Contents 1 Copyrightable elements of a film 2 Judicial interpretation of public domain 3 Documenting public domain status 3.1 Lack of renewal 3.2 Missing or flawed copyright notice 3.3 Date of publication 3.4 Work of the United States government 3.5 Determine copyright registration 3.6 Copyright renewal status 3.7 Underlying rights 4 Films 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography


Copyrightable elements of a film[edit] There is no official list of films (or other works) in the public domain. It is difficult to determine the public domain status of a film because it can incorporate any or all of the following copyrightable elements: Cinematography Drama Literature Music Art Graphical characters (e.g., Bugs Bunny)[2] Fictional characters (e.g., James Bond)[3] Film copyright involves the copyright status of multiple elements that make up the film.[4] A film can lose its copyright in some of those elements while retaining copyright in other elements.[4] Experts in the field of public domain sometimes differ in their opinions as to whether a particular film is in the public domain. The use of music in a film can cause uncertainty with regard to copyright. As of 2010, it is not known whether the use of music in a film constitutes publication of the music for the purpose of copyright.[5] Unpublished works are treated differently from published works under US copyright law.[6]


Judicial interpretation of public domain[edit] Judges, too, differ in their interpretation of the laws governing copyright protection. The United States is a “patchwork quilt” of inconsistent copyright rules in different federal judicial districts. The courts of one jurisdiction are not obliged to follow the decisions of another.[7] The Supreme Court of the United States (which could resolve those inconsistencies) very seldom decides copyright cases, and then only when an important principle is involved.[citation needed]


Documenting public domain status[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Screenshot of copyright notice that doesn't contain a claimant.[8] Expanded view of missing claimant.[8] If a film appears on the list below, there is a high probability it has lost some or all of its United States copyright protection or in the case of U.S. government films, was never protected by copyright. There is no single method for determining if a film, or parts of it, is in the public domain. There are several methods that can be used to document a film’s public domain status. These include the following: Lack of renewal[edit] Prior to 1988, all motion picture films published after 1909 with a copyright notice where the 28th year of copyright would occur before 1988, had to be registered and before the 28th year, the registration had to be renewed, or the copyright for the film would expire and it would enter the public domain. This would apply to all films registered for copyright prior to 1960. Copyright renewals became optional in 1988. Missing or flawed copyright notice[edit] Prior to 1978, films had to contain a valid copyright notice in order to claim copyright; at the bare minimum, the copyright notice had to list the word "copyright" (or, as an acceptable abbreviation, a circled C), the year of publication (which could not be more than one year ahead of the actual publication), and the name of the entity claiming the copyright. From 1978 to 1988, if a work was published without a notice, the creator had five years to claim a copyright by registering it with the U.S. Copyright Board.[8] For an example, note the case of the television series The New 3 Stooges, pictured. Episodes of the series were published with an incomplete copyright notice with a year and copyright symbol but no claimant. Had the series been published under the terms of the post-1988 Berne Convention, and automatic copyright granted, it would be an orphan work, since it would be unclear which of the three companies involved in its production; Cambria Studios, C3 Entertainment and Normandy Productions; could claim to own the series. Because it was published before the U.S. joined the Berne Convention, its laws requiring the claimant to be explicitly stated ensured the series immediately lapsed into the public domain. Date of publication[edit] All motion pictures made and exhibited before 1923 are indisputably in the public domain in the United States. Before the passage of the Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) in 1998, the term of copyright in the U.S. was a maximum of 75 years, with the work entering the public domain on January 1 of the 76th year from creation (so, for example, a film made in 1930 whose copyright was properly registered and renewed would enter the public domain on January 1, 