Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 United States 3.1 Dyer Bill 3.2 Decline and Civil Rights Movement 3.3 Civil rights law 3.4 Felony lynching 3.5 Effects 4 Europe 5 Mexico 6 Guatemala 7 Dominican Republic 8 Haiti 9 South Africa 10 Nigeria 11 Palestinian territories 12 Afghanistan 13 India 14 In popular culture 14.1 "Strange Fruit" 14.2 The Hateful Eight 14.3 Literature 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links


Etymology[edit] The origins of the word "lynch" are obscure, but it likely originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase "Lynch Law", a term for a punishment without trial. Two Americans during this era are generally credited for coining the phrase: Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s. Charles Lynch has the better claim, as he was known to have used the term in 1782, while William Lynch is not known to have used the term until much later. There is no evidence that death was imposed as a punishment by either of the two men.[10] In 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered "Lynch's law" to Tories "for Dealing with Negroes, &c."[11] In the United States, the origin of the terms lynching and lynch law is traditionally attributed to a Virginia Quaker named Charles Lynch.[12]:23ff Charles Lynch (1736–1796) was a Virginia planter and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which incarcerated Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. While he lacked proper jurisdiction, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity. Subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law that exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing. He was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those so incarcerated, even though the American Colonies had won the war. This action by the Congress provoked controversy, and it was in connection with this that the term "Lynch law", meaning the assumption of extrajudicial authority, came into common parlance in the United States. Lynch was not accused of racist bias. He acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions.[13][14] He was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners.[11] William Lynch (1742–1820) from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used in a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, it was probably a hoax. In Ireland, it is often claimed to be named after James Lynch Fitzstephen from Galway, Ireland, who was the Mayor of Galway when he hanged his own son from the balcony of his house after convicting him of the murder of a Spanish visitor in 1493.[15][16] However, linguistic evidence is strongly against it, and the story was likely invented in the 19th century.[10] Another Irish Lynch is referred to in Thomas Crofton Croker's Researches in the South of Ireland (1824), which notes a family dispute of 1816 in which the Lynches followed the Twomeys after leaving a chapel, and attacked them with "guns, swords, scythes, pistols, and various other weapons". Although this postdates the American usage, it may have contributed to the spread of the term in Ireland.[17] The archaic verb linch, to beat severely with a pliable instrument, to chastise or to maltreat, has been proposed as the etymological source; but there is no evidence that the word has survived into modern times, so this claim is also considered implausible.[12]:16


History[edit] Every society has had forms of extrajudicial punishments, including murder. The legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America. Collective violence was a familiar aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. Group violence in the British Atlantic was usually nonlethal in intention and result. In the seventeenth century, in the context of political turmoil in England and unsettled social and political conditions in the American colonies, there arose rebellions and riots that took multiple lives.[18] In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War (sometimes called the Antebellum era), assertive free Blacks, Latinos in the South West, and runaways were the objects of racial lynching.[19] But lynching attacks on U.S. blacks, especially in the South, increased dramatically in the aftermath of Reconstruction, after slavery had been abolished and freedmen gained the right to vote. The peak of lynchings occurred in 1892, after southern white Democrats had regained control of state legislatures. Many incidents were related to economic troubles and competition. At the turn of the 20th century, southern states passed new constitutions or legislation which effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, established segregation of public facilities by race, and separated blacks from common public life and facilities through Jim Crow rules. Nearly 1,500[20] African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968.[21] Lynching in the British Empire during the 19th century coincided with a period of violence which denied people participation in white-dominated society on the basis of race after the Emancipation Act of 1833.[22]


