Contents 1 Examples 2 List of laterals 2.1 Approximants 2.2 Fricatives 2.3 Affricates 2.4 Flaps 2.5 Ejective 2.6 Clicks 3 Ambiguous centrality 4 Lateralized consonants 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Examples[edit] English has one lateral phoneme: the lateral approximant /l/, which in many accents has two allophones. One, found before vowels as in lady or fly, is called clear l, pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant [l] with a "neutral" position of the body of the tongue. The other variant, so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally, as in bold or tell, is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised, which gives the sound a [w]- or [ʟ]-like resonance. In some languages, like Albanian, those two sounds are different phonemes. East Slavic languages contrast [ɫ] and [lʲ] but do not have [l]. In many British accents (e.g. Cockney), dark [ɫ] may undergo vocalization through the reduction and loss of contact between the tip of the tongue and the alveolar ridge, becoming a rounded back vowel or glide. This process turns tell into something like [tɛɰ], as must have happened with talk [tɔːk] or walk [wɔːk] at some stage. A similar process happened during the development of many other languages, including Brazilian Portuguese, Old French, and Polish, in all three of these resulting in [ɰ] or [w], whence Modern French sauce as compared with Spanish salsa, or Polish Wisła (pronounced [viswa]) as compared with English Vistula. In central and Venice dialects of Venetian, intervocalic /l/ has turned into a semivocalic [e̯], so that the written word ła bała is pronounced [abae̯a]. The orthography uses the letter ł to represent this phoneme (it specifically represents not the [e̯] sound but the phoneme that is, in some dialects, [e̯] and, in others, [l]). Many aboriginal Australian languages have a series of three or four lateral approximants, as do various dialects of Irish. Rarer lateral consonants include the retroflex laterals that can be found in many languages of India[citation needed] and in some Swedish dialects, and the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/, found in many Native North American languages, Welsh and Zulu. In Adyghe and some Athabaskan languages like Hän, both voiceless and voiced alveolar lateral fricatives occur, but there is no approximant. Many of these languages also have lateral affricates. Some languages have palatal or velar voiceless lateral fricatives or affricates, such as Dahalo and Zulu, but the IPA has no symbols for such sounds. However, appropriate symbols are easy to make by adding a lateral-fricative belt to the symbol for the corresponding lateral approximant (see below). Also, a devoicing diacritic may be added to the approximant. Nearly all languages with such lateral obstruents also have the approximant. However, there are a number of exceptions, many of them located in the Pacific Northwest area of the United States. For example, Tlingit has /tɬ, tɬʰ, tɬʼ, ɬ, ɬʼ/ but no /l/.[1] Other examples from the same area include Nuu-chah-nulth and Kutenai, and elsewhere, Chukchi and Kabardian. Standard Tibetan has a voiceless lateral approximant, usually romanized as lh, as in the name Lhasa. A uvular lateral approximant has been reported to occur in some speakers of American English.[2] Pashto has a retroflex lateral flap.[citation needed] There are a large number of lateral click consonants; 17 occur in !Xóõ. Lateral trills are also possible, but they do not occur in any known language. They may be pronounced by initiating [ɬ] or [ɮ] with an especially forceful airflow. There is no symbol for them in the IPA. They are sometimes used to imitate bird calls, and they are a component of Donald Duck talk.