2006). As such, all films released before 1923 would have entered the public domain by January 1, 1998. Although the CTEA added 20 years to the terms of all existing copyrights, it explicitly refused to revive any copyrights that had expired prior to its passage, meaning that films released in 1923 will not enter the public domain until January 1, 2019. Work of the United States government[edit] Main article: Copyright status of work by the U.S. government All copyrightable works made by United States government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain from their creation. The status of works made by contractors is dependent on the terms of their contract. Note that this applies only to the federal government, and not to state or local governments, which may or may not claim copyright depending on state laws.[citation needed] Determine copyright registration[edit] Motion picture copyright registrations prior to 1978 were published in semi-annual Copyright Catalogs. The Library of Congress also published cumulative Copyright Catalogs of motion picture registrations for the periods 1894–1911 1912–1939[9] 1940–1949 1950–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 All are out of print. However, the Film Superlist series is a complete reprint of all registrations in the Copyright Catalogs for 1894 through 1959. There is no cumulative Copyright Catalog for 1970–1977; the Copyright Office published 16 semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets covering that eight-year period, but all are out of print and extremely rare. All copyright registrations from 1978 onward are online at the Library of Congress website. Some decades of The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures include copyright registration information for feature films (not shorts) of United States origin. This can include a statement that research failed to disclose copyright registration for a particular film. Copyright registration information is given in the following: The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures, 1931–1940; ISBN 0-913616-00-1 The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures, 1941–1950; ISBN 0-913616-39-7 The United States copyright website catalogs all the works prior to 1978 that have been renewed.[10] Several pieces of work have been renewed in the form of collections, thus giving the collection as a whole copyright protection. Copyright renewal status[edit] For films registered in 1923–1963 inclusive, it is essential to know the renewal status. The semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets have virtually complete (at least 99.99%) lists of renewals for the films registered 28 years earlier. Those semi-annual booklets all are out of print. However, for 1923 through 1959, the Film Superlist books match copyright renewals with earlier registrations. Copyright registrations and renewals can be found in Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain 1894–1939 (Volume 1) Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain 1940–1949 (Volume 2) Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain 1950–1959 (Volume 3) In 1992, Congress changed the copyright law to make renewal automatic for copyrights registered in 1964 and later. Underlying rights[edit] Many of the movies listed below are based on plays, novels, magazine stories or a combination of those sources. In some cases, a film’s copyright has lapsed because of non-renewal while the underlying literary or dramatic source is still protected by copyright. For example, the movie His Girl Friday (1940) became a public domain film in 1969 because it was not renewed, but it is based on the 1928 play The Front Page, which is still under copyright until 2024 and thus as a practical matter the film cannot be used without permission.[4]


Films[edit] All films that were released before 1923 are now in the public domain in the United States. They are not listed here in order to keep this list to a manageable size. See Category:Films by year for pre-1923 films. Note: This list is not comprehensive; the vast majority of public domain films are not listed here. This list includes a selection of notable films where a reliable secondary source is available that discusses public domain status. Film title Release year Director Studio / Distributor Entered PD in (year) Reason for entering PD Note(s) Abraham Lincoln 1930 D.W. Griffith United Artists 1958[11] Failure to renew copyright.