United States[edit] Main article: Lynching in the United States Bodies of three men lynched in Georgia, May 1892. Lynching, as a form of punishment for presumed criminal offenses, performed by self-appointed commissions, mobs, or vigilantes without due process of law, took place in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, most commonly in Southern states and Western frontier settlements. It was most frequent in the late 19th century. At the first recorded lynching in St. Louis in 1835, a black man named McIntosh who killed a deputy sheriff while being taken to jail was captured, chained to a tree, and burned to death on a corner lot downtown in front of a crowd of over 1,000 people.[23] In the South in the antebellum era, members of the abolitionist movement or other people who opposed slavery were sometimes victims of mob violence. The largest lynching during the war and perhaps the largest lynching in all of U.S. history, was the lynching of 41 men in the Great Hanging at Gainesville, Texas in October 1862. Most of the victims were hanged after an extrajudicial "trial" but at least fourteen of them did not receive that formality.[24] The men had been accused of insurrection or treason. Five more men were hanged in Decatur, Texas as part of the same sweep.[25] After the war, southern whites struggled to maintain their social dominance. Secret vigilante and insurgent groups such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) instigated extrajudicial assaults and killings in order to keep whites in power and discourage freedmen from voting, working and getting educated. They also sometimes attacked Northerners, teachers, and agents of the Freedmen's Bureau. A study of the period from 1868 to 1871 estimates that the KKK was involved in more than 400 lynchings. The aftermath of the war was a period of upheaval and social turmoil, in which most white men had been war veterans. Mobs usually alleged crimes for which they lynched blacks. In the late 19th century, however, journalist Ida B. Wells showed that many presumed crimes were either exaggerated or had not even occurred.[26] The lynching of Laura Nelson in Okemah, Oklahoma, on May 25, 1911[27][28] From the 1890s onwards, the majority of those lynched were black,[29] including at least 159 women.[30] Between 1882 and 1968, the Tuskegee Institute recorded 1,297 lynchings of whites and 3,446 lynchings of blacks.[21][31] However, lynchings of members of other ethnic groups, such as Mexicans and Chinese, were undercounted in the Tuskegee Institute's records.[32] One of the largest mass lynchings in American history occurred in 1891, when a mob lynched eleven Italian immigrants in New Orleans, Louisiana, following their acquittal on charges that they had killed the local police chief.[33] The largest lynching was the Chinese massacre of 1871. Mob violence arose as a means of enforcing white supremacy and it frequently verged on systematic political terrorism. "The Ku Klux Klan, paramilitary groups, and other whites united by frustration and anger ruthlessly defended the interests of white supremacy. The magnitude of the extralegal violence which occurred during election campaigns reached epidemic proportions, leading the historian William Gillette to label it guerrilla warfare."[34][35][36][37][38] Body of a lynched black male, propped up in a rocking chair for a photograph, circa 1900. Paint has been applied to his face, circular disks glued to his cheeks, cotton glued to his face and head, while a rod props up the victim's head. During Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan and others used lynching as a means to control blacks, forcing them to work for planters and preventing them from exercising their right to vote.[34][35][36][37][38] Federal troops and courts enforcing the Civil Rights Act of 1871 largely broke up the Reconstruction-era Klan. By the end of Reconstruction in 1877, with fraud, intimidation and violence at the polls, white Democrats regained nearly total control of the state legislatures across the South. They passed laws to make voter registration more complicated, reducing black voters on the rolls. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, from 1890 to 1908, ten of eleven Southern legislatures ratified new constitutions and amendments to effectively disenfranchise most African Americans and many poor whites through devices such as poll taxes, property and residency requirements, and literacy tests. Although required of all voters, some provisions were selectively applied against African Americans. In addition, many states passed grandfather clauses to exempt white illiterates from literacy tests for a limited period. The result was that black voters were stripped from registration rolls and without political recourse. Since they could not vote, they could not serve on juries. They were without official political voice. The ideology behind lynching, directly connected with the denial of political and social equality, was stated forthrightly by Benjamin Tillman, governor of South Carolina and later a United States Senator: We of the South have never recognized the right of the negro to govern white men, and we never will. We have never believed him to be the equal of the white man, and we will not submit to his gratifying his lust on our wives and daughters without lynching him.[39] The lynching of African American Will James in Cairo, Illinois, on November 11, 1909. A crowd of ten thousand watched the lynching.[40][self-published source] Postcard of the 1920 Duluth, Minnesota lynchings. Two of the black victims are still hanging while the third is on the ground. Postcards of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.[7] Lynchings declined briefly after the takeover in the 1870s. By the end of the 19th century, with struggles over labor and disenfranchisement, and continuing agricultural depression, lynchings rose again. The number of lynchings peaked at the end of the 19th century, but these kinds of murders continued into the 20th century. Tuskegee Institute records of lynchings between the years 1880 and 1951 show 3,437 African-American victims, as well as 1,293 white victims. Lynchings were concentrated in the Cotton Belt (Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Texas and Louisiana).[41] The rapid influx of blacks into the North during the Great Migration of the early 20th century disturbed the racial balance within Northern cities, exacerbating hostility between both black and white Northerners. Many whites defended their space with violence, intimidation, or legal tactics toward blacks, while many other whites migrated to more racially homogeneous regions, a process known as white flight.[42] Overall, blacks in Northern cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life.[43] Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchings—mob-directed hangings—increased dramatically in the 1920s.[43] African Americans resisted through protests, marches, lobbying Congress, writing of articles, rebuttals of so-called justifications of lynching, organizing women's groups against lynching, and organizing integrated groups against lynching. African-American playwrights produced 14 anti-lynching plays between 1916 and 1935, ten of them by women. After the release of the movie The Birth of a Nation (1915), which glorified lynching and the Reconstruction-era Klan, the Klan re-formed. Unlike its earlier form, it was heavily represented among urban populations, especially in the Midwest. In response to the massive immigration of people from Southern and Eastern Europe, the Klan espoused an anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic and anti-Jewish stance, in addition to exercising the oppression of blacks. Members of mobs that participated in lynchings often took photographs of what they had done to their victims in order to spread awareness and fear of their power. Some of those photographs were published and sold as postcards. In 2000, James Allen published a collection of 145 lynching photos in book form as well as online,[44] with written words and video to accompany the images. Dyer Bill[edit] The Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill was first introduced to the United States Congress in 1918 by Republican Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer of Missouri. The bill was passed by the United States House of Representatives in 1922 and in the same year it was given a favorable report by the United States Senate Committee. Its passage was blocked by white Democratic senators from the Solid South, the only representatives elected since the southern states disenfranchised African Americans around the start of the 20th century.[45] The Dyer Bill influenced later anti-lynching legislation, including the Costigan-Wagner Bill.[46] The Dyer and Costigan Wagner Bills were blocked by Senator William Borah.[47] As it appeared in 1922, the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill stated: "To assure to persons within the jurisdiction of every State the equal protection of the laws, and to punish the crime of lynching.... Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the phrase 'mob or riotous assemblage,' when used in this act, shall mean an assemblage composed of three or more persons acting in concert for the purpose of depriving any person of his life without authority of law as a punishment for or to prevent the commission of some actual or supposed public offense."[48] Decline and Civil Rights Movement[edit] Emmett Till before and after the lynching on August 28, 1955. He was a fourteen-year-old boy in Chicago who went to spend the summer together with his uncle Moses Wright in Money, Mississippi, and was murdered by white men for groping a white woman. In 2017, the woman told the Associated Press that she had lied about Till whistling at her. While the frequency of lynching dropped in the 1930s, there was a spike in 1930. For example, in North Texas and southern Oklahoma alone, four people were lynched in separate incidents in less than a month. A major spike in lynchings occurred after World War II, when white racists began to resent the pride of black war veterans. The last documented mass lynching occurred in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, when two war veterans and their wives were killed by local white landowners. By the 1950s, the Civil Rights Movement was gaining momentum which was spurred by the lynching of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old boy. The visceral response to his mother's decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S.[49] Vann R. Newkirk| wrote "the trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy".[49] The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were acquitted by an all-white jury.[50] David Jackson writes that it was the image of the "child’s ravaged body, that forced the world to reckon with the brutality of American racism."[51] Soviet media frequently covered racial discrimination in the U.S.[52] Deeming American criticism of Soviet Union human rights abuses as hypocrisy the Russians would respond with "And you are lynching Negroes".[53] In his 1934 book Russia Today: What Can We Learn from It?, Sherwood Eddy wrote: "In the most remote villages of Russia today Americans are frequently asked what they are going to do to the Scottsboro Negro boys and why they lynch Negroes."[54] In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy, the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Communists critical of racial discrimination and violence was a major factor in moving the government to support civil rights legislation.[55] Most, but not all lynchings ceased during the 1960s.[21][31] The murder of Michael Donald in Alabama in 1981 was the last recorded lynching in the United States. Civil rights law[edit] Title 18, U.S.C., Section 241, is the civil rights conspiracy statute, which makes it unlawful for two or more persons to conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any person of any state, territory, or district in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him/her by the Constitution or the laws of the United States (or because of his/her having exercised the same) and further makes it unlawful for two or more persons to go in disguise on the highway or premises of another person with intent to prevent or hinder his or her free exercise or enjoyment of such rights. Depending upon the circumstances of the crime, and any resulting injury, the offense is punishable by a range of fines and/or imprisonment for any term of years up to life, or the death penalty.[56] Felony lynching[edit] The term 'felony lynching' was used in California law. It described the act of taking someone out of the custody of a police officer by "means of riot". It does not actually refer to the actual act of lynching and it has been used to charge individuals who have tried to free someone from police custody. There have been several notable cases in the twenty-first century, some controversial, when a black person has attempted to free another black person from police custody.[57][58] In 2015, Governor Jerry Brown signed legislation by Senator Holly Mitchell removing the word "lynching" from the state's criminal code without comment after it received unanimous approval in a vote by state lawmakers. Mitchell stated, "It's been said that strong words should be reserved for strong concepts, and 'lynching' has such a painful history for African Americans that the law should only use it for what it is – murder by mob." The law was otherwise unchanged.[59] Effects[edit] A 2017 study found that exposure to lynchings in the post-Reconstruction South "reduced local black voter turnout by roughly 2.5 percentage points."[60] Another 2017 study found supportive evidence of Stewart Tolnay and E. M. Beck's claim that lynchings were "due to economic competition between African American and white cotton workers".[61] The study found that lynchings were associated with greater black out-migration from 1920 to 1930, and higher state-level wages.[61]


