Contents 1 Joseph's reform 1.1 Outcomes 2 Bakenranef's reform 2.1 Outcomes 3 Sources

Joseph's reform[edit] In the middle of Cycle 2, at about 1500 BC, shortly after the beginning of the New Kingdom, a land-concentration reform was carried out by Joseph the vizier of the pharaoh: 13 And there is no bread over the whole Earth, because the famine is very heavy; and the Land of Egypt and the land of Canaan shrank from the face of the hunger. 14 And Joseph accumulated all the money which is found in the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan, selling grain that they are purchasing, and Joseph brought the money to the house of Pharaoh. 15 And when the money from the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan was gone, all Egypt came to Joseph to say: "Give us bread, and why should we die facing you: because we ran out of money." 16 And Joseph said: "Bring your herds, and I will give to you for your herds-- if your money is gone." 17 And they brought their herds to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread on their horses and the herds of sheep and the herds of cattle, and the donkeys; and dealt them bread for all their cattle, in that year. 18 And that year ended, and they came to him the second year and they said to him: "We will not keep from our lord that the money is finished, and the herds of beasts all to our lord, nothing is left before our lord, other than our expiring bodies and our lands. 19 Why shall we die in your presence, us and our lands buy, buy us and our lands, for bread; and we and our lands will be servants for Pharaoh and give seed and we will live and not die, the land will not be emptied." 20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, because the Egyptians sold each man his field, because the hunger is clenched upon them tight, and the land became Pharaoh's. 21 And the people, he moved to cities, from one end of Egypt until the other. 22 Only the land of the priests did he not buy. Because the priests had a share besides Pharaoh's. And they at the share which Pharaoh had given them, and for this reason they did not sell their lands. 23 And Joseph said to the people, "Since I have bought you and your lands today for Pharaoh, here is seed for you, and seed the land. 24 And it will be reaping season, and you will give a fifth to Pharaoh; and four hand-measures will you get for seeding the land and for eating, and to give to your households and your tots." 25 and they said, "You have saved our lives: we will be good in the eyes of your lord, and we will be servants to Pharaoh. 26 And Joseph made it a law until this very day, the land of Egypt belongs to Pharaoh, to remove the fifth part--- only the land of the priests does not belong to Pharaoh." (Genesis 47:13-26, Wikisource version). The farmers of Egypt could not stand a long famine. Joseph suggested to help them, but in return, he bought all their lands. Outcomes[edit] Egyptian farmers turned from free workers to serfs of pharaoh. They had to pay 20% of their income as a tax to pharaoh.

Bakenranef's reform[edit] In the middle of Cycle 3, at about 720 BC, near the end of the New Kingdom, a land-division reform was attempted by king Bakenranef (Bocchoris). After capturing the reign in Sais, he initiated the following reforms: Freed peasants working upon the great domains; Made lands alienable and mortgageable; Annulled debts; Regulated interest rates; Ended corporal punishment; Publicized contract codes; Brought real and personal property under the same laws. Outcomes[edit] Feudal lords and clergy combined to overthrow Bakenranef. He was burned alive, and his reforms were undone.

Sources[edit] Powelson, John (1987). The Story of Land - [A World History of Land Tenure and Agrarian Reform]. Cambridge, MA, USA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. pp. 15–19. ISBN 0899462189.  Pirenne, Jacques (1937). Histoire de la civilisation de l'Égypt ancienne. La Baconnière.  Retrieved from "" Categories: Land reformAncient EgyptHidden categories: Articles with obsolete information from August 2017All Wikipedia articles in need of updating

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