Contents 1 Classification 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Geographic distribution 5 Legal status 6 Dialects 6.1 Eastern 6.2 Western 6.3 Region specific variations 7 Writing system 7.1 Diacritics 8 Phonology 8.1 Vowels 8.2 Consonants 8.3 Stress 9 Grammar 9.1 Word order 9.2 Verbs 9.3 Nouns and pronouns 9.4 Deixis 10 Vocabulary 11 Lexicography 12 See also 13 References 14 Sources 15 External links

Classification[edit] The Malagasy language is the westernmost member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family.[4] Its distinctiveness from nearby African languages was noted in 1708 by the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland.[5] It is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and more closely to the East Barito languages spoken in Borneo except for its Polynesian morphophonemics.[6] According to Roger Blench (2010), the earliest form of language spoken on Madagascar could have had some non-Austronesian substrata.[7] Decimal numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PAN, circa 4000 BC *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat himo onom tu'u vahu sizam hopod Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo Bikol sarô duwá tuló apat limá anom pitó waló siyám sampulû Cebuano usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu Malay satu dua tiga[8] empat lima enam tujuh lapan sembilan sepuluh Javanese siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh Tetum ida rua tolu haat lima neen hitu ualu sia sanulu Fijian dua rua tolu vā lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini, -sagavulu Tongan taha ua tolu fā nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu Sāmoan tasi lua tolu fā lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu Māori tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru) Tahitian hō'ē piti toru maha pae ono hitu va'u iva 'ahuru Marquesan e tahi e 'ua e to'u e fa e 'ima e ono e fitu e va'u e iva 'onohu'u Hawaiian kahi lua kolu hā lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi Malagasy iray/isa roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo

Etymology[edit] Malagasy is the demonym of Madagascar from which it is taken to refer to the people of Madagascar in addition to their language.

History[edit] Malagasy Bible Madagascar was first settled by Austronesian peoples from Maritime Southeast Asia who had passed through Borneo.[9] The migrations continued along the first millennium, as confirmed by linguistic researchers who showed the close relationship between the Malagasy language and Old Malay and Old Javanese languages of this period.[10][11] Far later, c. 1000, the original Austronesian settlers mixed with Bantus and Arabs, amongst others.[12] There is evidence that the predecessors of the Malagasy dialects first arrived in the southern stretch of the east coast of Madagascar.[13] Malagasy has a tradition of oratory arts and poetic histories and legends. The most well-known is the national epic, Ibonia, about a Malagasy folk hero of the same name.[14]

Geographic distribution[edit] The Malagasy language is the principal language spoken on the island of Madagascar. It is also spoken by Malagasy communities on neighboring Indian Ocean islands such as Réunion and Comoros. Large expatriate Malagasy communities speaking the language also exist in France and Quebec and, to a lesser extent, Belgium and Washington, D.C..

Legal status[edit] The Merina dialect of Malagasy is considered the national language of Madagascar. It is one of two official languages alongside French in the 2010 constitution putting in place the Fourth Republic. Previously, under the 2007 constitution, Malagasy was one of three official languages alongside French and English. It is the language of instruction in all public schools through grade five for all subjects, and remains the language of instruction through high school for the subjects of history and Malagasy language.

Dialects[edit] Map of the dialects of the Malagasy language There are two principal dialects of Malagasy; Eastern (including Merina) and Western (including Sakalava), with the isogloss running down the spine of the island, the south being western, and the central plateau and much of the north (apart from the very tip) being eastern. Ethnologue encodes 12 varieties of Malagasy as distinct languages. They have about a 70% similarity in lexicon with the Merina dialect. Eastern[edit] The Eastern dialects are: Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy (1,270,000 speakers) – spoken by the Betsimisaraka on the northeastern coast of the island Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy (2,000,000 speakers) – spoken by the Betsimisaraka on the southeastern coast of the island Plateau Malagasy (7,520,000 speakers) – spoken in the centre of the island Tanosy Malagasy (639,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antanosy people in the south of the island Tesaka Malagasy (1,130,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antaisaka people in the southeast of the island.[15] Western[edit] The Western dialects are: Antankarana Malagasy (156,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antankarana in the northern tip of the island Bara Malagasy (724,000 speakers) – spoken by the Bara people in the south of the island Masikoro Malagasy (550,000 speakers) – spoken by the Masikoro in the southwest of the island Sakalava Malagasy (1,210,000 speakers) – spoken on the western coast of the island Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy (1,300,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antandroy and the Mahafaly people on the southern tip of the island Tsimihety Malagasy (1,615,000 speakers) – spoken by the Tsimihety people.[15] Additionally, Bushi (41,700 speakers) is spoken on the French overseas territory of Mayotte,[16] which is part of the Comoro island chain situated northwest of Magadascar. Region specific variations[edit] The two main dialects of Malagasy are easily distinguished by several phonological features. Sakalava lost final nasal consonants, whereas Merina added a voiceless [ə̥]: *taŋan 'hand' → Sakalava [ˈtaŋa], Merina [ˈtananə̥] Final *t became -[tse] in the one but -[ʈʂə̥] in the other: *kulit 'skin' → Sakalava [ˈhulitse], Merina [ˈhudiʈʂə̥] Sakalava retains ancestral *li and *ti, whereas in Merina these become [di] (as in huditra 'skin' above) and [tsi]: *putiq 'white' → Sakalava [ˈfuti], Merina [ˈfutsi] However, these last changes started in Borneo before the Malagasy arrived in Madagascar.