[11] Action at Anguar 1945 N/A United States Army Pictorial Services 1945 Work of the United States Government[G] Africa Screams 1949 Charles Barton United Artists 1970s [Data unknown/missing.][12] The Amazing Mr. X 1948 Bernard Vorhaus Eagle-Lion [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][13] Also known as The Spiritualist. Angel and the Badman 1947 James Edward Grant Republic Pictures 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[14] The Animal Kingdom 1932 Edward H. Griffith RKO Radio Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Algiers 1938 John Cromwell United Artists 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Attack of the Giant Leeches 1959 Bernard L. Kowalski American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][16] Beau Brummel 1924 Harry Beaumont Warner Brothers 1952 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Beau Ideal 1931 (copyright notice: 1930) Herbert Brenon RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Behind Office Doors 1931 Melville W. Brown RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Bird of Paradise 1932 King Vidor RKO Radio Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Birth of the B-29 1942–1944 N/A United States Army Pictorial Services 1945 Work of the United States Government[G] Blood on the Sun 1945 Frank Lloyd United Artists 1973 Failure to renew copyright.[14] Blue Steel 1934 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Bowery at Midnight 1942 Wallace Fox Monogram Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][19] The Brain that Wouldn't Die 1962 (completed: 1959) Joseph Green American International Pictures 1962 Missing copyright notice[20] Originally completed in 1959 under the title The Black Door or The Head that Wouldn't Die, it was not released until May 3, 1962 where failure to add the copyright notice resulted in the film entering the public domain.[20] Brideless Groom 1947 Edward Bernds Columbia Pictures 1960s[21] Failure to renew copyright.[21] A Bucket of Blood 1959 Roger Corman American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][22] Carnival of Souls 1962 Herk Harvey Herts-Lion International Corp. 1962 Missing copyright notice[23] Charade 1963 Stanley Donen Universal Pictures 1963 Missing full copyright notice.[24] Original music still in copyright.[25] Original story by Peter Stone still in copyright.[24][26] Film remade in 2002 as The Truth About Charlie. Check and Double Check 1930 Melville W. Brown RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[27] Combat America 1943 Clark Gable Office of War Information 1943 Work of the United States Government[G] Conspiracy 1930 Christy Cabanne RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Cyrano de Bergerac 1950 Michael Gordon United Artists 1980s [Data unknown/missing.][28] The Dance of Life 1929 John Cromwell Paramount Pictures 1957 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Danger Lights 1930 George B. Seitz RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] The Deadly Companions 1961 Sam Peckinpah Pathé-America 1961 Missing copyright notice[29] Debbie Does Dallas 1978 Jim Clark VCX 1981 Missing copyright notice[30] Dallas Cowboys hold veto power on commercial publication due to unauthorized use of their cheerleaders' trademarks.[31] Dementia 13 1963 Francis Ford Coppola American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][16] Also known as The Haunted and the Hunted. Detour 1945 Edgar G. Ulmer Producers Releasing Corporation [Data unknown/missing.] Failure to renew copyright.[32] The Devil Bat 1940 Jean Yarbrough Producers Releasing Corporation [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][19] Disorder in the Court 1936 Preston Black Columbia Pictures 1960s[21] Failure to renew copyright.[21] Dixiana 1930 Luther Reed RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[27] D.O.A. 1950 (copyright notice: 1949) Rudolph Maté United Artists 1977 Failure to renew copyright.[33] Remade in 1969 and 1988 Father's Little Dividend 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Vincente Minnelli MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] Farewell to Arms, AA Farewell to Arms 1932 Frank Borzage Paramount Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[35] Based on copyrighted (R177406) novel by Ernest Hemingway. The Fight for the Sky 1946 [Data unknown/missing.] Office of War Information 1946 Work of the United States Government[G] The General 1927 Clyde Bruckman Buster Keaton United Artists 1955 Failure to renew copyright.[36] Glen or Glenda 1953 Ed Wood Columbia Classics [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][37] The Gold Rush 1925 Charlie Chaplin United Artists 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[36] 1942 revised version in copyright. Original 1925 version possibly copyrighted.[38] Go for Broke! 