Contents 1 Important genera 2 Ecology 3 References 4 External links

Important genera[edit] Described genera containing liana species include: Gnetophyta Gnetum spp. Acanthaceae Mendoncia spp. Thunbergia spp. e.g. T. grandiflora, T. mysorensis Ancistrocladaceae Ancistrocladus spp. Annonaceae Artabotrys spp. Fissistigma spp. Uvaria spp. Apocynaceae Odontadenia spp. Strophanthus – several spp. including S. sarmentosus Arecaceae (Palmae) Calamoideae – rattans: several genera including: Calamus spp. Daemonorops spp. Araceae Pothos spp. (e.g. P. lancifolius) Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia spp. Bignoniaceae Anemopaegma spp. Capparaceae Capparis spp. Connaraceae Connarus spp. Dilleniaceae Doliocarpus spp.[2] (Neotropical "water vines") Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea spp.: the yam family (e.g. D. sylvatica) Fabaceae: perhaps not surprisingly, leguminous vines are well represented: – Caesalpinioideae Acacia some spp.: e.g. A. concinna "cat's claw" lianas (previously in Caesalpinia) including: Hultholia mimosoides Mezoneuron spp. Entada spp. (box beans) Pterolobium spp. – Cercidoideae Lasiobema and Phanera spp. (previously placed in Bauhinia): "monkey ladders" or "snake climbers" – Faboideae (Papilionoideae) Dalbergia armata: of subtropical Africa (note: many species in this genus are trees) Derris spp. Machaerium spp. Mucuna spp. (M. bennettii: the scarlet/red jade vine) Strongylodon spp. (includes S. macrobotrys: the jade vine) Flagellariaceae (order Poales) Flagellaria indica Loganiaceae Strychnos spp. e.g. S. axillaris Nepenthaceae Nepenthes spp. Oleaceae Jasminum spp. Polygalaceae Moutabea: especially M. aculeata Sapindaceae Paullinia spp. Rhamnaceae Ventilago spp. Ziziphus spp. Rubiaceae Uncaria spp. Rutaceae Toddalia asiatica Schlegeliaceae Schlegelia spp. Smilacaceae Smilax spp. Vitaceae Ampelopsis spp. Cissus spp. (e.g. C. hypoglauca), "water vines" Parthenocissus spp. Tetrastigma spp. Vitis spp.

Ecology[edit] Lianas compete intensely with trees, greatly reducing tree growth[5] and tree reproduction,[6] greatly increasing tree mortality,[7] preventing tree seedlings from establishing,[5] altering the course of regeneration in forests,[8] and ultimately affecting tree population growth rates.[9] Lianas also provide access routes in the forest canopy for many arboreal animals, including ants and many other invertebrates, lizards, rodents, sloths, monkeys, and lemurs. For example, in the Eastern tropical forests of Madagascar, many lemurs achieve higher mobility from the web of lianas draped amongst the vertical tree species. Many lemurs prefer trees with lianas for their roost sites.[10] Lianas also provide support for trees when strong winds blow.[11] However, they may be destructive in that when one tree falls, the connections made by the lianas may cause many other trees to fall.[11] As noted by Charles Darwin, because lianas are supported by other plants, they may conserve resources that other plants must allocate to the development of structure and use them instead for growth and reproduction. In general, lianas are detrimental to the trees that support them: growth rates are lower for trees with lianas, they directly damage hosts by mechanical abrasion and strangulation, render hosts more susceptible to ice and wind damage, and increase the probability that the host tree falls. Lianas also make the canopy of trees more accessible to animals which eat leaves. Because of these negative effects, trees which remain free of lianas are at an advantage; some species have evolved characteristics which help them avoid or shed lianas.[12]

References[edit] ^ "liana". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ a b Schnitzer, S. A.; Bongers, F. (2002). "The ecology of lianas and their role in forests". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (5): 223–230. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02491-6.  ^ Landers, Jackson (13 June 2017). "Tarzan's Favorite Mode of Travel, the Liana Vine, Chokes Off a Tree's Ability to Bear Fruit". Smithsonian. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ Lahaye, R.; Civeyrel, L.; Speck, T.; Rowe, N. P. (2005). "Evolution of shrub-like growth forms in the lianoid subfamily Secamonoideae (Apocynaceae s.l.) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biomechanics, and development". American Journal of Botany. 92 (8): 1381–96. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.8.1381. PMID 21646158.  ^ a b Schnitzer, S. A.; Carson. "Lianas suppress tree regeneration and diversity in treefall gaps". doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01480.x. PMID 20482581.  ^ Wright, S. J.; Jaramillo, A. M.; Pavon, J.; Condit, R.; Hubbell, S. P.; Foster, R. B. (2005). "Reproductive size thresholds in tropical trees: variation among individuals, species and forests". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 21 (3): 307–315. doi:10.1017/S0266467405002294.  ^ Ingwell, L. L.; Wright, S. J.; Becklund, K. K.; Hubbell, S. P.; Schnitzer, S. A. (2010). "The impact of lianas on 10 years of tree growth and mortality on Barro Colorado Island, Panama". Journal of Ecology. 98 (4): 879–887. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01676.x.  ^ Schnitzer, S. A.; Dalling, J. W.; Carson, W. P. (2000). "The impact of lianas on tree regeneration in tropical forest canopy gaps: Evidence for an alternative pathway of gap-phase regeneration". Journal of Ecology. 88 (4): 655–666. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.2000.00489.x.  ^ Visser, Marco D.; Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Jongejans, Eelke; de Kroon, Hans; Comita, Liza S.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Wright, S. Joseph; Zuidema, Pieter (2018). "Tree species vary widely in their tolerance for liana infestation: A case study of differential host response to generalist parasites". Journal of Ecology. 106 (2): 781–794. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12815. ISSN 0022-0477.  ^ Rendigs, A.; Radespiel, U.; Wrogemann, D.; Zimmermann, E. (2003). "Relationship between microhabitat structure and distribution of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in northwestern Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology. 24 (1): 47–64. doi:10.1023/A:1021494428294.  ^ a b Garrido-Pérez, E. I.; Dupuy, J. M.; Durán-García, R.; Gerold, G.; Schnitzer, S. A.; Ucan-May, M. (2008). "Structural effects of lianas and hurricane Wilma on trees in Yucatan peninsula, Mexico". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 24 (5): 559–562. doi:10.1017/S0266467408005221.  ^ Putz, F. E. (1984). "How trees avoid and shed lianas". Biotropica. 16 (1): 19–23. doi:10.2307/2387889. JSTOR 2387889. 

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