Writing system[edit] Sorabe Malagasy Arabic script The language has a written literature going back presumably to the 15th century. When the French established Fort-Dauphin in the 17th century, they found an Arabico-Malagasy script in use, known as Sorabe ("large writings"). This Arabic Ajami script was mainly used for astrological and magical texts. The oldest known manuscript in that script is a short Malagasy-Dutch vocabulary from the early 17th century, which was first published in 1908 by Gabriel Ferrand[17] though the script must have been introduced into the southeast area of Madagascar in the 15th century.[12] The first bilingual renderings of religious texts are those by Étienne de Flacourt,[18] who also published the first dictionary of the language.[19] Radama I, the first literate representative of the Merina monarchy, though extensively versed in the Arabico-Malagasy tradition,[20] opted in 1823 for a Latin system derived by David Jones and invited the Protestant London Missionary Society to establish schools and churches. The first book to be printed in Malagasy using Latin characters was the Bible, which was translated into Malagasy in 1835 by British Protestant missionaries working in the highlands area of Madagascar.[21] The current Malagasy alphabet consists of 21letters: a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, v, y, z. The orthography maps rather straightforwardly to the phonemic inventory. The letters i and y both represent the /i/ sound (y is used word-finally, and i elsewhere), while o is pronounced /u/. The affricates /ʈʂ/ and /ɖʐ/ are written tr and dr, respectively, while /ts/ and /dz/ are written ts and j. The letter h is often silent. All other letters have essentially their IPA values. The letters c, q, u, w and x are all not used in native Malagasy words. Mp and occasionally nt may begin a word, but they are pronounced /p, t/. @ is used informally as a short form for amin'ny, which is a preposition followed by the definite form, meaning for instance with the. Sorabe script with the Latin equivalents ـَ ب د ـِ ف غ ه ـِ ج ك ل م ن ـُ ڡ ر س ط و ⟨ي⟩‎ & ⟨ز⟩ ع ⟨ڊ⟩‎ & ⟨رّ⟩ ⟨̣ط⟩‎ & ⟨رّ⟩ ت ڡّ طّ ـَيْ ـَوْ ـُوً ـُيْ ⟨ـِيَا⟩‎ & ⟨ـِيْا⟩ ـِوْ ـِيْ a b d e f g, ng h i, y j k l m n o p r s t v z n̈ dr tr ts mp nt ai ao oa oi ia, ea io, eo ie Diacritics[edit] Diacritics are not obligatory in standard Malagasy, except in the case where its absence leads to an ambiguity: tanàna ("city") must have the diacritic to discriminate itself from tanana ("hand"). They may however be used in the following ways: ` (grave accent) shows the stressed syllable in a word. It is frequently used for disambiguation. For instance in "tanàna" (town) and "tanana" (hand), where the word that is an exception to the usual pronunciation rules (tanàna) gets an accent. Using accent on the word that follows the pronunciation rules ("tànana") is less common, mainly in dictionaries. (This is very similar to the usage of the grave accent in Italian.) ´ (acute accent) may be used in very old dictionaries, along with grave accent dialects such as Bara French (Tuléar) and French-spelled (Antsirabé) names. Malagasy versions are Toliara/Toliary and Antsirabe. ^ (circumflex) is used as follows: ô shows that the letter is pronounced /o/ and not /u/, in malagasified foreign words (hôpitaly) and dialects (Tôlan̈aro). In standard Malagasy, "ao" or "oa" (as in "mivoaka") is used instead. sometimes the single-letter words "a" and "e" are written "â" and "ê" but it does not change the pronunciation ¨ (diaeresis) is used with n̈ in dialects for a velar nasal /ŋ/. Examples are place names such as Tôlan̈aro, Antsiran̈ana, Iharan̈a, Anantson̈o. This can be seen in maps from FTM, the national institute of geodesy and cartography. ~ (tilde) is used in ñ sometimes, perhaps when the writer cannot produce an n̈ (although ng is also used in such cases). In Ellis' Bara dialect dictionary, it is used for velar nasal /ŋ/ as well as palatal nasal /ɲ/.

Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit] Front Central Back Close i, y /i/ o /u/ Mid e /e/ (ô, ao /o/) Open a /a/ After a stressed syllable, as at the end of most words and in the final two syllables of some, /a, u, i/ are reduced to [ə, ʷ, ʲ]. (/i/ is spelled ⟨y⟩ in such cases, though in monosyllabic words like ny and vy, ⟨y⟩ is pronounced as a full [i].) Final /a/, and sometimes final syllables, are devoiced at the end of an utterance. /e/ and /o/ are never reduced or devoiced. The large amounts of reduction vowels and their effect on neighbouring consonants give Malagasy a phonological quality not unlike that of Portuguese. /o/ is marginal in Merina dialect, found in interjections and loan words, though it is also found in place names from other dialectical areas. /ai, au/ are diphthongs [ai̯, au̯] in careful speech, [e, o] or [ɛ, ɔ] in more casual speech. /ai/, whichever way it is pronounced, affects following /k, ɡ/ as /i/ does. Consonants[edit] Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ŋ ⟨n̈⟩ Plosive or affricate voiceless p ⟨p⟩ t ⟨t⟩ ts ⟨ts⟩ ʈʳ ⟨tr⟩ k ⟨k⟩ voiceless prenasalized mp ⟨mp⟩ nt ⟨nt⟩ nts ⟨nts⟩ ɳʈʳ ⟨ntr⟩ ŋk ⟨nk⟩ voiced b ⟨b⟩ d ⟨d⟩ dz ⟨j⟩ ɖʳ ⟨dr⟩ ɡ ⟨g⟩ voiced prenasalized mb ⟨mb⟩ nd ⟨nd⟩ ndz ⟨nj⟩ ɳɖʳ ⟨ndr⟩ ŋɡ ⟨ng⟩ Fricative voiceless f ⟨f⟩ s ⟨s⟩ h ⟨h⟩ voiced v ⟨v⟩ z ⟨z⟩ Lateral l ⟨l⟩ Trill r ⟨r⟩ The alveolars /s ts z dz l/ are slightly palatalized. /ts, dz, s, z/ vary between [ts, dz, s, z] and [tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ], and are especially likely to be the latter when followed by unstressed /i/: Thus French malgache [malɡaʃ] 'Malagasy'. The velars /k ɡ ŋk ŋɡ h/ are palatalized after /i/ (e.g. alika /alikʲa/ 'dog'). /h/ is frequently elided in casual speech. The reported postalveolar trilled affricates /ʈʳ ɳʈʳ ɖʳ ɳɖʳ/ are sometimes simple stops, [ʈ ɳʈ ɖ ɳɖ], but they often have a rhotic release, [ʈɽ̊˔ ɳʈɽ̊˔ ɖɽ˔ ɳɖɽ˔]. It is not clear if they are actually trilled, or are simply non-sibilant affricates [ʈɻ̊˔ ɳʈɻ̊˔ ɖɻ˔ ɳɖɻ˔]. However, in another Austronesian language with a claimed trilled affricate, Fijian, trilling occurs but is rare, and the primary distinguishing feature is that it is postalveolar.[22] The Malagasy sounds are frequently transcribed [ʈʂ ɳʈʂ ɖʐ ɳɖʐ], and that is the convention used in this article. In reduplication, compounding, possessive and verbal constructions, and after nasals, fricatives and liquids ('spirants') become stops, as follows: Malagasy sandhi voiced voiceless spirant stop spirant stop v b f p l d z dz s ts r ɖʳ (ɖʐ) h k Stress[edit] Words are generally accented on the penultimate syllable, unless the word ends in ka, tra and often na, in which case they are stressed on the antepenultimate syllable. In many dialects, unstressed vowels (except /e/) are devoiced, and in some cases almost completely elided; thus fanorona is pronounced [fə̥ˈnurnə̥].