Europe[edit] September Massacres of 1792, in which Parisian mobs killed hundreds of royalist prisoners. In Britain, a series of race riots broke out in several cities in 1919 between whites and black sailors. In Liverpool, after a black sailor had been stabbed by two whites in a pub, his friends attacked the pub in revenge. In response, the police raided lodging houses with black occupants, accompanied by an "enraged lynch mob". Charles Wootton, a young black seaman who had not been involved in the attacks, was chased into the river Mersey and drowned after being pelted with missiles thrown by the mob, who chanted "Let him drown!"[62] The Charles Wootton College in Liverpool was named in his memory.[63] In 1944, Wolfgang Rosterg, a German prisoner of war known to be unsympathetic to the Nazi regime, was lynched by Nazis in POW Camp 21 in Comrie, Scotland. At the end of the war, five of the perpetrators were hanged at Pentonville Prison – the largest multiple execution in 20th-century Britain.[64] The situation is less clear with regards to reported "lynchings" in Nazi Germany. Nazi propaganda sometimes tried to depict state sponsored violence as spontaneous lynchings. The most notorious instance of this was "Kristallnacht" which was portrayed as the result of "popular wrath" when it was really carried out in an organised and planned manner, mainly by SS men. Similarly, the approximately 150 confirmed murders of surviving crew members of crashed Allied aircraft in revenge for what Nazi propaganda called "Anglo-American bombing terror" were mainly carried out by Nazi officials and members of the police or the Gestapo although civilians sometimes took part in them. The execution of enemy aircrew without trial in some cases had been ordered by Hitler personally in May 1944. Publicly it was announced that enemy pilots would no longer be protected from "public wrath". Furthermore, there were secret orders which prohibited policemen and soldiers from interfering in favor of the enemy in conflicts between civilians and Allied forces, or prosecuting civilians who engaged in such acts.[65][66] In summary, "the assaults on crashed allied aviators were not typically acts of revenge for the bombing raids which immediately preceded them. [...] The perpetrators of these assaults were usually National Socialist officials, who did not hesitate to get their own hands dirty. The lynching murder in the sense of self-mobilizing communities or urban quarters was the exception."[67]


Mexico[edit] On November 23, 2004, in the Tlahuac lynching,[68] three Mexican undercover federal agents investigating a narcotics-related crime were lynched in the town of San Juan Ixtayopan (Mexico City) by an angry crowd who saw them taking photographs and suspected that they were trying to abduct children from a primary school. The agents immediately identified themselves but they were held and beaten for several hours before two of them were killed and set on fire. The incident was covered by the media almost from the beginning, including their pleas for help and their murder. By the time police rescue units arrived, two of the agents were reduced to charred corpses and the third was seriously injured. Authorities suspect that the lynching was provoked by the persons who were being investigated. Both local and federal authorities abandoned them to their fate, saying that the town was too far away for them to even try to arrive in time and some officials stated that they would provoke a massacre if the authorities tried to rescue them from the mob.


Guatemala[edit] A young Guatemalan woman, Alejandra Maria Torres, was attacked by a mob in Guatemala City on December 15, 2009. The mob alleged that Torres had attempted to rob passengers on a bus. Torres was beaten, doused with gasoline, and set on fire, but she was able to put the fire out before sustaining life-threatening burns. Police intervened and arrested Torres. Torres was forced to go topless throughout the ordeal and subsequent arrest, and many photographs were taken and published. Approximately 219 people were lynched in Guatemala in 2009, of whom 45 died.[69] In May 2015, a sixteen-year-old girl was lynched in Rio Bravo by a vigilante mob after being accused of involvement in the killing of a taxi driver earlier in the month.[70]


Dominican Republic[edit] Extrajudicial punishment of alleged criminals who committed various crimes, ranging from theft to murder, has some endorsement in Dominican society in all its bearings, including lynching; according to a 2014 Latinobarómetro survey, the Dominican Republic had the highest rate of acceptance of these unlawful measures in Latin America.[71][72] These issues are particularly evident in the Northern Region.[73]


Haiti[edit] After the 2010 earthquake the slow distribution of relief supplies and the large number of affected people created concerns about civil unrest, marked by looting and mob justice against suspected looters.[74][75][76][77][78] In a 2010 news story, CNN reported, "At least 45 people, most of them Vodou priests, have been lynched in Haiti since the beginning of the cholera epidemic by angry mobs blaming them for the spread of the disease, officials said.[79]


South Africa[edit] Main article: Necklacing The practice of whipping and necklacing offenders and political opponents evolved in the 1980s during the apartheid era in South Africa. Residents of black townships formed "people's courts" and used whip lashings and deaths by necklacing in order to terrorize fellow blacks who were seen as collaborators with the government. Necklacing is the torture and execution of a victim by igniting a kerosene-filled rubber tire that has been forced around the victim's chest and arms. Necklacing was used to punish victims who were alleged to be traitors to the black liberation movement along with their relatives and associates. Sometimes the "people's courts" made mistakes, or they used the system to punish those whom the anti-Apartheid movement's leaders opposed.[80] A tremendous controversy arose when the practice was endorsed by Winnie Mandela, then the wife of the then-imprisoned Nelson Mandela and a senior member of the African National Congress.[81] More recently, drug dealers and other gang members have been lynched by People Against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilante organization.


Nigeria[edit] The practice of extrajudicial punishments, including lynching, is referred to as 'jungle justice' in Nigeria.[82] The practice is widespread and "an established part of Nigerian society", predating the existence of the police.[82] Exacted punishments vary between a "muddy treatment", that is, being made to roll in the mud for hours[83] and severe beatings followed by necklacing.[84] The case of the Aluu four sparked national outrage. The absence of a functioning judicial system and law enforcement, coupled with corruption are blamed for the continuing existence of the practice.[85][86] Between 118 and 1230 cases are reported annually.[87]


Palestinian territories[edit] Palestinian lynched for alleged collaboration with Israel, 1992 Palestinian lynch mobs have murdered Palestinians suspected of collaborating with Israel.[88][89][90] According to a Human Rights Watch report from 2001: During the First Intifada, before the PA was established, hundreds of alleged collaborators were lynched, tortured or killed, at times with the implied support of the PLO. Street killings of alleged collaborators continue into the current intifada ... but at much fewer numbers.[91] 2000 Ramallah lynching In October 2000, two Israeli reservists, serving as drivers, mistakenly entered Ramallah and were killed by a Palestinian crowd. Their bodies were mutilated and dragged to Al-Manara Square in the city center. Palestinian policemen did not prevent, and in some cases actually took part in the lynching.[92][93][94][95][96]


Afghanistan[edit] Main article: Murder of Farkhunda On March 19, 2015 in Kabul, Afghanistan a large crowd beat a young woman, Farkhondeh, after she was accused of burning a copy of the Quran, Islam's holy book. Farkhondeh had a dispute with a local cleric, after which he accused her of burning the Quran. Shortly afterwards, a crowd attacked her and beat her to death. They set the young woman's body on fire on the shore of the Kabul River. Even though it was unclear whether or not the woman had actually burned the Quran, police officials and the clerics in the city defended the lynching of the woman by saying that the crowd had a right to defend their faith at all costs. They also warned the government not to take action against those who had participated in the lynching.[97] The whole process of lynching the young woman was filmed and shared on social media.[98] The police forces in the area did little to save the young lady. The day after the incident six men were arrested on accusations of lynching and Afghanistan's government promised to continue the investigation.[99] On March 22, 2015, Farkhondeh's burial was attended by a large crowd of Kabul residents who demanded that justice be meted out against those who had participated in her lynching. A group of Afghan women carried her coffin, chanted slogans and demanded justice.[100]