List of laterals[edit] Approximants[edit] Dental lateral approximant [l̪] Voiced alveolar lateral approximant [l] Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant [l̥] Retroflex lateral approximant [ɭ] Voiced palatal lateral approximant [ʎ] Voiceless palatal lateral approximant [ʎ̥] Velar lateral approximant [ʟ] Uvular lateral approximant [ʟ̠] Fricatives[edit] Voiceless dental lateral fricative [ɬ̪] (in Wahgi) Voiced dental lateral fricative [ɮ̪] (allophonic in Wahgi) Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ] (in Adyghe, Kabardian, Navajo, Welsh) Voiced alveolar lateral fricative [ɮ] (in Adyghe, Kabardian, Mongolian, Tigak) Voiceless retroflex lateral fricative [ɬ̢] (or [ꞎ]) (in Toda) Voiced retroflex lateral fricative [ɮ̢] (in Ao) Voiceless palatal lateral fricative [ʎ̥˔] (or []) (in Dahalo) Voiceless velar lateral fricative [ʟ̝̊] (or []) (in Archi, Nii, Wahgi) Voiced velar lateral fricative [ʟ̝] (in Archi, allophonic in Wahgi) Only the alveolar lateral fricatives have dedicated letters in the IPA. However, others appear in the extIPA. Affricates[edit] Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [tɬ] (in Navajo, Tlingit) Voiced alveolar lateral affricate [dɮ] (allophonically in Zulu and Xhosa) Voiceless palatal lateral affricate [cʎ̥˔] (or [c]) (perhaps prepalatal in Sandawe and Hadza) Voiced palatal lateral affricate [ɟʎ̝] (perhaps prepalatal in Sandawe) Voiceless velar lateral affricate [kʟ̝̊] (or [k]) (in Archi, Laghuu, Qila Muji) Voiced velar lateral affricate [ɡʟ̝] (in Laghuu, Qila Muji) Flaps[edit] Alveolar lateral flap [ɺ] (in Wayuu) Voiceless alveolar lateral flap [ɺ̥] (in Wahgi) Retroflex lateral flap [ɺ̢] (or []) (in Pashto, Iwaidja) Voiceless retroflex lateral flap [ɺ̢̥] (or [̥]) (allophonic in Wahgi) Palatal lateral flap [ʎ̯] (in Iwaidja) Velar lateral flap [ʟ̆] (in Kanite and Melpa) Ejective[edit] Alveolar lateral ejective fricative [ɬ’] (in Adyghe, Kabardian, Tlingit) Alveolar lateral ejective affricate [tɬʼ] (in Baslaney, Navajo, Tlingit) Palatal lateral ejective affricate [cʎ̥˔ʼ] (or [cʼ]) (in Dahalo, Sandawe, Hadza) Velar lateral ejective affricate [kʟ̝̊ʼ] (or [kʼ]) (in Archi, Gǀwi, Zulu) Clicks[edit] Alveolar lateral clicks [ ǁ ], [ᶢǁ ], [ᵑǁ ], etc. (in all five Khoisan families and several Bantu languages)

Ambiguous centrality[edit] The IPA requires sounds to be defined as to centrality, as either central or lateral. However, languages may be ambiguous as to some consonants' laterality.[3]

Lateralized consonants[edit] A superscript ⟨ˡ⟩ is defined as lateral release. Consonants may also be pronounced with simultaneous lateral and central airflow. This is well-known from speech pathology with a lateral lisp. However, it also occurs in nondisordered speech in some southern Arabic dialects and possibly some Modern South Arabian languages, which have pharyngealized nonsibilant /ʪˤ/ and /ʫˤ/ (simultaneous [θ͜ɬˤ] and [ð͡ɮˤ]) and possibly a sibilant /ʪ/ (simultaneous [s͜ɬ]). Examples are /θˡˤaim/ 'pain' in the dialect of Al-Rubu'ah and /ðˡˤahr/ 'back' and /ðˡˤabʕ/ 'hyena' in Rijal Alma'.[4] [5] (Here the ⟨ˡ⟩ indicates simultaneous laterality rather than lateral release.) Old Arabic has been analyzed as having the emphatic central–lateral fricatives [θ͜ɬˤ], [ð͡ɮˤ] and [ʃ͡ɬˤ].[6]

See also[edit] Delateralization Lateral release (phonetics) List of phonetics topics

Notes[edit] ^ Some older Tlingit speakers have [l], as an allophone of /n/. This can also be analyzed as phonemic /l/ with an allophone [n]. ^ Gimson (2014:221) ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 243. ^ Heselwood (2013) Phonetic transcription in theory and practice, p 122–123 ^ Janet Watson. "Lateral fricatives and lateral emphatics in southern Saudi Arabia and Mehri".  ^ Potet (2013) Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog, p. 89 ff.

