Contents 1 Early work 2 Collaborations with Cram and Goodhue 2.1 Commissions related to Goodhue 3 Commissions after Goodhue's death 3.1 Rockefeller Center 3.2 Other commissions 4 In popular culture 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes and references 7.1 Notes 7.2 References 8 External links


Early work[edit] Reredos of Saint Thomas Church, at Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street in New York City Lee Lawrie was born in Rixdorf, Germany, in 1877 and immigrated to the United States in 1882 as a young child with his family; they settled in Chicago. It was there, at the age of 14, that he began working for the sculptor Richard Henry Park. At the age of 15, in 1892 Lawrie worked as an assistant to many of the sculptors in Chicago, for their part in constructing the "White City" for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Following the completion of that work, Lawrie went East, where he became an assistant to William Ordway Partridge. During the next decade, he worked with other established sculptors: Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Philip Martiny, Alexander Phimister Proctor, John William Kitson and others. His work at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St Louis, 1904, under Karl Bitter, the foremost architectural sculptor of the time, allowed Lawrie to develop both his skills and his reputation as an architectural sculptor. Lawrie received a bachelor's degree in fine arts from Yale University in 1910. He was an instructor in Yale's School of Fine Arts from 1908 to 1919 and taught in the architecture program at Harvard University from 1910 to 1912.[4]


Collaborations with Cram and Goodhue[edit] Lawrie's collaborations with Ralph Adams Cram and Bertram Goodhue brought him to the forefront of architectural sculptors in the United States. After the breakup of the Cram, Goodhue firm in 1914, Lawrie continued to work with Goodhue until the architect died in 1924. He next worked with Goodhue’s successors. Lawrie sculpted numerous bas reliefs for El Fureidis,[5] an estate in Montecito, California designed by Goodhue. The bas reliefs depict the Arthurian Legends and remain intact at the estate today. The Nebraska State Capitol and the Los Angeles Public Library both feature extensive sculptural programs integrated with the surface, massing, spatial grammar, and social function of the building. Lawrie's collaborations with Goodhue are arguably the most highly developed example of architectural sculpture in American architectural history. Lawrie served as a consultant to the 1933-34 Century of Progress International Exposition in Chicago. He was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the National Academy of Design, and the Architectural League of New York. Among his many awards was the AIA Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects in 1921 and 1927, a medal of honor from the Architectural League of New York in 1931, and an honorary degree from Yale University. He served on the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts in Washington, DC from 1933 to 1937 and again from 1945 to 1950; it oversees federal public works and artwork in the city.[6] Commissions related to Goodhue[edit] Lawrie's work at Rockefeller Chapel, University of Chicago, circa 1929 Chapel at West Point, West Point, New York (Cram and Goodhue) Church of St. Vincent Ferrer, New York City (Cram and Goodhue) Pulpit and Lectern and Apse carvings at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, (Cram and Goodhue) reredos at Saint Thomas Church on Fifth Avenue in New York City (Cram and Goodhue) reredos at St. John's Episcopal Church (West Hartford, Connecticut) (Goodhue) Nebraska State Capitol, Lincoln, Nebraska (Goodhue) Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, California (Goodhue) Trinity English Lutheran Church, Fort Wayne, Indiana (Goodhue) National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C. (Goodhue) Rockefeller Chapel, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (Goodhue) Christ Church Cranbrook, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan (Goodhue) Church of the Heavenly Rest, New York City (Mayers Murray & Phillip)


Commissions after Goodhue's death[edit] Rockefeller Center[edit] Wisdom, 30 Rockefeller Plaza After Goodhue's death, Lawrie produced important and highly visible work under Raymond Hood at Rockefeller Center in New York City, which included the Atlas in collaboration with Rene Paul Chambellan. By November 1931 Hood said, "There has been entirely too much talk about the collaboration of architect, painter and sculptor." He relegated Lawrie to the role of a decorator.[7] Lawrie's most noted work is not architectural: it is the freestanding statue of Atlas, on Fifth Avenue at Rockefeller Center, standing a total 45 feet tall, with a 15-foot human figure supporting an armillary sphere.[8] At its unveiling, some critics were reminded of Benito Mussolini, while James Montgomery Flagg suggested that it looked as Mussolini thought he looked.[9] The international character of Streamline Moderne, embraced by Fascism as well as corporate democracy, lost favor during the Second World War. Featured above the entrance to 30 Rockefeller Plaza and axially behind the golden Prometheus, Lawrie's Wisdom is one of the most visible works of art in the complex. An Art Deco piece, it echoes the statements of power shown in Atlas and Paul Manship's Prometheus. Other commissions[edit] Allegorical relief panels called Courage, Patriotism and Wisdom over the entry doors to United States Senate chamber (done as part of the 1950 Federal-period remodeling of the Senate), Washington, D.C. Education Building (a.k.a. Forum Building) in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Louisiana State Capitol in Baton Rouge, Louisiana Peace Memorial at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania sculptural elements of the Fidelity Mutual Life Building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (now part of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, including the owl of wisdom, the dog of fidelity, the pelican of charity, the possum of protection, and the squirrel of frugality), architects Zantzinger, Borie and Medary Statue of George Washington, National Cathedral, Washington, D.C. Friezes for the Ramsey County Courthouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota Whatsoever a Man Soweth, fifth issue of the long running Society of Medalists. Two Egyptian bas-reliefs for the 1924 Hale Solar Laboratory in Pasadena, California National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception and the bronze doors of the John Adams Building at the Library of Congress Annex, both in Washington, D.C. Harkness Memorial Tower at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University Beaumont Tower at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan Kirk in the Hills Presbyterian in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan Bok Singing Tower in Mountain Lake, Florida, architects Zantzinger, Borie and Medary Designed sculptures for the Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial in Brittany, France, executed by Jean Juge of Paris and the French sculptor, Augustine Beggi. Hubbard Bell Grossman Pillot Memorial gravestone. World War I Memorial Flagstaff, Pasadena, California[10] Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Bridge, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania South pylon is inscribed with the date “1861,” 1930[11]


In popular culture[edit] His Atlas was featured on the cover of The New Yorker magazine for December 20 and 27, 2010.