India[edit] See also: Caste-related violence in India In India, lynchings generally reflect internal tensions between numerous ethnic communities in the country. Recent examples include the Kherlanji massacre, where four members of the Bhotmange family who belonged to the Dalit caste were slaughtered in Khairlanji, a small village in the Bhandara district of Maharashtra, by members of another caste group, the Kunbi. Though this incident was reported as a stereotypical example of "upper" caste violence against members of a "lower" caste, it was actually found to be an example of communal violence. The incident occurred as an act of retaliation against the family because it had opposed the Eminent Domain seizure of its fields so a road could be built that would have benefitted the attacking group.[101] The women of the family, Surekha and Priyanka, were paraded naked in public, before they were mutilated and murdered. Sociologists and social scientists reject the identification of the caste system with racial discrimination and they instead attribute it to intra-racial ethno-cultural conflicts.[102][103] Another recent case is the 2015 Dimapur mob lynching, in which a mob in Dimapur, Nagaland, broke into a jail and lynched an accused rapist while he was awaiting trial on 5 March 2015.[104]


In popular culture[edit] "Strange Fruit"[edit] In 1937, Abel Meeropol, a Jewish schoolteacher from New York, saw a copy of the photograph of the Marion lynching. Meeropol later said that the photograph "haunted me for days" and inspired him to write the poem "Strange Fruit".[105] It was published in the New York Teacher and later in the magazine New Masses, in both cases under the pseudonym Lewis Allan. This poem became the lyrics for the song of the same name, also written by Meeropol, performed and popularized by Billie Holiday.[106] The song reached 16th place on the charts in July 1939.[citation needed] The song was later notably performed by the High Priestess of Soul, Nina Simone, whose eerie vocals shed light to the darkness of lynching. The Hateful Eight[edit] The finale of the 2015 film The Hateful Eight set in post Civil War America is a detailed and close focused depiction of the lynching of a white woman, prompting some debate about whether it is a political commentary on racism and hate in America or if it was simply created for entertainment value.[107][108] Literature[edit] In Tom Rob Smith's third Leo Demidov novel, Agent 6, Jesse Austin (a character patterned after Paul Robeson) recalls a lynching that he witnessed in his youth, which inspired him to embrace Communism and shaped his view of how white audiences in the US perceived him.[109][110] James Patterson's novel Alex Cross's Trial is an investigation of a lynching by the Ku Klux Klan. Walter Van Tilburg Clark's novel The Ox-Bow Incident describes the lynching of three innocent men in a western town.


See also[edit] Extrajudicial punishment Frontier justice Hate crime Jesse Washington lynching 1920 Duluth lynchings John J. Hoover lynching Kneecapping Leo Frank Mary Turner Mass racial violence in the United States Mobbing Necklacing Noose Opera House Lynching Posse Racism in the United States Sunset town Vigilante Warning out of town Whitecapping