Grammar[edit] Word order[edit] Malagasy has a verb–object–subject (VOS) word order: Mamaky boky ny mpianatra (reads book the student) "The student reads the book" Nividy ronono ho an'ny zaza ny vehivavy (bought milk for the child the woman) "The woman bought milk for the child" Within phrases, Malagasy order is typical of head-initial languages: Malagasy has prepositions rather than postpositions (ho an'ny zaza "for the child"). Determiners precede the noun, while quantifiers, modifying adjective phrases, and relative clauses follow the noun (ny boky "the book(s)", ny boky mena "the red book(s)", ny boky rehetra "all the books", ny boky novakin'ny mpianatra "the book(s) read by the student(s)"). Somewhat unusually, demonstrative determiners are repeated both before and after the noun ity boky ity "this book" (lit. "this book this"). Verbs[edit] Verbs have syntactically three productive "voice" forms according to the thematic role they play in the sentence: the basic "agent focus" forms of the majority of Malagasy verbs, the derived "patient focus" forms used in "passive" constructions, and the derived "goal focus" forms used in constructions with focus on instrumentality. Thus (1) Manasa ny tanako amin'ny savony aho. ("I am washing my hands with soap".) (2) Sasako amin'ny savony ny tanako. ("My hands are washed with soap by me".) (3) Anasako ny tanako ny savony. ("It is with soap that my hands are washed by me".) all mean "I wash my hands with soap" though focus is determined in each case by the sentence initial verb form and the sentence final (noun) argument: manasa "wash" and aho "I" in (1), sasako "wash" and ny tanako "my hands" in (2), anasako "wash" and ny savony "soap" in (3). There is no equivalent to the English preposition with in (3). Verbs inflect for past, present, and future tense, where tense is marked by prefixes (e.g. mividy "buy", nividy "bought", hividy "will buy"). Nouns and pronouns[edit] Malagasy has no grammatical gender, and nouns do not inflect for number. However, pronouns and demonstratives have distinct singular and plural forms (cf. io boky io "that book", ireto boky ireto "these books"). There is a complex series of personal and demonstrative pronouns, depending on the speaker's familiarity and closeness to the referent. Deixis[edit] Malagasy has a complex system of deixis (these, those, here, there, etc.), with seven degrees of distance as well as evidentiality across all seven. The evidential dimension is prototypically visible vs. non-visible referents; however, the non-visible forms may be used for visible referents which are only vaguely identified or have unclear boundaries, whereas the visible forms are used for non-visible referents when these are topical to the conversation.[23] Malagasy deixis PROX MED DIST Adverbs (here, there) NVIS atỳ àto ào àtsy àny aròa* arỳ VIS etỳ èto èo ètsy èny eròa erỳ Pronouns (this, that) (these, those) NVIS izatỳ* izàto* izào izàtsy* izàny izaròa* izarỳ* VIS itỳ ìto ìo ìtsy ìny iròa* irỳ VIS.PL irèto irèo irètsy irèny ireròa* irerỳ* Notes: Diacritics in deixis are not mandatory in Malagasy. Deixis marked by a * are rarely used.

