsing DialectTenggerese DialectCentral–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian LanguagesHalmahera–Cenderawasih LanguagesOceanic LanguagesLinkage (linguistics)Aru LanguagesCentral Maluku LanguagesKei–Tanimbar LanguagesKowiai LanguageSelaru LanguagesSumba–Flores LanguagesTeor-Kur LanguageTimoric LanguagesWest Damar LanguageChamorro LanguageHukumina LanguagePalauan LanguageTemplate:Micronesian LanguagesTemplate Talk:Micronesian LanguagesMicronesian LanguagesTrukic-Ponapeic LanguagesPohnpeic LanguageMokilese LanguageNgatikesePingelapese LanguagePohnpeian LanguageTrukic LanguagesCarolinian LanguageChuukese LanguageMapia LanguageMortlockese LanguageNamonuito LanguagePááfang LanguagePuluwatese LanguageSatawalese LanguageSonsorolese 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