Notes[edit] ^ Wood, Amy Louise (2009). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. North Carolina University Press. ISBN 9780807878118.  ^ Hidalgo, Dennis Ricardo (November 27, 2013). "Lynching and the Susquehannocks". Blog. Wordpress. Retrieved 28 November 2013.  ^ Berg, Manfred & Wendt, Simon (2011). Globalizing Lynching History: Vigilantism and Extralegal Punishment from an International Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-11588-0. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Huggins, Martha Knisely (1991). Vigilantism and the state in modern Latin America : essays on extralegal violence. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0275934764.  ^ Thurston, Robert W. (2011). Lynching : American mob murder in global perspective. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 9781409409083.  ^ James Allen, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America, Santa Fe: Twin Palms Publishers, 2000. ^ a b Moyers, Bill. "Legacy of Lynching". PBS. Retrieved July 28, 2016 ^ "An Obsessive Quest to Make People See". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 14, 2017 ^ Wood, Amy L. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. ^ a b Michael Quinion (December 20, 2008). "Lynch". World Wide Words. Retrieved August 13, 2014.  ^ a b Waldrep, Christopher (2006). "Lynching and Mob Violence". In Finkleman, Paul. Encyclopedia of African American History 1619–1895. 2. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 308.  ^ a b Cutler, James Elbert (1905). Lynch-law: An Investigation Into the History of Lynching in the United States. Longmans Green and Co.  ^ "The Atlantic Monthly Volume 0088 Issue 530 (Dec 1901)". Digital.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ University of Chicago, Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828) Archived 2017-05-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Remarkable instance of inflexible justice". galway.net. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16.  ^ Thomasconner.info Archived 2009-08-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Croker, Thomas Crofton (1824). "Manners and customs (12)". Researches in the South of Ireland. London: John Murray. p. 231.  Footnote 27 in CELT edition ^ Pfeifer, Michael J. (2011). The Roots of Rough Justice : Origins of American Lynching. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252093098.  ^ Carrigan, William D.; Clive Webb (2013). Forgotten Dead : Mob Violence against Mexicans in the United States, 1848–1928. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195320350.  ^ Wood, Amy L. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. 84 ^ a b c "Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882–1968". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010. Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.  ^ Smith, Thomas E. (Fall 2007). "The Discourse of Violence: Transatlantic Narratives of Lynching during High Imperialism". Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 8 (2). doi:10.1353/cch.2007.0040.  ^ William Hyde and Howard L. Conrad (eds.), Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis: A Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference: Volume 4. New York: Southern History Company, 1899; pg. 1913. ^ McCaslin, Richard B. Tainted Breeze: The Great Hanging at Gainesville, Texas 1862, Louisiana State University Press, 1994, p. 81 ^ McCaslin, p. 95 ^ Lynching. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009.  ^ "Deputy Sheriff George H. Loney". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2011-11-07.  ^ "Shaped by Site: Three Communities' Dialogues on the Legacies of Lynching Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.." National Park Service. Accessed October 29, 2008. ^ Robert A. Gibson. "The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950". Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  ^ DeLongoria, Maria (December 2006). "Stranger Fruit": The Lynching of Black Women the Cases of Rosa Richardson and Marie Scott (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Missouri–Columbia. pp. 1, 77, 142. Retrieved June 15, 2011.  ^ a b "Lynchings: By Year and Race". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010. Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.  ^ Carrigan, William D. (Winter 2003). "The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent in the United States, 1848 to 1928". Journal of Social History. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010. For instance, the files at Tuskegee Institute contain the most comprehensive count of lynching victims in the United States, but they only refer to the lynching of fifty Mexicans in the states of Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Our own research has revealed a total of 216 victims during the same time period.  ^ "When Italian immigrants were 'the other'". CNN. July 10, 2012. ^ a b Brundage, W. Fitzhugh (1993). Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06345-7.  ^ a b Crouch, Barry A. (1984). "A Spirit of Lawlessness: White violence, Texas Blacks, 1865–1868". Journal of Social History. 18 (2): 217–226. doi:10.1353/jsh/18.2.217. JSTOR 3787285.  ^ a b Foner, Eric (1988). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 119–123. ISBN 0-06-015851-4.  ^ a b Stagg, J. C. A. (1974). "The Problem of Klan Violence: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1868–1871". Journal of American Studies. 8 (3): 303–318. doi:10.1017/S0021875800015905.  ^ a b Trelease, Allen W. (1979). White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-313-21168-X.  ^ Herbert, Bob (January 22, 2008). "The Blight That Is Still With Us". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2008.  ^ Arnold P. Powers (2013). "Devour Us Not". p. 119. Xlibris Corporation ^ Dahleen Glanton, "Controversial exhibit on lynching opens in Atlanta" May 5, 2002, Chicago Tribune. "Reproduced online". Archived from the original on March 11, 2005. Retrieved 2006-10-24. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Seligman, Amanda (2005). Block by block : neighborhoods and public policy on Chicago's West Side. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 213–14. ISBN 978-0-226-74663-0.  ^ a b Michael O. Emerson, Christian Smith (2001). "Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America". p. 42. Oxford University Press ^ Allen, James. "Musarium: Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America". Retrieved November 6, 2006.  ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol. 17, 2000. Accessed March 10, 2008. ^ Zangrando, NAACP Crusade, pp. 43–44, 54. ^ Black Americans in Congress, 1870–2007". p. 178. Government Printing Office ^ ""Anti-Lynching Bill," 1918". googleusercontent.com. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b II, Vann R. Newkirk. "How 'The Blood of Emmett Till' Still Stains America Today". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ Whitfield, Stephen (1991). A Death in the Delta: The story of Emmett Till. pp 41–42. JHU Press. ^ "How The Horrific Photograph Of Emmett Till Helped Energize The Civil Rights Movement". 100 Photographs | The Most Influential Images of All Time. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ Quinn, Allison (27 November 2014), "Soviet Propaganda Back in Play With Ferguson Coverage", The Moscow Times, retrieved 17 December 2016  ^ Volodzko, David (May 12, 2015), "The History Behind China's Response to the Baltimore Riots", The Diplomat, archived from the original on 28 April 2016, retrieved 17 December 2016, Soon Americans who criticized the Soviet Union for its human rights violations were answered with the famous tu quoque argument: 'A u vas negrov linchuyut' (and you are lynching Negroes).  ^ Eddy, Sherwood (1934), Russia Today: What Can We Learn from It?, New York: Farrar & Rinehar, pp. 73, 151, OCLC 1617454  ^ Dudziak, M.L.: Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy ^ Title 18, U.S.C., Section 241 – Conspiracy Against Rights Archived 2007-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Barragan, James (4 September 2014). "Murrieta immigration protesters charged with obstructing officers". Retrieved 3 September 2017 – via LA Times.  ^ Kenney, Tanasia (3 June 2016). "Pasadena Black Lives Matter Activist Convicted of 'Felony Lynching', Could Spend Four Years Behind Bars". atlantablackstar.com. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ "California legislation removing "lynching" from law signed by Governor Jerry Brown". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2016-06-14.  ^ Jones, Daniel B.; Troesken, Werner; Walsh, Randall (2017-08-04). "Political participation in a violent society: The impact of lynching on voter turnout in the post-Reconstruction South". Journal of Development Economics. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2017.08.001.  ^ a b Christian, Cornelius. "Lynchings, Labour, and Cotton in the US South: A Reappraisal of Tolnay and Beck". Explorations in Economic History. doi:10.1016/j.eeh.2017.08.005.  ^ "Roots of racism in City of Many Cultures", Liverpool Echo, August 3, 2005. ^ Brown, Jacqueline Nassy (2005). Dropping Anchor, Setting Sail: Geographies of Race in Black Liverpool. Princeton University Press, pp. 21, 23, 144. ^ Caledonia.tv Archived 2007-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Hamm 1944". polizeihistorischesammlung-paul.de. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg,. "KRIEGSVERBRECHEN: Systematischer Mord - DER SPIEGEL 47/2001". www.spiegel.de. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Grimm, Barbara: Lynchmorde an alliierten Fliegern im Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: Dietmar Süß (Hrsg.): Deutschland im Luftkrieg. Geschichte und Erinnerung. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-486-58084-1, p. 71–84. p. 83. "Die Übergriffe auf abgestürzte alliierte Flieger waren im Regelfall keine Racheakte für unmittelbar vorangegangene Bombenangriffe. [...] Täter waren in der Regel nationalsozialistische Funktionsträger, die keine Scheu davor hatten, selbst Hand anzulegen. Der Lynchmord im Sinne sich selbstmobilisierender Kommunen und Stadtviertel war dagegen die Ausnahme." ^ Niels A. Uildriks (2009), Policing Insecurity: Police Reform, Security, and Human Rights in Latin America. Rowman & Littlefield, p. 201. ^ "Female armed robber stripped, beaten and set alight by angry lynch mob". Daily Mail. London. December 17, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2011.  ^ CNN, Annie Rose Ramos, Catherine E. Shoichet and Richard Beltran. "Video of mob burning teen in Guatemala spurs outrage". CNN. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Infografía: ¿En qué países de América tiene menor aprobación la justicia por mano propia?" (in Spanish). RT en Español. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ Santana, Antonio (9 June 2012). "Linchamientos en el norte de la República Dominicana alarman a las autoridades" (in Spanish). Santiago: lainformacion.com. EFE. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ "Mob justice in Haiti". thestar.com. 17 January 2010.  ^ Romero, Simon; Lacey, Marc (17 January 2010). "Looting Flares Where Authority Breaks Down". Retrieved 3 September 2017 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Login". timesonline.co.uk.  ^ Rory Carroll. "Looters roam Port-au-Prince as earthquake death toll estimate climbs". the Guardian.  ^ Sherwell, Philip; Colin Freeman (16 January 2010). "Haiti earthquake: UN says worst disaster ever dealt with". Telegraph Co. uk. Retrieved January 17, 2010.  ^ Valme, Jean M. (December 24, 2010). "Officials: 45 people lynched in Haiti amid cholera fears". CNN. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ 4. Background: The Black Struggle For Political Power: Major Forces in the Conflict, in The Killings in South Africa: The Role of the Security Forces and the Response of the State, Human Rights Watch, January 8, 1991. ISBN 0-929692-76-4. Accessed November 6, 2006. ^ "Row over 'mother of the nation' Winnie Mandela", The Guardian, January 27, 1989. ^ a b "BBC NEWS - World - Africa - Nigeria's vigilante 'jungle justice'". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Dachen, Isaac. "Jungle Justice: Cable thief given muddy treatment in Anambra (Graphic Photos)". pulse.ng. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Staff, Daily Post (18 November 2016). "Burning 7-year-old boy to death an embarrassment to Nigeria - Annie Idibia, Mercy Johnson". dailypost.ng. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ "Jungle Justice: A Vicious Violation Of Human Rights In Africa". answersafrica.com. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "When the mob rules: jungle justice in Africa - Africa - DW - 26.07.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Nathaniel, Soonest (16 June 2016). "Jungle justice: See what was done to these thieves (photos)". naij.com. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Be'er, Yizhar & 'Abdel-Jawad, Saleh (January 1994), "Collaborators in the Occupied Territories: Human Rights Abuses and Violations" Archived 2004-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. (Microsoft Word document), B’Tselem – The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. Retrieved September 14, 2009. Also "available". Archived from the original on July 15, 2004. Retrieved 2009-09-14. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . ^ Huggler, Justin & Ghazali, Sa'id (October 24, 2003), "Palestinian collaborators executed", The Independent, reproduced on fromoccupiedpalestine.org. Retrieved September 14, 2009. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (March 15, 2002), "'Spies' lynched as Zinni flies in", The Guardian. Retrieved September 14, 2009. ^ "Balancing Security and Human Rights During the Intifada", Justice Undermined: Balancing Security and Human Rights in the Palestinian Justice System, Human Rights Watch, November 2001, Vol. 13, No. 4 (E). ^ Philps, Alan (2000-10-13). "A day of rage, revenge and bloodshed". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2009-07-02.  ^ "Coverage of Oct 12 Lynch in Ramallah by Italian TV Station RAI". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2000-10-17. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved 2009-07-02.  ^ "Lynch mob's brutal attack". BBC News. 2000-10-13. Retrieved 2006-09-03.  ^ Whitaker, Raymond (2000-10-14). "A strange voice said: I just killed your husband". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-10-16.  ^ Seager, Mark (October 22, 2000). "`I'll have nightmares for the rest of my life,' photographer says". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 28 May 2015.  ^ "Afghan cleric and others defend lynching of woman in Kabul". Reuters.  ^ "در کابل دختر 27 ساله به جرم توهین به قران به طرز وحشتناکی سنگسار و سوزانده شد!+فیلم". dailykhabariran.ir.  ^ "بازداشت ۶ تن به اتهام کشتن و سوزاندن یک زن در کابل". BBC Persian.  ^ "زنان کابل پیکر فرخنده را به خاک سپردند". BBC Persian.  ^ "Age old rivalry behind Khairlanji violence Video". NDTV.com. November 21, 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ Béteille, Andre. "Race and caste". World Conference Against Racism. treating caste as a form of racism is politically mischievous and worse, scientifically nonsense since there is no discernible difference in the racial characteristics between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes  ^ Silverberg, James (November 1969). "Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium". The American Journal of Sociology. 75 (3): 443–444. JSTOR 2775721. The perception of the caste system as a static and textual stratification has given way to the perception of the caste system as a more processual, empirical and contextual stratification.  ^ "Rape accused dragged out of jail, lynched in Nagaland". The Times of India. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ Cone, James H. (2011). The Cross and the Lynching Tree. Maryknoll, New York: Oribis Books. p. 134.  ^ PBS. "Strange Fruit". Independent Lens.  PBS Independent Lens credits the music as well as the words to Meeropol, though Billie Holiday's autobiography and the Spartacus article credit her with co-authoring the song. ^ Scott, A. O. (24 December 2015). "Review: Quentin Tarantino's 'The Hateful Eight' Blends Verbiage and Violence". Retrieved 3 September 2017 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ Plante, Chris (31 December 2015). "The Hateful Eight is a play, and a miserable one at that". The Verge. Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ Smith, Tom Rob (2012). Agent 6 (eBook ed.).  Chapter: "Harlem Bradhurst West 145th Street Same Day". ^ Woods, Paula (January 27, 2012). "Book review: 'Agent 6' by Tom Rob Smith". Los Angeles Times. 


