Contents 1 History 2 Legal status 3 Usage 3.1 Kunrei-shiki spellings of kana 3.2 Notes 3.3 Permitted exceptions 4 See also 5 Sources 6 References 7 External links


History[edit] Before World War II, there was a political conflict between supporters of Hepburn romanization and supporters of Nihon-shiki romanization. In 1930, a board of inquiry, under the aegis of the Minister of Education, was established to determine the proper romanization system. The Japanese government, by cabinet order (訓令 kunrei),[1] announced on September 21, 1937 that a modified form of Nihon-shiki would be officially adopted as Kunrei-shiki.[2] The form at the time differs slightly from the modern form.[3] Originally, the system was called the Kokutei (国定, government-authorized) system.[2] The Japanese government gradually introduced Kunrei-shiki, which appeared in secondary education, on railway station signboards, on nautical charts, and on the 1:1,000,000 scale International Map of the World.[4] While the central government had strong control, from 1937 to 1945, the Japanese government used Kunrei-shiki in its tourist brochures.[5] In Japan, some use of Nihon-shiki and Modified Hepburn remained, however, because some individuals supported the use of those systems.[4] J. Marshall Unger, the author of Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines, said that the Hepburn supporters "understandably" believed that the Kunrei-shiki "compromise" was not fair because of the presence of the "un-English-looking spellings" that the Modified Hepburn supporters had opposed.[6] Andrew Horvat, the author of Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker, argued that "by forcing non-native speakers of Japanese with no intentions of learning the language to abide by a system intended for those who have some command of Japanese, the government gave the impression of intolerant language management that would have dire consequences later on."[5] After the Japanese government was defeated in 1945, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued a directive, dated September 3, 1945, that stated that Modified Hepburn was the method to transcribe Japanese names. Some editorials printed in Japanese newspapers advocated for using only Hepburn.[7] Supporters of Hepburn denounced pro-Kunrei-shiki and pro-Nihon-shiki advocates to the SCAP offices[6] by accusing them of being inactive militarists[7] and of collaborating with militarists. Unger said that the nature of Kunrei-shiki led to "pent-up anger" by Hepburn supporters.[6] During the postwar period, several educators and scholars tried to introduce romanized letters as a teaching device and possibility later replacing kanji. However, Kunrei-shiki had associations with Japanese militarism, and the US occupation was reluctant to promote it.[5] On December 9, 1954, the Japanese government re-confirmed Kunrei-shiki as its official system[2] but with slight modifications.[8] Eleanor Jorden, an American linguist, made textbooks with a modified version of Kunrei-shiki, which were used in the 1960s in courses given to US diplomats. The use of her books did not change the US government's hesitation to use Kunrei-shiki.[5] As of 1974, according to the Geographical Survey Institute, Kunrei-shiki was used for topographical maps, and Modified Hepburn was used for geological maps and aeronautical charts.[9] As of 1978, the National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations instead used Hepburn, as did The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations.[2]


Legal status[edit] The system was originally promulgated as Japanese Cabinet Order No. 3 as of September 21, 1937. Since it had been overturned by the SCAP during the occupation of Japan, the Japanese government repealed it and decreed again, as Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 as of December 29, 1954. It mandated the use of Kunrei-shiki in "the written expression of Japanese generally." Specific alternative spellings could be used in international relations and to follow established precedent. See Permitted Exceptions for details.[1] Kunrei-shiki has been recognized, along with Nihon-shiki, in ISO 3602:1989. Documentation—Romanization of Japanese (kana script) by the ISO. It was also recommended by the ANSI after it withdrew its own standard, ANSI Z39.11-1972 American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese (Modified Hepburn), in 1994.


