Contents 1 Backward compatibility 2 Version history 3 ISO standard 4 Reception 4.1 Choice of the RPM package format 4.2 Limitations on Debian 4.3 Quality of compliance test suites 5 See also 6 References 7 External links 7.1 Media


Backward compatibility[edit] LSB aims to make binaries portable The LSB is designed to be binary-compatible and produce a stable application binary interface (ABI) for independent software vendors. To achieve backward compatibility, each subsequent version is purely additive. In other words, interfaces are only added, not removed. The LSB adopted an interface deprecation policy to give application developers enough time in case an interface is removed from the LSB. This allows the developer to rely on every interface in the LSB for a known time and also to plan for changes, without being surprised. Interfaces are only removed after having been marked "deprecated" for at least three major versions, or roughly six years.[3] LSB 5.0 is the first major release that breaks backward compatibility with earlier versions.[4]


Version history[edit] 1.0: Initial release June 29, 2001. 1.1: Released January 22, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications (IA-32). 1.2: Released June 28, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications (PowerPC 32-bit). Certification began July 2002. 1.2.1: Released October 2002. Added Itanium. 1.3: Released December 17, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications (Itanium, Enterprise System Architecture/390, z/Architecture). 2.0: Released August 31, 2004 LSB is modularized to LSB-Core, LSB-CXX, LSB-Graphics, and LSB-I18n (not released) New hardware-specific specifications (PowerPC 64-bit, AMD64) Synchronized to Single UNIX Specification (SUS) version 3 2.0.1: Released October 21, 2004, ISO version of LSB 2.0, which included specification for all hardware architectures (except LSB-Graphics, of which only a generic version is available). 2.1: Released March 11, 2005. 3.0: Released July 1, 2005. Among other library changes: GNU C Library version 2.3.4 C++ ABI is changed to the one used by gcc 3.4 The core specification is updated to ISO POSIX (2003) Technical Corrigenda 1: 2005 3.1: Released October 31, 2005. This version has been submitted as ISO/IEC 23360. 3.2: Released January 28, 2008. This version has been submitted as ISO/IEC 23360. 4.0: Released November 11, 2008. This version contains the following features: GNU C Library version 2.4 Binary compatibility with LSB 3.x Easier to use SDK Support for newer versions of GTK and Cairo graphical libraries Java (optional module) Simpler ways of creating LSB-compliant RPM packages Crypto API (via the Network Security Services library) (optional module) 4.1: Released February 16, 2011:[5] Java removed[6] "Trial Use" modules from LSB 4.0, covering multimedia (ALSA), security (NSS) and desktop miscellaneous (xdg-utils) have been promoted as required submodules Updated GTK+, Cairo and CUPS libraries Three new test suites added 5.0: Released June 2, 2015 First major release that breaks backward compatibility with earlier versions (compatible with LSB 3.0, and mostly compatible with LSB 3.1 and later, with some exceptions[7]) Incorporates the changes made in FHS 3.0 Qt 3 library has been removed Evolved module strategy; LSB is modularized to LSB Core, LSB Desktop, LSB Languages, LSB Imaging, and LSB Trial Use


ISO standard[edit] The LSB is registered as an official ISO standard.[8] The main parts of it are: ISO/IEC 23360-1:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 1: Generic specification ISO/IEC 23360-2:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 2: Specification for IA-32 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-3:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 3: Specification for IA-64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-4:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 4: Specification for AMD64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-5:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 5: Specification for PPC32 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-6:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 6: Specification for PPC64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-7:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 7: Specification for S390 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-8:2006 Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 – Part 8: Specification for S390X architecture There is also ISO/IEC TR 24715:2006 which identifies areas of conflict between ISO/IEC 23360 (the Linux Standard Base 3.1 specification) and the ISO/IEC 9945:2003 (POSIX) International Standard.[9] ISO/IEC 23360 and ISO/IEC TR 24715 can be freely downloaded from ISO website.[10]