References[edit] Auslander, Mark, "Holding on to Those Who Can't be Held": Reenacting a Lynching at Moore's Ford, Georgia", Southern Spaces, November 8, 2010. "The Real Judge Lynch" (December 1901), The Atlantic Monthly Quinones, Sam, True Tales From Another Mexico: the Lynch Mob, the Popsicle Kings, Chalino and the Bronx (University of New Mexico Press): recounts a lynching in a small Mexican town in 1998. [http://withoutsanctuary.org/ Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America by James Allen, Hilton Als, United States Rep. John Lewis and historian Leon F. Litwack (Twin Palm Publishers: 2000). ISBN 978-0-944092-69-9. Etymology OnLine  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Gonzales-Day, Ken, Lynching in the West: 1850–1935. Duke University Press, 2006. Markovitz, Jonathan, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory. University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Before the Needles, Executions (and Lynchings) in America Before Lethal Injection. Details of thousands of lynchings Houghton Mifflin: The Reader's Companion to American History – Lynching Lynchings in the State of Iowa Lynchings in America Lyrics to "Strange Fruit" a protest song about lynching, written by Abel Meeropol and recorded by Billie Holiday The Lynching of Big Steve Long Ida B. Wells, Lynch Law, 1893 NAACP, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889–1918. New York City: Arno Press, 1919. Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Lynching in Arkansas Smith, Tom. The Crescent City Lynchings: The Murder of Chief Hennessy, the New Orleans 'Mafia' Trials, and the Parish Prison Mob, crescentcitylynchings.com


Further reading[edit] Allen, James (ed.), Hilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Twin Palms Pub: 2000), ISBN 0-944092-69-1 accompanied by an online photographic survey of the history of lynchings in the United States Arellano, Lisa, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and Nation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012. Bailey, Amy Kate and Stewart E. Tolnay. Lynched: The Victims of Southern Mob Violence. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2015. Bancroft, H. H., Popular Tribunals (2 vols, San Francisco, 1887). Beck, Elwood M. and Stewart E. Tolnay. "The killing fields of the deep south: the market for cotton and the lynching of blacks, 1882–1930." American Sociological Review (1990): 526–539. online Berg, Manfred, Popular Justice: A History of Lynching in America. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago 2011, ISBN 978-1-56663-802-9. Bernstein, Patricia, The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press (March 2005), hardcover, ISBN 1-58544-416-2 Brundage, W. Fitzhugh, Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press (1993), ISBN 0-252-06345-7 Caballero, Raymond (2015). Lynching Pascual Orozco, Mexican Revolutionary Hero and Paradox. Create Space. ISBN 978-1514382509.  Crouch, Barry A. "A Spirit of Lawlessness: White violence, Texas Blacks, 1865–1868", Journal of Social History 18 (Winter 1984): 217–26. Collins, Winfield, The Truth about Lynching and the Negro in the South. New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1918. Cutler, James E., Lynch-Law: An Investigation Into the History of Lynching in the United States (New York, 1905) Dray, Philip, At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America, New York: Random House, 2002). Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. 119–23. Finley, Keith M., Delaying the Dream: Southern Senators and the Fight Against Civil Rights, 1938–1965 (Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 2008). Ginzburg, Ralph, 100 Years Of Lynchings, Black Classic Press (1962, 1988) softcover, ISBN 0-933121-18-0 Hill, Karlos K. Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Hill, Karlos K. "Black Vigilantism: The Rise and Decline of African American Lynch Mob Activity in the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1883–1923," Journal of African American History, 95 no. 1 (Winter 2010): 26–43. Ifill, Sherrilyn A., On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the 21st Century. Boston: Beacon Press (2007). Nevels, Cynthia Skove, Lynching to Belong: claiming Whiteness though racial violence, Texas A&M Press, 2007. Pfeifer, Michael J. (ed.), Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2013. Rushdy, Ashraf H. A., The End of American Lynching. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Page, Thomas Nelson, "The Lynching of Negroes – Its Cause and Its Prevention," in The Negro: The Southerner's Problem. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904, pp. 86–119. Stagg, J. C. A., "The Problem of Klan Violence: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1868–1871," Journal of American Studies 8 (December 1974): 303–18. Tolnay, Stewart E. and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press (1995), ISBN 0-252-06413-5 Trelease, Allen W., White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction, Harper & Row, 1979. Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 1900, Mob Rule in New Orleans Robert Charles and His Fight to Death, the Story of His Life, Burning Human Beings Alive, Other Lynching Statistics Gutenberg eBook Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 1895, Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases Gutenberg eBook Wood, Amy Louise, "They Never Witnessed Such a Melodrama", Southern Spaces, April 27, 2009. Wood, Joe, Ugly Water, St. Louis: Lulu, 2006. Zangrando, Robert L. The NAACP crusade against lynching, 1909–1950 (1980).