References[edit] Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092  Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  v t e International Phonetic Alphabet (chart) IPA topics IPA International Phonetic Association History of the IPA Extensions to the IPA Voice Quality Symbols Kiel convention (1989) Journal of the IPA (JIPA) Naming conventions Phonetics Diacritics Segments Tone letter Place of articulation Manner of articulation Special topics Cursive forms Case variants Obsolete and nonstandard symbols IPA chart for English dialects World Orthography Encodings SAMPA X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum TIPA Phonetic symbols in Unicode WorldBet IPA Braille Consonants Pulmonic consonants Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal Manner ↓ Bi­labial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Post­alveolar Retro­flex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn­geal/Epi­glottal Glottal Nasal m̥ m ɱ n̼ n̥ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ Stop p b p̪ b̪ t̼ d̼ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Sibilant affricate ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ t̠ɕ d̠ʑ Non-sibilant affricate pɸ bβ p̪f b̪v t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ cç ɟʝ kx ɡɣ qχ ʡʢ ʔh Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ Approximant ʋ̥ ʋ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j̊ j ɰ̊ ɰ ʔ̞ Flap/tap ⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̆ Trill ʙ̥ ʙ r̥ r ɽ̊ɽ̊ ɽɽ ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ Lateral affricate tɬ dɮ ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̝̊ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝ Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝ Lateral approximant l̥ l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ ʟ̠ Lateral flap/tap ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̆ ʟ̆ help full chart template Where symbols appear in pairs, the leftmost represents a voiceless consonant, and the rightmost represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged to be impossible. Non-pulmonic consonants Bi­labial Labio­dental Dental Alveolar Post­alveolar Retro­flex Palatal Velar Uvular Epi­glottal Glottal Ejectives Stop pʼ tʼ ʈʼ cʼ kʼ qʼ ʡʼ Affricate t̪θʼ tsʼ t̠ʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ qχʼ Lateral affricate tɬʼ cʎ̝̊ʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ Fricative fʼ θʼ sʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ xʼ χʼ Lateral fricative ɬʼ Clicks Nasal ʘ̃ ǀ̃ ǃ̃ ǃ̃˞ ǂ̃ ◌̃ˀ Stop ʘ ʘ̬ ǀ ǀ̬ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǂ ǂ̬ ʞ ◌ˀ Lateral nasal ǁ̃ Lateral fricative ǁ ǁ̬ Implosive ɓ̥ ɓ ɗ̥ ɗ ᶑ̥ ᶑ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ̊ ɠ ʛ̥ ʛ help full chart template Co-articulated consonants Nasals n͡m Labial–alveolar ŋ͡m Labial–velar Stops t͡p Labial–alveolar (voiceless) d͡b Labial–alveolar (voiced) k͡p Labial–velar (voiceless) ɡ͡b Labial–velar (voiced) q͡ʡ Uvular–epiglottal Fricatives ɧ Sj-sound Approximants ʍ Labialized velar (voiceless) w Labialized velar (voiced) ɫ Velarized alveolar (lateral) ɥ̊ Labialized palatal (voiceless) ɥ Labialized palatal (voiced) help full chart template Vowels Front Near-front Central Near-back Back Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u ɪ ʏ ɪ̈ ʊ̈ ɯ̽ ʊ e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o e̞ ø̞ ə ɵ̞ ɤ̞ o̞ ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ æ ɐ ɞ̞ a ɶ ä ɒ̈ ɑ ɒ Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open help full chart template Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded Retrieved from "" Categories: Manner of articulationLateral consonantsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2012Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008Articles with wanted PUA characters