Reception[edit] While the LSB is a standard and without a competitor, it is followed only by few Linux distributions. For instance, only 21 distribution releases (versions) are certified for LSB version 4.0, notably Red Flag Linux Desktop 6.0, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0, SUSE Linux Enterprise 11, and Ubuntu 9.04 (jaunty);[11] even fewer are certified for version 4.1. The LSB has been criticized[12][13][14][15] for not taking input from projects, most notably the Debian project, outside the sphere of its member companies. Choice of the RPM package format[edit] The LSB specifies that software packages should either be delivered as an LSB-compliant installer,[16] or (preferably) be delivered in a restricted form of the RPM Package Manager format.[17] This choice of package format precludes the use of the many other, existing package formats not compatible with RPM. To address this, the standard does not dictate what package format the system must use for its own packages, merely that RPM must be supported to allow packages from third-party distributors to be installed on a conforming system. Limitations on Debian[edit] Debian has included optional support for the LSB early on, at version 1.1 in "woody" (3.0; July 19, 2002), 2.0 in "sarge" (3.1; June 6, 2005), 3.1 in "etch" (4.0; April 8, 2007), 3.2 in "lenny" (5.0; February 14, 2009) and 4.1 in "wheezy" (7; May 4, 2013). To use foreign LSB-compliant RPM packages, the end-user needs to use Debian's Alien program to transform them into the native package format and then install them. The LSB-specified RPM format has a restricted subset of RPM features—to block usage of RPM features that would be untranslatable to .deb with Alien or other package conversion programs, and vice versa, as each format has capabilities the other lacks. In practice, not all Linux binary packages are necessarily LSB-compliant, so while most can be converted between .rpm and .deb, this operation is restricted to a subset of packages. By using Alien, Debian is LSB-compatible for all intents and purposes, but according to the description of their lsb package,[18] the presence of the package "does not imply that we believe that Debian fully complies with the Linux Standard Base, and should not be construed as a statement that Debian is LSB-compliant."[18] Debian strived to comply with the LSB, but with many limitations.[19] However, this effort ceased around July 2015 due to lack of interest and workforce inside the project.[20] In September 2015, the Debian project confirmed that while support for Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) would continue, support for LSB had been dropped.[21] Ubuntu followed Debian in November 2015.[22] Quality of compliance test suites[edit] Additionally, the compliance test suites have been criticized for being buggy and incomplete—most notably, in 2005 Ulrich Drepper criticized the LSB for poorly written tests which can cause incompatibility between LSB-certified distributions when some implement incorrect behavior to make buggy tests work, while others apply for and receive waivers from complying with the tests.[23] He also denounced a lack of application testing, pointing out that testing only distributions can never solve the problem of applications relying on implementation-defined behavior.[23] For the vendors considering LSB certifications in their portability efforts, the Linux Foundation sponsors a tool that analyzes and provides guidance on symbols and libraries that go beyond the LSB.[24]


See also[edit] Linux portal Intel Binary Compatibility Standard (iBCS) POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface)