External links[edit] Taking History Personnally, a text on the Marion lynching by Cynthia Carr Yes, ISIS Burned a Man Alive: White Americans Did the Same Thing to Black People by the Thousands (Feb. 2015), Dailykos Richardson, Dixie Kline. "1891 Lynching Remains a Mystery", Spencer Evening World, Spencer, Indiana, August 4, 2014 McKee, Robert Guy. 2013. Lynchings in modern Kenya and inequitable access to basic resources: A major human rights scandal and one contributing cause. Web access Cotter, Holland, "‘The Legacy of Lynching,’ at the Brooklyn Museum, Documents Violent Racism", New York Times, July 26, 2017. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lynchings. Look up lynching in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. v t e Racism Types of racism Against Jews Aversive Among White people Among LGBT people Among US minorities Colorism Among hipsters Consumer Covert Cultural Environmental Gendered Institutional Internalized Islamophobia Nationalist New racism Neo-racism Reverse Romantic Sexual Scientific Societal Symbolic Manifestations of racism Anti-miscegenation laws Expression in the media in Charles Dickens' works in music in early US films Censored Eleven in horror films in porn online on Wikipedia in sport baseball martial arts soccer in school curricula in US politics Jokes Slurs Racial antagonism Racial determinism Racial hatred Racial hierarchy Casta Racial polarization Racial quota Racial vilification Racial violence Race war Racism by region Africa Arab world Asia Australia Europe Middle East North America South America Related topics Anti-racism Psychological impact Psychoanalysis Racial transformation Passing Racial democracy Racial fetishism Race traitor List of racism-related articles List of anti-ethnic terms Category v t e Lynching in the United States General Lynching Lynching in the United States Indiana White Caps Jim Crow laws Ku Klux Klan Nadir of American race relations Anti-lynching movement Anti-lynching movement American Crusade Against Lynching Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill N.A.A.C.P. Ida B. Wells "Strange Fruit" Flag Salute Other James Allen (collector) The Ox-Bow Incident The United States of Lyncherdom (Twain) Vendetta (1999 film) "And you are lynching Negroes!" Categories Lynching in the United States Lynching deaths in the United States American anti-lynching activists Authority control GND: 4168383-3 NDL: 00570946 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lynching&oldid=825169939" Categories: LynchingVigilantismPhysical punishmentsCrowd psychologyExtrajudicial killings by typeHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameterWebarchive template wayback linksCS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownCS1 Spanish-language sources (es)All articles with self-published sourcesArticles with self-published sources from December 2017All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2014Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameterWikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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Category:DiscriminationDiscriminationAgeismCasteClass DiscriminationDiscrimination Based On Skin ColorAbleismDiscrimination Against Non-binary Gender PersonsGenetic DiscriminationDiscrimination Based On Hair TextureHeight DiscriminationLinguistic DiscriminationLookismMentalism (discrimination)RacismRankismReligious DiscriminationSexismSexualismSizeismSpeciesismDiscrimination Against People With HIV/AIDSAdultismPersecution Of People With AlbinismPersecution Of People With AutismDiscrimination Against The HomelessAnti-intellectualismDiscrimination Against Intersex PeopleBias Against Left-handed PeopleAnti-MasonryAntisemitismAudismDiscrimination Against Non-binary Gender PersonsBiphobiaCronyismDiscrimination Against Drug AddictsElitismEphebiphobiaEthnopluralismAnti-fat BiasGenderismGerontophobiaHeteronormativityHeterosexismHomophobiaIslamophobiaLeprosy StigmaLesbophobiaMentalism (discrimination)MisandryMisogynyNepotismFear Of ChildrenPregnancy DiscriminationReverse DiscriminationSectDiscrimination Based On Skin ColorSupremacismRacism In The Arab WorldBlack SupremacyWhite SupremacyTransmisogynyTransphobiaVegaphobiaXenophobiaAnimal CrueltyAnimal TestingBlood LibelBlood SportCarnismCompulsory SterilizationCounter-jihadCultural GenocideDemocideDisability Hate CrimeDiscrimination In EducationEconomic DiscriminationEliminationismEmployment DiscriminationEnemy Of The PeopleEthnic CleansingEthnic HatredEthnic JokeEthnocideForced ConversionFreak ShowGay BashingGendercideGenital Modification And MutilationGenocideGenocides In HistoryGlass CeilingDefamationHate CrimeHate GroupHate SpeechHomeless DumpingHousing DiscriminationIndian RollingViolence Against LGBT PeopleLavender ScareEthics Of Eating MeatMortgage DiscriminationStop Murder MusicOccupational SegregationPersecutionPogromPurgeEthnic ConflictRed ScareReligious PersecutionScapegoatingSegregation AcademySex-selective AbortionSlaverySlut-shamingTrans BashingVictimisationViolence Against WomenWhite FlightWhite Power MusicWife SellingWitch-huntGeographical SegregationAge SegregationRacial SegregationReligious SegregationSex SegregationAge Of CandidacyBlood Quantum LawsLimpieza De SangreCrime Of ApartheidDisabilityDisabilities (Jewish)Disabilities (Catholics)EthnocracyGender Pay GapGender RoleGerontocracyGerrymanderingGhetto BenchesInternmentJewish QuotaJim Crow LawsLaw For Protection Of The NationMcCarthyismMen Who Have Sex With Men Blood Donor ControversyNonpersonNumerus ClaususNuremberg LawsOne-drop RuleRacial QuotaRacial SteeringRedliningSame-sex MarriageSodomy LawUgly LawVoter SuppressionAffirmative ActionAnimal RightsAnti-discrimination LawCultural AssimilationCultural PluralismDesegregationDiversity TrainingEmpowermentFeminismFighting DiscriminationHuman RightsIntersex Human RightsMulticulturalismNonviolenceRacial IntegrationSelf-determinationSocial IntegrationTolerationVegetarianismVeganismAllophiliaAnthropocentrismList Of Anti-cultural, Anti-national, And Anti-ethnic TermsCultural AssimilationBiasChristian PrivilegeData DiscriminationDehumanizationDiversity (politics)Ethnic PenaltyEugenicsIntersectionalityMale PrivilegeMasculismMulticulturalismNeurodiversityOppressionPolice BrutalityPolitical CorrectnessPower DistancePrejudiceRacial Bias In Criminal News In The United StatesRacism By CountryRegressive LeftReligious IntoleranceSecond-generation Gender BiasSnobSocial ExclusionSocial StigmaStereotypeStereotype ThreatWhite PrivilegePortal:DiscriminationTemplate:Discrimination SidebarTemplate Talk:Discrimination SidebarExtrajudicial PunishmentCharivariSkimmingtonRiding A RailTarring And FeatheringDisfranchisement After Reconstruction EraJim CrowAll-white JuriesWhite SupremacyAmerican RevolutionExtrajudicial PunishmentCharles Lynch (jurist)William Lynch (Lynch Law)Loyalist (American Revolution)United StatesQuakersCharles Lynch (jurist)Congress Of The ConfederationWelsh PeopleWilliam Lynch (Lynch Law)Pittsylvania CountyEdgar Allan PoeHoaxIrelandGalwayMayor Of GalwayAtlantic OceanBritish IslesColonial History Of The United StatesAmerican Civil WarHistory Of The Southern United StatesAfrican AmericansSouthern United StatesSlavery In The United StatesDisenfranchisement After The Reconstruction EraPoor WhiteRacial SegregationJim CrowAfrican AmericansWhite AmericansLynching In The United StatesBritish EmpireEmancipation ActLynching In The United StatesEnlargeGeorgia (U.S. State)OchlocracyVigilantesDue ProcessAmerican Civil WarSt. Louis, MissouriSouthern United StatesAbolitionism In The United StatesSlaveryGreat Hanging At GainesvilleInsurrectionTreasonDecatur, TexasKu Klux KlanFreedmenFreedmen's BureauIda B. WellsEnlargeLynching Of Laura And Lawrence NelsonOkemahOklahomaTuskegee InstituteMarch 14, 1891 LynchingsNew OrleansLouisianaChinese Massacre Of 1871White SupremacyTerrorismKu Klux KlanParamilitaryGuerrilla WarfareEnlargeReconstruction Era Of The United StatesCivil Rights Act Of 1871DisenfranchisePoll Tax (United States)Literacy TestsGrandfather ClausesIdeologyBenjamin TillmanGovernor Of South CarolinaUnited States SenateEnlargeCairo, IllinoisWikipedia:VerifiabilityEnlarge1920 Duluth LynchingsTuskegee InstituteCotton Belt (region)MississippiGeorgia (U.S. State)AlabamaTexasLouisianaGreat Migration (African American)White FlightRacism In The United StatesThe Birth Of A NationMidwestern United StatesSouthern EuropeEastern EuropeOpposition To ImmigrationAnti-CatholicismAntisemitismJames Allen (collector)Dyer Anti-Lynching BillUnited States CongressRepublican Party (United States)Leonidas C. 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HooverKneecappingLeo FrankMary TurnerMass Racial Violence In The United StatesMobbingNecklacingNooseLivermore, KentuckyPosse Comitatus (common Law)Racism In The United StatesSunset TownVigilanteWarning Out Of TownWhitecappingInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780807878118International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-230-11588-0Category:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0275934764International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781409409083Wayback MachineWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780252093098International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780195320350Journal Of Colonialism And Colonial HistoryDigital Object IdentifierWayback MachineNational Park ServiceInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-252-06345-7Digital Object IdentifierJSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-06-015851-4Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-313-21168-XBob HerbertThe New York TimesCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-226-74663-0Category:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownThe Moscow TimesThe DiplomatOCLCWayback MachineDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierWayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-486-58084-1Wayback MachineSantiago De Los CaballerosInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-929692-76-4Wayback MachineMicrosoft WordCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownThe Daily TelegraphIsraeli Ministry Of Foreign AffairsBBC NewsThe IndependentAndre BéteilleJSTORThe Times Of IndiaAgent 6John Lewis (Georgia Politician)Leon F. LitwackInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-944092-69-9Public DomainEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionProtest SongAbel MeeropolBillie HolidayInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-944092-69-1Manfred BergInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-56663-802-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-58544-416-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-252-06345-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1514382509Eric FonerInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-933121-18-0Thomas Nelson PageInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-252-06413-5Ida B. WellsDailykosNew York TimesTemplate:Racism TopicsTemplate Talk:Racism TopicsRacismRacial AntisemitismAversive RacismWhite SupremacyRacism In The LGBT CommunityInterminority Racism In The United StatesDiscrimination Based On Skin ColorHipster RacismShopping While BlackCovert RacismCultural RacismEnvironmental RacismGendered RacismInstitutional RacismInternalized RacismIslamophobiaRacial NationalismNew RacismNeo-racismReverse RacismRomantic RacismSexual RacismScientific RacismSocietal RacismSymbolic RacismAnti-miscegenation LawsHate SpeechEthnic StereotypeRacism In The Work Of Charles DickensRacist MusicRacism In Early American FilmCensored ElevenRacism In Horror FilmsEthnic PornographyCyber RacismRacial Bias On WikipediaRacism In SportBaseball Color LineRacism In Martial ArtsRacism In Association FootballAnti-bias CurriculumRacism In United States PoliticsEthnic JokeList Of Ethnic SlursSociology Of Race And Ethnic RelationsBiological DeterminismEthnic HatredRacial HierarchyCastaRacial PolarizationRacial QuotaHate Speech Laws In AustraliaHate CrimeEthnic ConflictRacism By CountryRacism In AfricaRacism In The Arab WorldRacism In AsiaRacism In AustraliaRacism In EuropeRacism In The Middle EastRacism In North AmericaRacism In South AmericaAnti-racismPsychometrics Of RacismSociology Of Race And Ethnic RelationsEthnic Plastic SurgeryPassing (racial Identity)Racial DemocracyRacial FetishismRace TraitorIndex Of Racism-related ArticlesList Of Anti-cultural, Anti-national, And Anti-ethnic TermsCategory:RacismTemplate:Lynching In The United StatesTemplate Talk:Lynching In The United StatesLynching In The United StatesLynching In The United StatesIndiana White CapsJim Crow LawsKu Klux KlanNadir Of American Race RelationsAnti-lynching MovementAmerican Crusade Against LynchingAssociation Of Southern Women For The Prevention Of LynchingDyer Anti-Lynching BillNational Association For The Advancement Of Colored PeopleIda B. WellsStrange FruitFlag SaluteJames Allen (collector)The Ox-Bow IncidentThe United States Of LyncherdomVendetta (1999 Film)And You Are Lynching NegroesCategory:Lynching In The United StatesCategory:Lynching Deaths In The United StatesCategory:American Anti-lynching ActivistsHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:LynchingCategory:VigilantismCategory:Physical PunishmentsCategory:Crowd PsychologyCategory:Extrajudicial Killings By TypeCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:CS1 Spanish-language Sources (es)Category:All Articles With Self-published SourcesCategory:Articles With Self-published Sources From December 2017Category:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2014Category:Pages Using Div Col Without Cols And Colwidth ParametersCategory:Pages Using Columns-list With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating A Citation From The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica With No Article ParameterCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating Text From The 1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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