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IPA NumberManner Of ArticulationObstruentStop ConsonantAffricate ConsonantFricative ConsonantSibilantSibilantSonorantNasal ConsonantApproximant ConsonantSemivowelVowelVibrant ConsonantFlap ConsonantTrill ConsonantLiquid ConsonantRhotic ConsonantOcclusiveContinuantAirstream MechanismEgressive SoundIngressive SoundEjective ConsonantImplosive ConsonantNonexplosive StopClick ConsonantPulmonic-contour ClicksEjective-contour ClicksPercussive ConsonantArticulatory PhoneticsAspirated ConsonantNo Audible ReleasePhonationPlace Of ArticulationVoice (phonetics)VoicelessnessTemplate:Manner Of ArticulationTemplate Talk:Manner Of ArticulationConsonantAirstream MechanismDental ConsonantAlveolar ConsonantApproximantLiquid ConsonantFricative ConsonantAffricate ConsonantIwaidjaIlgarAustraliaLateral FlapXhosa LanguageZulu LanguageAfricaLateral ClicksLabiodental ConsonantPlosive ConsonantLateral Release (phonetics)Nasal ConsonantLateral Nasal ClickLaryngeal ConsonantsPlaces Of ArticulationAllophoneAlveolar 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LanguageMelpa LanguageAlveolar Lateral Ejective FricativeAdyghe LanguageKabardian LanguageTlingit LanguageAlveolar Lateral Ejective AffricateBesleneyPalatal Lateral Ejective AffricateDahalo LanguageVelar Lateral Ejective AffricateArchi LanguageGǀwi LanguageZulu LanguageAlveolar Lateral ClickKhoisan LanguagesBantu LanguagesLateral Release (phonetics)Lateral LispArabic DialectsModern South Arabian LanguagesOld ArabicDelateralizationLateral Release (phonetics)List Of Phonetics TopicsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781444183092Peter LadefogedIan MaddiesonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-631-19814-8Template:IPA NavigationTemplate Talk:IPA NavigationInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic Alphabet ChartInternational Phonetic AssociationHistory Of The International Phonetic AlphabetExtensions To The International Phonetic AlphabetVoice Quality SymbolsInternational Phonetic Association Kiel ConventionJournal Of The International 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NasalsVoiceless Retroflex NasalRetroflex NasalVoiceless Palatal NasalPalatal NasalVoiceless Velar NasalVelar NasalUvular NasalStop ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial StopVoiced Bilabial StopVoiceless Labiodental StopVoiced Labiodental StopVoiceless Linguolabial StopVoiced Linguolabial StopVoiceless Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiceless Retroflex StopVoiced Retroflex StopVoiceless Palatal StopVoiced Palatal StopVoiceless Velar StopVoiced Velar StopVoiceless Uvular StopVoiced Uvular StopEpiglottal StopGlottal StopSibilant ConsonantAffricate ConsonantVoiceless Alveolar AffricateVoiced Alveolar AffricateVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateVoiced Palato-alveolar AffricateVoiceless Retroflex AffricateVoiced Retroflex AffricateVoiceless Alveolo-palatal AffricateVoiced Alveolo-palatal AffricateAffricate ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial AffricateVoiced Bilabial AffricateVoiceless Labiodental AffricateVoiced Labiodental AffricateVoiceless Dental Non-sibilant AffricateVoiced 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FricativeVoiced Postalveolar Non-sibilant FricativeVoiced Retroflex Non-sibilant FricativeVoiceless Palatal FricativeVoiced Palatal FricativeVoiceless Velar FricativeVoiced Velar FricativeVoiceless Uvular FricativeVoiced Uvular FricativeVoiceless Pharyngeal FricativeVoiced Pharyngeal FricativeVoiceless Glottal FricativeVoiced Glottal FricativeApproximant ConsonantVoiceless Labiodental ApproximantLabiodental ApproximantVoiceless Alveolar And Postalveolar ApproximantsAlveolar And Postalveolar ApproximantsVoiceless Retroflex ApproximantRetroflex ApproximantVoiceless Palatal ApproximantPalatal ApproximantVoiceless Velar ApproximantVoiced Velar ApproximantCreaky-voiced Glottal ApproximantFlap ConsonantBilabial FlapLabiodental FlapLinguolabial TapVoiceless Alveolar FlapDental And Alveolar FlapsVoiceless Retroflex FlapRetroflex FlapUvular FlapEpiglottal FlapTrill ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial TrillBilabial TrillVoiceless Alveolar TrillDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsVoiceless Retroflex TrillRetroflex TrillVoiceless Uvular TrillUvular TrillVoiceless Epiglottal TrillVoiced Epiglottal TrillAffricate ConsonantVoiceless Alveolar Lateral AffricateVoiced Alveolar Lateral AffricateVoiceless Retroflex Lateral AffricateVoiceless Palatal Lateral AffricateVoiceless Velar Lateral AffricateVoiced Velar Lateral AffricateFricative ConsonantVoiceless Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesVoiced Dental And Alveolar Lateral FricativesVoiceless Retroflex Lateral FricativeVoiceless Palatal Lateral FricativeVoiced Palatal Lateral FricativeVoiceless Velar Lateral FricativeVoiced Velar Lateral FricativeApproximant ConsonantVoiceless