Vocabulary[edit] Malagasy shares much of its basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo. The Malagasy language also includes some borrowings from Arabic and Bantu languages (especially the Sabaki branch, from which most notably Swahili derives), and more recently from French and English. The following samples are of the Merina dialect or Standard Malagasy, which is spoken in the capital of Madagascar and in the central highlands or "plateau", home of the Merina people.[24][25] It is generally understood throughout the island. English Malagasy IPA English Anglisy ãŋˈɡliʂ Yes Eny ˈʲenj No Tsia, (before a verb) Tsy tsi, tsʲ Hello! / How are you? Manao ahoana! manaˈʷonə̥/manaˈonə̥ Hello! (rural areas) Salama! saˈlamə̥ I'm fine, thank you. Tsara fa misaotra. ˈtsarə̥ fa mʲˈsoːtʂə̥ Goodbye! Veloma! veˈlumə̥ Please Azafady azaˈfadʲ Thank you Misaotra mʲˈsoːtʂa You're welcome Tsisy fisaorana. tsʲ ˈmisʲ fʲˈsoːranə̥ Excuse me Azafady (with arm and hand pointing to the ground) azaˈfadʲ Sorry Miala tsiny mjala ˈtsinʲ Who? Iza? ˈiːza/ˈiza What? Inona? inːa When? Rahoviana?, (past tense) Oviana roːˈvinə̥/rawˈvinə̥ Where? Aiza?, (past tense) Taiza ajzə̥ Why? Fa maninona? fa maninːə̥ How? Ahoana? aˈʷonə̥ How many? Firy? ˈfirʲ How much? Ohatrinona? ʷoˈtʂinːə̥ What's your name? Iza ny anaranao? iza njanaraˈnaw For Ho an'ny / Ho an'i wanːi Because Satria saˈtʂi I don't understand. Tsy mazava, Tsy azoko. tsʲ mazavə̥ Yes, I understand. Eny, mazava, Eny, azoko ʲenʲ mazavə̥ Help! Vonjeo! vunˈdzew Go away! Mandehana! man di anə Can you help me please? Afaka manampy ahy ve ianao azafady? afaka manapʲ a ve enaw azafadʲ Where are the toilets? Aiza ny efitrano fivoahana?, Aiza ny V.C.?, Aiza ny toliet? ajza njefitʂanʷ fiˈvwaːnə̥ Do you speak English? Mahay teny anglisy ve ianao? miˈtenʲ ãŋˈɡliʂ ve eˈnaw I do not speak Malagasy. Tsy mahay teny malagasy aho. tsʲ maaj tenʲ malaˈɡasʲ a I do not speak French. Tsy mahay teny frantsay aho. tsʲ maaj tenʲ frantsaj a I am thirsty. Mangetaheta aho. maŋɡetaˈeta I am hungry. Noana aho. noːna I am sick. Marary aho. I am tired. Vizaka aho, Reraka aho ˈvizaka, rerakau I need to pee. Poritra aho, Ny olombelona tsy akoho purtʂa I would like to go to Antsirabe. Te hankany Antsirabe aho. tiku ankanʲ anjantsirabe That's expensive! Lafo be izany! lafʷˈbe zanʲ I'm hungry for some rice. Noana vary aho. noːna varja What can I do for you? Inona no azoko atao ho anao? inːa ɲazʷkwataʷ wanaw I like... Tiako... tikʷ I love you. Tiako ianao. tikwenaʷ Numbers one isa/iray isə̥ two roa ru three telo telʷ four efatra ˈefatʂə̥ five dimy ˈdimʲ six enina enː seven fito fitʷ eight valo valʷ nine sivy sivʲ ten folo fulʷ eleven iraika ambin'ny folo rajkʲambefulʷ twelve roa ambin'ny folo rumbefulʷ twenty roapolo ropulʷ thirty telopolo telopulʷ forty efapolo efapulʷ fifty dimampolo dimapulʷ sixty enim-polo empulʷ seventy fitopolo fitupulʷ eighty valopolo valupulʷ ninety sivifolo sivfulʷ one hundred zato zatʷ two hundred roan-jato rondzatʷ one thousand arivo arivʷ ten thousand iray alina rajal one hundred thousand iray hetsy rajetsʲ one million iray tapitrisa rajtaptʂisə̥ one billion iray lavitrisa rajlavtʂisə̥ 3,568,942 roa amby efapolo sy sivin-jato sy valo arivo sy enina alina sy dimy hetsy sy telo tapitrisa rumbefapulʷ sʲsivdzatʷ sʲvalorivʷ sʲenːal sʲdimjetsʲ sʲtelutapitʂisə̥

Lexicography[edit] Malagasy lexicon (1773) (Collection BULAC Paris) The first dictionary of the language is Étienne de Flacourt's Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar published in 1658 though earlier glossaries written in Arabico-Malagasy script exist. A later Vocabulaire Anglais-Malagasy was published in 1729. An 892-page Malagasy–English dictionary was published by James Richardson of the London Missionary Society in 1885, available as a reprint; however, this dictionary includes archaic terminology and definitions. Whereas later works have been of lesser size, several have been updated to reflect the evolution and progress of the language, including a more modern, bilingual frequency dictionary based on a corpus of over 5 million Malagasy words.[24] Winterton, M. et al.: Malagasy–English, English–Malagasy Dictionary / Diksionera Malagasy–Anglisy, Anglisy–Malagasy. Raleigh, North Carolina. USA: Lulu Press 2011, 548 p. Richardson: A New Malagasy–English Dictionary. Farnborough, England: Gregg Press 1967, 892 p. ISBN 0-576-11607-6 (Original edition, Antananarivo: The London Missionary Society, 1885). Diksionera Malagasy–Englisy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1973, 103 p. An Elementary English–Malagasy Dictionary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1969, 118 p. English–Malagasy Phrase Book. Antananarivo: Editions Madprint 1973, 199 p. (Les Guides de Poche de Madagasikara.) Paginton, K: English–Malagasy Vocabulary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1970, 192 p. Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Malagasy–Alemana. Antananarivo: Leximal/Moers: aragon. 1991. Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Alemana–Malagasy. Antananarivo: Tsipika/Moers: aragon. 1994. Rakibolana Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Régis RAJEMISOA – RAOLISON 1995, 1061 p.