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Robert Pirosh MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] Gulliver's Travels 1939 Dave Fleischer Paramount Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[39][40] Half Shot at Sunrise 1930 Paul Sloane RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Hemp for Victory 1942 Raymond Evans U.S. Department of Agriculture 1942 Work of the United States Government[G] His Girl Friday 1940 (copyright date: 1939) Howard Hawks Columbia Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[36] Source material (stage play The Front Page) rights copyright until 2024.[36] Hook, Line and Sinker 1930 Edward F. Cline RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1923 Wallace Worsley Universal Pictures 1951 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Indestructible Man 1956 Jack Pollexfen Allied Artists [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][41] Inside the Lines 1930 Roy Pomeroy RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] It's a Wonderful Life 1946 (copyright notice: 1947) Frank Capra Liberty Films RKO Pictures 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[42] While the film images are public domain, under rulings of Stewart v. Abend, the film text (script) is based on the copyrighted short story "The Greatest Gift".[42][43][44] Republic also purchased exclusive rights to the movie’s copyrighted music to further shore up its rights.[45] Japanese Relocation 1942 Milton S. Eisenhower Office of War Information 1942 Work of the United States Government[G] Kept Husbands 1931 Lloyd Bacon RKO Radio Productions 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[17] The Lady Refuses 1931 George Archainbaud RKO Radio Productions 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Lady to Love, AA Lady to Love 1930 Victor Sjöström MGM 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film The Secret Hour (1928) based on the same play.[15] Last Clear Chance 1959 Robert Carlisle Union Pacific Railroad 1959 Not registered for copyright.[46] The Last Man on Earth 1964 Ubaldo Ragona, Sidney Salkow American International Pictures, 20th Century Fox 1992[47] Failure to renew copyright.[47] The Last Time I Saw Paris 1954 (copyright notice: 1944) Richard Brooks MGM 1972 Defective copyright notice.[48] Music score still protected by copyright.[49] Lawful Larceny 1930 Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Leathernecking 1930 Edward F. Cline RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] This is a lost film. Letter of Introduction 1938 John M. Stahl Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[50] Little Lord Fauntleroy 1936 John Cromwell United Artists, Selznick [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][51] The Little Princess 1939 Walter Lang 20th Century Fox 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[42] Little Shop of HorrorsThe Little Shop of Horrors 1960 Roger Corman Filmgroup 1988 Failure to renew copyright.[36][52] Lonely Wives 1931 Russell Mack RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Love Affair 1939 Leo McCarey RKO Radio Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[15] The Lucky Texan 1934 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Malice in the Palace 1949 Jules White Columbia Pictures 1960s[21] Failure to renew copyright.[21] The Man from Utah 1934 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Maniac 1934 Dwain Esper Roadshow Attractions [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][53] Also known as Sex Maniac. Manos: The Hands of Fate 1966 Harold P. Warren Emerson Film Enterprises 1968 Failure to display copyright notice.[54] Original script may have been copyrighted.[54] March of the Wooden Soldiers 1950 Gus Meins Lippert Pictures 1950 Failure to display copyright notice.[24] This is a later abridgement of Babes in Toyland (1934), which is still in copyright. Public domain status unclear.[24] McLintock! 1963 Andrew V. McLaglen United Artists 1991 Failure to renew copyright.[55][56] Music score still under copyright.[55] Meet John Doe 1941 Frank Capra Warner Bros. 1969 Failure to renew copyright.[42] Millie 1931 John Francis Dillon RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Mr. Imperium 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Don Hartman MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] My Favorite Brunette 1947 Elliott Nugent Paramount Pictures 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[14] My Japan 1945 [Data unknown/missing.] Office of War Information 1945 Work of the United States Government[G] My Man Godfrey 1936 Gregory La Cava Universal Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][57] While the film images are public domain, under rulings of Stewart v. Abend, the film text (script) is based on the copyrighted 1935 book My Man Godfrey by Eric S. Hatch.