References[edit] ^ "Certifying an Application to the LSB". Linux Foundation. 2008. Archived from the original on July 15, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ "Package redhat-lsb". fedoraproject.org. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ "LSB Roadmap". Linux Foundation. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ "LSB 5.0 Release Notes". linuxfoundation.org. Retrieved 3 June 2015.  ^ djwm (10 March 2011). "Java removed from Linux Standard Base 4.1". Archived from the original on December 7, 2013.  ^ "Java removed from Linux Standard Base 4.1". h-online.com. March 10, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2015.  ^ "LSB 5.0 Release Notes: Qt 3 Removed". linuxfoundation.org. Retrieved 3 June 2015.  ^ "ISO/IEC 23360-1:2006 - Linux Standard Base (LSB) core specification 3.1 -- Part 1: Generic specification". Retrieved 2011-10-15.  ^ "ISO/IEC TR 24715:2006 - Information technology -- Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces -- Technical Report on the Conflicts between the ISO/IEC 9945 (POSIX) and the Linux Standard Base (ISO/IEC 23360)". Retrieved 2011-10-15.  ^ "ISO Publicly Available Standards". Retrieved 2011-10-15.  ^ Certified Products Product Directory on linuxbase.org (2015-01-12) ^ "bugs.debian.org".  ^ "linuxfoundation.org".  ^ "openacs.org".  ^ "osnews.com".  ^ "Chapter 22. Software Installation 22.1. Introduction". Linux Standard Base Core Specification 3.1. 2005.  ^ "Chapter 22. Software Installation 22.3. Package Script Restrictions". Linux Standard Base Core Specification 3.1. 2005.  ^ a b "Debian -- Details of package lsb in lenny (stable) -- Linux Standard Base 3.2 support package". Debian Project. 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ "Debian LSB". Debian Project. Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ "Debian LSB ML discussion". Debian Project. Retrieved 2015-09-12.  ^ "Debian dropping the Linux Standard Base". lwn.net.  ^ "lsb 9.20150917ubuntu1 source package in Ubuntu".  ^ a b Drepper, Ulrich (2005-09-17). "Do you still think the LSB has some value?". Retrieved 2010-04-26.  ^ "All About the Linux Application Checker". Linux Foundation. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 


External links[edit] linuxfoundation.org archives of the specification OLVER Test Suite for LSB - Open Linux Verification project Media[edit] Four Linux Vendors Agree On An LSB Implementation (slashdot) August 26, 1998 press release describing breakdown of teams (at the time) and who was involved, of historical interest Yes, the LSB Has Value - Response to Drepper (2005) by Jeff Licquia v t e Linux Linux kernel History Kernel Linus's Law Linux-libre Linux startup process Linux kernel oops Tux more… Controversies Criticism of Linux Criticism of desktop Linux GNU/Linux naming controversy Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate SCO and Linux Distributions General comparison Distributions list Netbook-specific comparison Distributions that run from RAM Lightweight Security-focused operating system Proprietary software for Linux Package manager Package format List of software package managers Organizations Linux Foundation Linux Mark Institute Linux User Group (LUG) Linux Documentation Project LinuxChix Linux Counter Adoption Desktop Embedded Mobile Gaming Linux range of use List of Linux adopters Media DistroWatch Free Software Magazine Full Circle Linux.com Linux Format Linux Gazette Linux Journal Linux Magazine LinuxUser Ubuntu User Linux Outlaws Linux Voice LugRadio LWN.net OMG! Ubuntu! Open Source For You Phoronix Revolution OS The Code Linux Linux kernel features Portal:Linux WikiProject Linux v t e Linux distributions Android Android-IA Android-x86 LineageOS CyanogenMod Remix OS Arch Antergos ArchBang ArchLabs Chakra Manjaro Linux Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Debian antiX Astra Linux Bharat Operating System Solutions Elive Devuan gNewSense HandyLinux Kali Linux Knoppix Parrot Security OS SparkyLinux SteamOS Tails Ubuntu Official: Edubuntu Kubuntu Lubuntu Ubuntu Budgie Ubuntu GNOME Ubuntu Kylin Ubuntu MATE Ubuntu Studio Xubuntu Other: Asturix Bodhi Linux elementary OS Linux Mint Pinguy OS Trisquel Fedora BLAG Linux and GNU Korora Red Hat CentOS ClearOS Linpus Linux Oracle Linux Qubes OS Rocks Cluster Distribution Scientific Linux SME Server Gentoo Calculate Linux Chromium OS Chrome OS Funtoo Linux Sabayon Linux Mandriva ALT Linux Mageia OpenMandriva Lx PCLinuxOS ROSA Linux Slackware Austrumi Linux DeLi Linux DNALinux Kongoni NimbleX Platypux Porteus Salix OS Slax TopologiLinux VectorLinux Zenwalk Other Alpine Linux CRUX Frugalware Linux GoboLinux GuixSD Lunar Linux NixOS openSUSE SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Puppy Linux Source Mage Solus Void Linux Uruk GNU/Linux Category Comparison List Commons v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 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