See also[edit] Madagascar portal Languages portal Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo Languages of Madagascar

References[edit] ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malagasic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh ^ Malagasy's family tree on Ethnologue ^ New palaeozoogeographical evidence for the settlement of Madagascar Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wittmann, Henri (1972). "Le caractère génétiquement composite des changements phonétiques du malgache." Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 7.807-10. La Haye: Mouton.[1] ^ Blench, Roger; Walsh, Martin (11 January 2010). "The vocabularies of Vazimba and Beosi: Do they represent the languages of the pre-Austronesian populations of Madagascar?" (PDF).  ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare. ^ [2] Ricaut et alii (2009) "A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar", BMC Genomics ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus (2005). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-1286-1.  ^ Simon, Pierre R. (2006). Fitenin-drazana. L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-01108-3.  ^ a b Ferrand, Gabriel (1905). Les migrations musulmanes et juives à Madagascar. Paris: Revue de l'histoire des religions ^ Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren. "Malagasy Dialects and the Peopling of Madagascar". arXiv:1102.2180 .  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ a b "Madagascar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-06-17.  ^ "Bushi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-06-23.  ^ Ferrand, Gabriel (1908). "Un vocabulaire malgache-hollandais." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië 61.673-677. The manuscript is now in the Arabico-Malagasy collection of the Bibliothèque nationale de France. ^ Flacourt, Étienne de (1657). Le Petit Catéchisme madécasse-français.Paris;(1661). Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar.Paris, pp.197–202. ^ Flacourt, Étienne de (1658). Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar. Paris. ^ Berthier, H.J. (1934). De l'usage de l'arabico=malgache en Imérina au début du XIXe siècle: Le cahier d'écriture de Radama Ier. Tananarive. ^ The translation is due to David Griffith of the London Missionary Society, with corrections in 1865–1866."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  p. 131 ^ Janie Rasoloson and Carl Rubino, 2005, "Malagasy", in Adelaar & Himmelmann, eds, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar ^ a b [3] Winterton, Matthew et al. (2011). Malagasy–English, English–Malagasy Dictionary / Diksionera Malagasy–Anglisy, Anglisy–Malagasy. Lulu Press. ^ Rasoloson, Janie (2001). Malagasy–English / English–Malagasy: Dictionary and Phrasebook. Hippocrene Books.

Sources[edit] Biddulph, Joseph (1997). An Introduction to Malagasy. Pontypridd, Cymru. ISBN 978-1-897999-15-8. Houlder, John Alden, Ohabolana, ou proverbes malgaches. Imprimerie Luthérienne, Tananarive 1960. Hurles, Matthew E.; et al. (2005). "The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages". American Journal of Human Genetics. 76: 894–901. doi:10.1086/430051. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Ricaut et al. (2009) "A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar", BMC Genomics.

External links[edit] Malagasy edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malagasy language. Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Malagasy. Malagasy-English, English–Malagasy bilingual frequency dictionary Large audio database of Malagasy words with recorded pronunciation Searchable Malagasy–French–English Dictionary/Translator Malagasy–English Dictionary Malagasy–French dictionary Malagasy Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) Malagasy Vocabulary List (from the World Loanword Database) La Bible Malgache en texte intégral – the complete text of the 1865 Malagasy Bible List of references on Malagasy language (with links to online resources). Oxford University: Malagasy Language Paper on Malagasy clause structure v t e Bornean languages North Bornean Sabahan Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kinamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong Unclassified Dumpas North Sarawakan Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong Unclassified Bintulu Melanau-Kajang Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak † Kayan-Murik Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik Land Dayak Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau Barito Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung Sama-Bajaw ? Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status v t e Languages of Madagascar Official languages French Malagasy Foreign languages English Sign languages Malagasy Sign Language v t e Languages of the Comoros Official languages Comorian French Arabic Non-official languages Bushi Malagasy Maore Authority control GND: 4100041-9 SUDOC: 027343677 Retrieved from "" Categories: Malagasy languageVerb–object–subject languagesLanguages of MadagascarLanguages of the ComorosHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksLanguages with ISO 639-2 codeLanguages with ISO 639-1 codeArticles citing NationalencyklopedinCS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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