[58] The Negro Soldier 1944 Frank Capra United States Army Pictorial Services 1944 Work of the United States Government[G] Night of the Living Dead 1968 George A. Romero Walter Reade 1968 Missing copyright notice and errors from the distributor[59] Remade in 1990 and 2006 Nothing Sacred 1937 William A. Wellman Selznick, United Artists 1965 Failure to renew copyright.[36] Of Human Bondage 1934 John Cromwell RKO Radio Pictures 1962 Failure to renew copyright.[15] The Outlaw 1943 Howard Hughes Howard Hughes Prod. 1971 Failure to renew copyright.[17] The Painted Hills 1951 Harold F. Kress MGM 1979 Failure to renew copyright.[34] The Pay-Off 1930 Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] The Phantom of the Opera 1925 Rupert Julian Universal Studios 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[52] Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor 1936 Dave Fleischer Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][60] First of three Popeye Technicolor two-reel specials. Private Snafu Series 1943-1946 Various Warner Bros., MGM, UPA, Harman-Ising Studio 1943-1946 Work of the United States Government[G] Rain 1932 Lewis Milestone United Artists 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[14] Randy Rides Alone 1934 Harry L. Fraser Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Reefer Madness 1936 Louis J. Gasnier Motion Picture Ventures 1936 Improper copyright notice.[61][62] Also called The Burning Question, Dope Addict, and Tell Your Children. Riders of Destiny 1933 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Road to Bali 1952 Hal Walker Paramount Pictures 1980 Failure to renew copyright on time.[63][64] Ancillary rights now owned by FremantleMedia. Rock, Rock, Rock! 1956 Will Price Distributors Corporation of America 1984 Failure to renew copyright.[52] The Chuck Berry soundtrack may not be in the public domain. The Royal Bed 1931 (copyright notice: 1930) Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Royal Wedding 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Stanley Donen MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] Sagebrush Trail 1933 Armand Schaefer Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[65] Remake of Partners of the Trail (Wallace Fox, 1931) Santa Claus Conquers the Martians 1964 Nicholas Webster Embassy Pictures Corporation [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][66] Santa Fe Trail 1940 Michael Curtiz Warner Bros. 1968 Failure to renew copyright.[67][68] The Screaming Skull 1958 Alex Nicol American International Pictures 1958 Not registered for copyright.[69][16] The Secret Hour 1928 Rowland V. Lee Paramount Pictures 1956 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film A Lady to Love (1930) based on the same play.[15] The Silver Horde 1930 George Archainbaud RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Sin Takes a Holiday 1930 Paul L. Stein RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[17] Sing a Song of Six Pants 1947 Jules White Columbia Pictures 1960s[21] Failure to renew copyright.[21] Sinners in Paradise 1938 James Whale Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[50] Smouldering Fires 1925 Clarence Brown Universal Pictures 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[52] The Snows of Kilimanjaro 1952 Henry King 20th Century Fox [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][70] Star Is Born, AA Star Is Born 1937 William A. Wellman Selznick, United Artists 1965 Failure to renew copyright.[35][36] Re-made in 1954 and 1976 The Star Packer 1934 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] The Strange Love of Martha Ivers 1946 Lewis Milestone Paramount Pictures 1974 Failure to renew copyright.[14] The Stranger 1946 Orson Welles International Pictures 1973 Failure to renew copyright.[71] Superman (1940s cartoons) 1941-1943 Dave Fleischer, Various Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing.][72] [Data unknown/missing.][72] Although all entries are in the public domain, ancillary rights such as merchandising contract rights, as well as the original 35mm master elements, are owned today by Warner Bros. Animation. Warner has owned Superman publisher DC Comics since 1969. Swing High, Swing Low 1937 Mitchell Leisen Paramount Pictures 1965 Failure to renew copyright.[15] Target for Today 1941 William Keighley First Motion Picture Unit 1941 Work of the United States Government[G] Target Nevada 1951 Unknown First Motion Picture Unit 1951 Work of the United States Government[G] Teenagers from Outer Space 1959 Tom Graeff Warner Bros. 1987 Failure to renew copyright.[36] The Terror 1963 Roger Corman American International Pictures, Filmgroup 1963 Missing copyright registration[73] In the early 1990s, Corman asked Mark Griffiths to shoot 12 minutes of additional footage starring Dick Miller, thus making a new film titled The Return of the Terror (1991) so Corman could claim his copyright.