Usage[edit] Example: tat-u Conjugation Kunrei Hepburn Mizen 1 tat-a- tat-a- Mizen 2 tat-o- tat-o- Ren'yô tat-i tach-i Syûsi/Rentai tat-u tats-u Katei tat-e- tat-e- Meirei tat-e tat-e Despite its official recognition, Japanese commonly choose between Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki and Hepburn for any given situation. However, the Japanese government generally uses Hepburn, especially for passports,[10] road signage,[10] and train signage.[11] Otherwise, most Western publications and all English-language newspapers use some form of Hepburn.[12] Because Kunrei-shiki is based on Japanese phonology, it can cause non-native speakers to pronounce words incorrectly. John Hinds, the author of Japanese: Descriptive Grammar, describes that as "a major disadvantage."[13][page needed] Additional complications appear with newer kana combinations such as ティーム(チーム) team. In Hepburn, they would be distinguished as different sounds and represented as tīmu and chīmu respectively. That gives better indications of the English pronunciations. For some Japanese-speakers, however, the sounds ティ "ti" and チ "chi" are the same phoneme; both are represented in Kunrei-shiki as tîmu. Such complications may be confusing to those who do not know Japanese phonology well. Today, the main users of Kunrei-shiki are native speakers of Japanese, especially within Japan, and linguists studying Japanese. The main advantage of Kunrei-shiki is that it is better able to illustrate Japanese grammar, as Hepburn preserves the irregularity of certain conjugations (see table, right).[14][page needed] The most serious problem of Hepburn in this context is that it may change the stem of a verb, which is not reflected in the underlying morphology of the language. One notable introductory textbook for English-speakers, Eleanor Jorden's Japanese: The Spoken Language, uses her JSL romanization, a system strongly influenced by Kunrei-shiki in its adherence to Japanese phonology, but it is adapted to teaching proper pronunciation of Japanese phonemes. Kunrei-shiki spellings of kana[edit] gojūon yōon あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o (ya) (yu) (yo) か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo さ サ sa し シ si す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sya しゅ シュ syu しょ ショ syo た タ ta ち チ ti つ ツ tu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ tya ちゅ チュ tyu ちょ チョ tyo な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ hu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo や ヤ ya (i) ゆ ユ yu (e) よ ヨ yo ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i (u) ゑ ヱ e を ヲ o ん ン n voiced sounds (dakuten) が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo ざ ザ za じ ジ zi ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ zya じゅ ジュ zyu じょ ジョ zyo だ ダ da ぢ ヂ zi づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ zya ぢゅ ヂュ zyu ぢょ ヂョ zyo ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo Notes[edit] Characters in red are obsolete in modern Japanese. When he (へ) is used as a particle, it is written as e, not he (as in Nihon-shiki). When ha (は) is used as a particle, it is written as wa, not ha. wo (を/ヲ) is used only as a particle, written o. Long vowels are indicated by a circumflex accent: long o is written ô. Vowels that are separated by a morpheme boundary are not considered to be a long vowel. For example, おもう (思う) is written omou, not omô. Syllabic n (ん) is written as n' before vowels and y but as n before consonants and at the end of a word. Geminate consonants are always marked by doubling the consonant following the sokuon (っ). The first letter in a sentence and all proper nouns are capitalized. ISO 3602 has the strict form; see Nihon-shiki. Permitted exceptions[edit] The Cabinet Order makes an exception to the above chart: In international relations and situations for which prior precedent would make a sudden reform difficult, the spelling given by Chart 2 may also be used: しゃ sha し shi しゅ shu しょ sho     つ tsu   ちゃ cha ち chi ちゅ chu ちょ cho     ふ fu   じゃ ja じ ji じゅ ju じょ jo   ぢ di づ du   ぢゃ dya   ぢゅ dyu ぢょ dyo くゎ kwa       ぐゎ gwa             を wo The exceptional clause is not to be confused with other systems of romanization (such as Hepburn) and does not specifically relax other requirements, such as marking long vowels.


See also[edit] Japan portal Language portal List of ISO transliterations


Sources[edit] Geographical Survey Institute (Kokudo Chiriin). Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, Volumes 20-23. 1974. Gottlieb, Nanette. "The Rōmaji movement in Japan." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series). January 2010. Volume 20, Issue 1. p. 75-88. Published online on November 30, 2009. Available at Cambridge Journals. DOI doi:10.1017/S1356186309990320. Hadamitzky, Wolfgang. Kanji & Kana Revised Edition (漢字・かな). Tuttle Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-8048-2077-5, 9780804820776. Horvat, Andrew. Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker. Stone Bridge Press, 2000. ISBN 1-880656-42-6, 9781880656426. Hinds, John. Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Taylor & Francis Group, 1986. ISBN 0-415-01033-0, 9780415010337. Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour, and Jay Elwood Daily (Executive Editors). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science Volume 21. CRC Press, April 1, 1978. ISBN 0-8247-2021-0, 9780824720216. Unger, J. Marshall. Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan : Reading between the Lines: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. July 8, 1996. ISBN 0-19-535638-1, 9780195356380. ローマ字のつづり方. 文部科学省 (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved 2013-05-21. 