Dental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsVoiceless Retroflex Lateral ApproximantRetroflex Lateral ApproximantVoiceless Palatal Lateral ApproximantPalatal Lateral ApproximantVoiceless Velar Lateral ApproximantVelar Lateral ApproximantUvular Lateral ApproximantLateral FlapDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral FlapsRetroflex Lateral FlapPalatal Lateral FlapVelar Lateral TapHelp:IPAInternational Phonetic Alphabet ChartTemplate:IPA Pulmonic ConsonantsVoiceless ConsonantVoiced ConsonantBilabial ConsonantLabiodental ConsonantDental ConsonantAlveolar ConsonantPostalveolar ConsonantRetroflex ConsonantPalatal ConsonantVelar ConsonantUvular ConsonantEpiglottal ConsonantGlottal ConsonantEjective ConsonantStop ConsonantBilabial EjectiveDental And Alveolar EjectivesRetroflex EjectivePalatal EjectiveVelar EjectiveUvular EjectiveEpiglottal EjectiveAffricate ConsonantDental Ejective AffricateAlveolar Ejective AffricatePalato-alveolar Ejective AffricateRetroflex Ejective AffricateVelar Ejective AffricateUvular Ejective AffricateAffricate ConsonantAlveolar Lateral Ejective AffricatePalatal Lateral Ejective AffricateVelar Lateral Ejective AffricateFricative ConsonantLabiodental Ejective FricativeDental Ejective FricativeAlveolar Ejective FricativePalato-alveolar Ejective FricativeRetroflex Ejective FricativeAlveolo-palatal Ejective FricativeVelar Ejective FricativeUvular Ejective FricativeFricative ConsonantAlveolar Lateral Ejective FricativeClick ConsonantNasal ConsonantBilabial Nasal ClickDental Nasal ClickAlveolar Nasal ClickRetroflex Nasal ClickPalatal Nasal ClickGlottalized ClicksStop ConsonantTenuis Bilabial ClickVoiced Bilabial ClickTenuis Dental ClickVoiced Dental ClickTenuis Alveolar ClickVoiced Alveolar ClickVoiceless Retroflex ClickVoiced Retroflex ClickTenuis Palatal ClickVoiced Palatal ClickBack-released Velar ClickGlottalized ClicksNasal ConsonantAlveolar Lateral Nasal ClickFricative ConsonantTenuis Alveolar Lateral ClickVoiced Alveolar Lateral ClickImplosive ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial ImplosiveVoiced Bilabial ImplosiveVoiceless Alveolar ImplosiveVoiced Alveolar ImplosiveVoiceless Retroflex ImplosiveVoiced Retroflex ImplosiveVoiceless Palatal ImplosiveVoiced Palatal ImplosiveVoiceless Velar ImplosiveVoiced Velar ImplosiveVoiceless Uvular ImplosiveVoiced Uvular ImplosiveHelp:IPAInternational Phonetic Alphabet ChartTemplate:IPA Non-pulmonic ConsonantsCo-articulated ConsonantNasal ConsonantLabial–coronal ConsonantLabial–velar NasalStop ConsonantLabial–coronal ConsonantVoiceless Labial–velar StopVoiced Labial–velar StopUvular–epiglottal ConsonantFricative ConsonantSj-soundApproximant ConsonantVoiceless Labialized Velar ApproximantVoiced Labio-velar ApproximantVelarized Alveolar Lateral ApproximantVoiceless Labialized Palatal ApproximantLabialized Palatal ApproximantHelp:IPAInternational Phonetic Alphabet ChartTemplate:IPA Co-articulated ConsonantsVowelFront VowelNear-front VowelCentral VowelNear-back VowelBack VowelClose VowelClose Front Unrounded VowelClose Front Rounded VowelClose Central Unrounded VowelClose Central Rounded VowelClose Back Unrounded VowelClose Back Rounded VowelNear-close Near-front Unrounded VowelNear-close Near-front Rounded VowelNear-close Central Unrounded VowelNear-close Central Rounded VowelNear-close Near-back Unrounded VowelNear-close Near-back Rounded VowelClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelClose-mid Front Rounded VowelClose-mid Central Unrounded VowelClose-mid Central Rounded VowelClose-mid Back Unrounded VowelClose-mid Back Rounded VowelMid Front Unrounded VowelMid Front Rounded VowelMid Central VowelMid Central VowelMid Back Unrounded VowelMid Back Rounded VowelOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Front Rounded VowelOpen-mid Central Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Central Rounded VowelOpen-mid Back Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelNear-open Front Unrounded VowelNear-open Central Unrounded VowelNear-open Central Rounded VowelOpen Front Unrounded VowelOpen Front Rounded VowelOpen Central Unrounded VowelOpen Central Rounded VowelOpen Back Unrounded VowelOpen Back Rounded VowelNear-close VowelClose-mid VowelMid VowelOpen-mid VowelNear-open VowelOpen VowelHelp:IPAInternational Phonetic Alphabet ChartTemplate:IPA 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