[74] That Justice Be Done 1945 George Stevens Office of War Information 1942–44 Work of the United States Government[G] Three Guys Named Mike 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Charles Walters MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] Till the Clouds Roll By 1946 Richard Whorf MGM 1974 Failure to renew copyright.[34] Topper Returns 1941 Roy Del Ruth United Artists 1969 Failure to renew copyright.[52] Vengeance Valley 1951 (copyright notice: 1950) Richard Thorpe MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[34] West of the Divide 1934 Robert N. Bradbury Lone Star Pictures [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.].[18] Wings for This Man 1945 [Data unknown/missing.] Office of War Information 1945 Work of the United States Government[G] White Zombie 1932 Victor Halperin United Artists [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.][75] Source material for the film may not be in the public domain.[76] Why We Fight 1942–1944 Frank Capra United States Army Pictorial Services 1942–44 Work of the United States Government[G] Wives Under Suspicion 1938 James Whale Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[50]


See also[edit] Film in the United States portal History of film List of open-source films Lists of films List of animated films in the public domain in the United States List of years in film Open-source film Outline of film List of public domain works with multimedia adaptations Public domain in the United States The Story of Film: An Odyssey


Notes[edit] G Public domain in the U.S. from creation as work of the United States government


References[edit] ^ "An Introduction to Films and Motion Pictures" at RoyaltyFreeMusic.com Retrieved August 4, 2009 ^ Rich, Lloyd L. (1998). "Protection of Graphic Characters". The Publishing Law Center. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2012-01-20.  ^ Adler, Kenneth A. (1999-10-01). "Using Dramatic Characters in Multimedia Works – Avoiding the Pitfalls". Thelen LLP. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ a b c Fishman (2010), p. 180. ^ Fishman (2010), p. 181. ^ Hirtle, Peter B. (2010-10-04). "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain (1940–1949), page xii. ^ a b c "Copyright Notice". Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site. Retrieved July 16, 2017.  ^ Catalog of Copyright Entries: Cumulative Series. Motion Pictures 1912-1939 (51,112 films), published in 1951. L.C. card, 51-60018. (copy) ^ "United States Copyright Office Public Catalog". Retrieved 2009-10-10.  ^ a b Paolo Cherchi Usai (2008). The Griffith Project: Essays on D.W. Griffith. British Film Institute. p. 208. Retrieved January 16, 2016.  ^ John M. Miller, "Africa Screams, Home Video Reviews", Turner Classic Movies  ^ Sullivan, Monica (1998). VideoHound's independent film guide. Visible Ink Press. pp. 12–13.  ^ a b c d e Pierce, David (March 29, 2001). Legal Limbo: How American Copyright Law Makes Orphan Films (mp3 in "file3"). Orphans of the Storm II: Documenting the 20th Century. Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pierce (2007), pp. 131-134. ^ a b c Smith, Gary A. (2009). The American International Pictures video guide. McFarland & Company. p. 8.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Pierce (2007), pp. 140-143. ^ a b c d e f g Eyman, Scott (2014). John Wayne. The Life and Legend. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4391-9958-9.  ^ a b Lennig, Arthur (2003). The Immortal Count: The Life and Films of Bela Lugosi. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 465.  ^ a b Nathaniel Thompson, "Cult Movies, The Brain that Wouldn't Die", Turner Classic Movies  ^ a b c d e f g h Hogan, David (2011). Three Stooges FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the Eye-Poking, Face-Slapping Head-Thumping Geniuses. Applause Theatre and Cinema Books.  ^ Coffel, Chris (24 November 2015). "HOME VIDEO[Blu-ray Review] 'A Bucket of Blood' is a Bucket of Fun!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Blake, Marc (2013). Writing the Horror Movie. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 91.  ^ a b c d Pierce (2007), p. 130. ^ Online search results for keywords "Henry Mancini Charade", from US Copyright Office. ^ The original story basis for Charade is The Unsuspecting Wife by Peter Stone and Marc Behm, which appeared in the July 1961 issue of Redbook magazine. The copyright to the story was renewed by Stone in 1989 (see source: David Pierce (2007), Note #20, pg. 141). ^ a b Pierce (2007), p. 137. ^ Marianne Gray (1991). Depardieu. Sinclair-Stevenson, Limited. p. 160. Retrieved January 20, 2016.  ^ Hal Erickson, "New DVDs, Peckinpah's Deadly Companions and Major Dundee", New York Times  ^ M & A Associates v. VCX, 657 F.Supp. 454, conclusions: 27 (United States District Court April 8, 1987) (“Although Arno asked Weisberg for copyright protection of the film in early 1979, Weisberg first became aware of the legal significance of the omission of the copyright notice from the film in January of 1981. Weisberg thus received "notice" of the defect at that latter date. See M. Kramer Mfg. Co. v. Andrews, 783 F.2d 421, 443 & n. 21 (4th Cir. 1986). Weisberg's failure to take reasonable [657 F.Supp. 463] efforts resulted in the film being irretrievably injected into the public domain "several months" later.”). ^ Miller, Jeffrey (2002). Ardor in the Court!: Sex and the Law. ECW Press. p. 152. ISBN 1-55022-528-6.  ^ Herzogenrath, Bernd (2009). The Films of Edgar G. Ulmer. Scarecrow Press. p. 151.  ^ Researching the Copyright Status of a Work from Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site ^ a b c d e f g h Pierce (2007), pp. 138-139. ^ a b Pierce (2007), pp. 134-137. ^ a b c d e f g h Fishman (2010), pp. 174-180. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group.  ^ [1] ^ John M. Miller, "Mr. Bug Goes to Town aka Hoppity Goes to Town", Turner Classic Movies  ^ David Kehr (March 6, 2009). "Classics From Disney and a Lilliputian Competitor". New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2013.  ^ Nathaniel Thompson, "The Indestructible Man, Cult Movies", Turner Classic Movies  ^ a b c d Pierce (2007), p. 126. ^ Cox, Stephen. It's a Wonderful Life: A Memory Book. Nashville, Tennessee: Cumberland House, 2003. 115. Print. ISBN 1-58182-337-1. Copyright of short story, The Greatest Gift, expires after 2038, 95 years after publication. ^ "Renewal Registrations, p. 1614." Catalog of Copyright Entries, January–June 1971, U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved: November 8, 2010. ^ Nesi, Ted. "Why You Can't Watch It's A Wonderful Life on Demand". WPRI.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ Prelinger, Rick (2006). The field guide to sponsored films. National Film Preservation Foundation. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-9747099-3-2.  ^ a b Jonathan Malcolm Lampley (2010). Women in the Horror Films of Vincent Price. McFarland. p. 98.  ^ Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site ^ Online results from keyword search: "Last Time I Saw Paris Conrad Salinger" in United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 17, 2012. ^ a b c Pierce (2007), p. 138. ^ Wright, Rebecca (14 June 2012). "Blu-ray Review: Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936)". Movie Gazette Online. Retrieved 20 January 2016.  ^ a b c d e Pierce (2007), p. 128. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group.  ^ a b THE BATTLE OVER THE WORST MOVIE EVER playboy.com accessed 2015-10-03 ^ a b "Court Rules for 'Goodtimes' in McLintock! Case", in Billboard, May 14, 1994,pg. 73 & 82 ^ Fishman (2010), p. 337. ^ Esther Rita Sinofsky (1988). A copyright primer for educational and industrial media producers. Copyright Information Services. p. 29. Retrieved January 20, 2016. But remember the underlying works may still be copyrighted  ^ "My Man Godfry". Stanford University Copyright Renewal Database. Retrieved January 20, 2016.  ^ Night of the Living Dead entered the public domain because the original theatrical distributor, the Walter Reade Organization, neglected to place a copyright indication on the prints. In 1968, United States copyright law required a proper notice for a work to maintain a copyright. See U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 92, Copyright Law of the United States of America, Chapter 4: Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Registration, Omission of notice on certain copies and phonorecords. Image Ten displayed such a notice on the title frames of the film beneath the original title, Night of the Flesh Eaters but the distributor removed the statement when it changed the title. See Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie (June 16, 2011). "Introduction: Generation Z, the Age of Apocalypse". In Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie. Generation Zombie: Essays on the Living Dead in Modern Culture. Jefferson, North Carolina, US: McFarland & Company. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-6140-0. Retrieved August 26, 2011.  ^ Grandinetti, Fred (2004). Popeye: an illustrated cultural history. McFarland & Company. p. 125.  ^ Shaye, Robert (May 22, 2003). "Graduation 2003".  ^ Anderson, Patrick (1981). High in America: the true story behind NORML and the politics of marijuana. The Viking Press. p. 101.  ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain (1950-1959), pages 287, 509. ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain (1940-1949), page viii. ^ Eyman, Scott (2014). John Wayne. The Life and Legend. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4391-9958-9.  ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group.  ^ Filmmakers Newsletter Volume 7, Suncraft International Incorporated, 1973  ^ Segrave, Kerry. Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry.  ^ "The Screaming Skull". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 6 April 2017.  ^ Hicks, Chris (March 8, 2007). "DVD reviews: Oldies make their DVD debut". Deseret News. Retrieved 2013-06-16. The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1952, color) has injured writer Gregory Peck going over his past to see if his life has meaning, with Ava Gardner and Susan Hayward. This one has been on many public-domain labels, but this is a pristine print and looks gorgeous.  ^ Gerald Peary (October 10, 2010). "He's on the hunt for lost movie treasures". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 29, 2015. Orson Welles’s “The Stranger’’ is their newest HD release, made feasible because the RKO picture has fallen into public domain.  ^ a b Rossen, Jake (2008). Superman Vs. Hollywood: How Fiendish Producers, Devious Directors, and Warring Writers Grounded an American Icon. Chicago Review Press.  ^ Ray, Fred Olen (1991). The New Poverty Row: Independent Filmmakers as Distributors. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 51.  ^ Stevens, Brad (2003). Monte Hellman: His Life and Films. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34.  ^ Rhodes, Gary D. (2001). White Zombie: Anatomy of a Horror Film. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 280.  ^ Ryan Turek (July 6, 2010). "What Happened to Tobe Hooper's White Zombie?". shocktillyoudrop.com. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 


Bibliography[edit] Fishman, Stephen (2010). The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More (5th ed.). Nolo (retrieved via Google Books). ISBN 1-4133-1205-5. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  Pierce, David (June 2007). "Forgotten Faces: Why Some of Our Cinema Heritage Is Part of the Public Domain". Film History: an International Journal. 19 (2): 125–43. doi:10.2979/FIL.2007.19.2.125. ISSN 0892-2160. JSTOR 25165419. OCLC 15122313.  Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_films_in_the_public_domain_in_the_United_States&oldid=817747196" Categories: Lists of filmsLists of American filmsPublic domain in the United StatesHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2013Articles needing additional references from June 2013All articles needing additional referencesArticles with unsourced statements from January 2012Pages using div col with deprecated parametersData missingArticles with hCards


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StahlLittle Lord Fauntleroy (1936 Film)John Cromwell (director)Selznick International PicturesThe Little Princess (1939 Film)Walter LangThe Little Shop Of HorrorsRoger CormanFilmgroupLonely WivesRussell MackLove Affair (1939 Film)Leo McCareyThe Lucky TexanRobert N. BradburyMalice In The PalaceJules WhiteThe Man From UtahRobert N. BradburyManiac (1934 Film)Dwain EsperManos: The Hands Of FateMarch Of The Wooden SoldiersGus MeinsLippert PicturesBabes In Toyland (1934 Film)McLintock!Andrew V. McLaglenMeet John DoeFrank CapraMillie (film)John Francis Dillon (director)Mr. ImperiumDon HartmanMy Favorite BrunetteElliott NugentMy JapanMy Man GodfreyGregory La CavaStewart V. AbendThe Negro SoldierFrank CapraNight Of The Living DeadGeorge A. RomeroWalter ReadeNight Of The Living Dead (1990 Film)Night Of The Living Dead 3DNothing Sacred (film)William A. WellmanOf Human Bondage (1934 Film)John Cromwell (director)The OutlawHoward HughesThe Painted HillsHarold F. KressThe Pay-OffLowell ShermanThe Phantom Of The Opera (1925 Film)Rupert JulianPopeye The Sailor Meets Sindbad The SailorDave FleischerPopeyePrivate SnafuUPA (animation Studio)Harman-Ising StudioRain (1932 Film)Lewis MilestoneRandy Rides AloneHarry L. FraserReefer MadnessLouis J. GasnierRiders Of DestinyRobert N. BradburyRoad To BaliHal WalkerFremantleMediaRock, Rock, Rock (film)Rock, Rock, Rock (soundtrack)The Royal BedLowell ShermanRoyal WeddingStanley DonenSagebrush TrailArmand SchaeferWallace FoxSanta Claus Conquers The MartiansNicholas WebsterEmbassy Pictures CorporationSanta Fe Trail (film)Michael CurtizThe Screaming SkullAlex NicolThe Secret Hour (film)Rowland V. LeeThey Knew What They Wanted (play)A Lady To LoveThe Silver Horde (1930 Film)George ArchainbaudSin Takes A HolidayPaul L. 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