Gallery[edit] Works by Lawrie George Washington statue - National Cathedral, Washington, DC Hubbard Bell Grossman Pillot Memorial, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Bridge, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, (1930) Bronze doors of the John Adams Building East doors, Library of Congress John Adams Building (1939) Sculpted bronze figures of Hermes and Itzamna (1939) Sculpted bronze figures of Nabu and Tahmurath (1939) Sculpted bronze figures of Odin and Quetzalcoatl (1939) Sculpted bronze figures of Ogma and Sequoyah (1939) Sculpted bronze figures of Cangjie (1939)


See also[edit] List of Saltus Award winners


Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit] ^ "Lee Lawrie, 85, Is Dead;Sculptor of Statue of Atlas" The New York Times, January 25, 1963 ^ UPI, "Atlas statue to get makeover in New York"[permanent dead link], NewsTrack, 4 May 2005 ^ Civic Art: A Centennial History of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2013 ^ Civic Art: A Centennial History of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts ^ http://www.montecitoparadise.com ^ Thomas E. Luebke, ed., Civic Art: A Centennial History of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2013): Appendix b, p. 548. ^ "'Wisdom with Sound and Light' by Lee Lawrie". Museum Planet. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  ^ Dianne L. Durante, Outdoor Monuments of Manhattan: A Historical Guide 2007:139ff. ^ Durante 2007:141 offers this and some further negative quotes from artists and critics in New York during the forties. ^ visited and photographed, September 2012 ^ Lawrie, Lee, Lee Lawrie: Sculpture, J.H. Jansen, Cleveland, Ohio, 1936, Plate 6 References[edit] Bok, Edward W., America's Taj Mahal: The Singing Tower of Florida, The Georgia Marble Company, Tate, Georgia c. 1929. Brown, Elinor L., Architectural Wonder of the World, State of Nebraska, Building Division, Lincoln, Nebraska 1978. Fowler, Charles F., Building a Landmark: The Capitol of Nebraska, Nebraska State Building Division, 1981. Garvey, Timothy Joseph, Lee Lawrie: Classicism and American Culture, 1919 - 1954, PhD. Thesis University of Minnesota 1980. Gebhard, David, The National Trust Guide to Art Deco in America, John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York 1996. Kvaran & Lockley, Guide to Architectural Sculpture of America, unpublished manuscript. Lawrie; Lee, Sculpture - 48 Plates With a Forward by the Sculptor, J.H. Hanson Cleveland, Ohio 1936. Luebke, Frederick C. Editor, A Harmony of the Arts: The Nebraska State Capitol, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska 1990. Masters, Magaret Dale, Hartley Burr Alexander—Writer-In-Stone, Margaret Dale Masters 1992 . Nelson, Paul D., Courthouse Sculptor: Lee Lawrie, Ramsey County History Quarterly V43 #4, *Ramsey County Historical Society, St Paul, MN, 2009. Oliver, Richard, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, The Architectural History Foundation, New York & The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1985. Whitaker, Charles Harris, Editor, Text by Lee Lawrie et al. Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Architect-and Master of Many Arts, Press of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., NYC 1925. Whitaker, Charles Harris and Hartley Burr Alexander, The Architectural Sculpture of the State Capitol at Lincoln Nebraska, Press of the American Institute of Architects, New York 1926.


External links[edit] Bisonwerks - Website of Gregory Paul Harm, Preeminent researcher on the history and works of Lawrie LeeLawrie.com - Additional Website of Gregory Paul Harm. Features additional Lawrie works recently added by Harm to the Smithsonian Institution's Art Inventory Catalog. Lee Lawrie - Stalking Lawrie: America's Machine Age Michelangelo. Lee Lawrie page on philart.net - pictures of artistic details on the Perelman building [1] - Lee Lawrie's Prairie Deco: History in Stone at the Nebraska State Capitol, new book on Lee Lawrie's work on the Nebraska State Capitol, which was Lawrie's largest commission of his 70-year career. For sale through Blurb.com [2] Article on Greg Harm's research and discoveries about Mr. Lawrie and his work on the Nebraska State Capitol. Lee Lawrie collection in process. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 121685316 LCCN: n87113773 ULAN: 500022620 RKD: 123193 SNAC: w6pc3090 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lee_Lawrie&oldid=819457174" Categories: 19th-century American sculptorsAmerican male sculptorsArt Deco sculptorsAmerican architectural sculptorsRockefeller family1877 births1963 deathsGerman emigrants to the United States20th-century American sculptorsArtists from BerlinArtists from ChicagoYale University alumniYale School of Art facultyHarvard University facultyNational Sculpture Society membersHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksPages to import images to WikidataArticles with hCardsWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ULAN identifiersWikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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