References[edit] ^ Horvat, p. 166. ""The zi ending of roomazi comes from the Kunreeshiki system promulgated in the 1930s through a cabinet order, or kunree." ^ a b c d Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155. ^ Hadamitzky, p. 12. ^ a b "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 3. English only. Retrieved on May 15, 2013. ^ a b c d Horvat, Andrew. "The Romaji (Roomaji) Conundrum." (Archive) – Excerpt from Horvat's book: Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker. Hosted at the David See-Chai Lam Centre for International Communication of Simon Fraser University. Retrieved on May 13, 2013. ^ a b c Unger, p. 54. ^ a b Unger, p. 78. ^ Gottlieb, p. 78. ^ Bulletin of the Geographical Survey Institute, p. 22. "As reported at the Second Conference, the writing of geographical names in Roman letters in Japan comes in two types — Kunrei Siki (system adopted under a Cabinet ordinance) and Syûsei Hebon Siki (Modified Hepburn System). Kunrei Siki is used for topographical maps, whereas Syûsei Hebon Siki is in use for aeronautical charts and geological maps." - Content also available in "Romanization in Japan." (Archive) (Paper presented by Japan) United Nations Economic and Social Council. July 8, 1977. p. 2. English only. ^ a b http://www.kictec.co.jp/inpaku/iken%20keikai/syasin/hebon/romaji.htm ^ http://tabi-mo.travel.coocan.jp/font_kitei2.htm#10 ^ Powers, John. "Japanese Names", The Indexer Vol. 26 No. 2 June 2008. "It [Hepburn] can be considered the norm as, in slightly modified form, it is followed by the great majority of Western publications and by all English-language newspapers." ^ Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major disadvantage of this system (Kunrei-shiki) is that there is a tendency for nonnative speakers of Japanese to pronounce certain forms incorrectly.  ^ Hinds, John (1986). Japanese: Descriptive Grammar. Croom Helm. ISBN 0-7099-3733-4. LCCN 86006372. The major advantage of kunrei-shiki is that inflectional endings are seen to be more regular. 


External links[edit] Horvat, Andrew. "The Romaji (Roomaji) Conundrum." (Archive) – Excerpt from Horvat's book: Japanese Beyond Words: How to Walk and Talk Like a Native Speaker. Hosted at the David See-Chai Lam Centre for International Communication of Simon Fraser University. v t e Romanization of Japanese Hepburn JSL Kunrei-shiki (ISO 3602) Nihon-shiki (ISO 3602 Strict) Wāpuro v t e Japanese language Earlier forms Old Early Middle Late Middle Early Modern Dialects Hokkaidō Tōhoku Tsugaru Akita Kesen Yamagata Kantō Ibaraki Tokyo Tōkai–Tōsan Nagaoka Nagoya Mikawa Mino Hida Hokuriku Kansai Chūgoku Umpaku Shikoku Iyo Tosa Sanuki Hōnichi Ōita Hichiku Hakata Saga Tsushima Satsugū Okinawan Japanese Japonic languages Hachijō Ryukyuan Amami Ōshima Kikai Kunigami Miyako Okinawan Okinoerabu Tokunoshima Yaeyama Yonaguni Yoron Writing system Logograms Kanbun Kanji by concept by stroke count Kanji radicals by frequency by stroke count Ryakuji Kana Hiragana Katakana Furigana Okurigana Gojūon Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sōgana Kana ligature Orthography Braille Kanji Punctuation Orthographic issues Kanazukai Historical kana Modern kana Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai Yotsugana Transcription into Japanese Encoding EUC EUC-JP ISO\EIC 2022 JIS 0201 0208 0211 0212 0213 Shift JIS Unicode Hiragana Kana Extended-A Kana Supplement Katakana phonetic extensions Other ARIB STD B24 Enclosed EIS Extended shinjitai Half/Full Grammar and vocabulary Japanese grammar Verb and adjective conjugations Consonant and vowel verbs Irregular verbs Pronouns Adjectives Possessives Particles Topic marker Counter words Numerals Native words (yamato kotoba) Sino-Japanese vocabulary Loan words (gairaigo) from Dutch from Portuguese Wasei-eigo Engrish Honorific speech Honorifics Court lady language (nyōbō kotoba) Gender differences Dictionaries Phonology Pitch accent Sound symbolism Rendaku Transliteration Romanization Hepburn Nihon-shiki Kunrei JSL Wāpuro rōmaji Cyrillization Literature Books Poetry Writers Classical Japanese texts v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kunrei-shiki_romanization&oldid=825053600" Categories: Japanese writing systemRomanization of JapaneseISO 3602Hidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2009All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles containing Japanese-language textWikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2014CS1 uses Japanese-language script (ja)CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja)


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