Contents 1 Language 2 Population 3 History 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References


Language[edit] The Kitanemuk traditionally spoke the Kitanemuk language, a Uto-Aztecan language, probably akin to that of the Takic branch and to the Serrano language in particular, as well as the Tongva and Vanyume languages.[1] Alice Anderton reconstructed the dead language in 1988 from Harrington's notes.[2]


Population[edit] Main article: Population of Native California Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) proposed a population of 1,770 for the Kitanemuk, together with the Serrano and Tataviam, as 3,500. Thomas C. Blackburn and Lowell John Bean (1978:564) estimated the Kitanemuk alone as 500-1,000. The combined population of the Kitanemuk, Serrano, and Tataviam in 1910 had fallen to only 150 persons, according to Kroeber.


History[edit] The Kitanemuk were first contacted by the Franciscan missionary-explorer Francisco Garcés in 1769.[1] Some Kitanemuk were recruited and relocated for the Spanish missions of Mission San Fernando Rey de España in the San Fernando Valley, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in the San Gabriel Valley, and perhaps Mission San Buenaventura at the coast in Ventura County. Therefore, they are sometimes grouped with the Mission Indians. In 1840, a smallpox epidemic hit the Kitanemuk.[1] Beginning in the 1850s, they were associated with the reservations at Fort Tejon and Tule River. By 1917, some Kitanemuks lived on Tejon Ranch and other lived on the Tule River Reservation,[1] located in Tulare County, California.


See also[edit] Kitanemuk traditional narratives


Notes[edit] ^ a b c d e f "Kitanemuk." Four Directions Institute. Retrieved 28 Nov 2012. ^ Anderton, Alice J. (1988). The language of the Kitanemuks of California (Ph.D.). University of California, Los Angeles. 


References[edit] Sturtevant, William C.; Robert F. Heizer (1978). "Kitanemuk". In William C. Sturtevant, general editor; Robert F. Heizer, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8: California. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 564–569. ISBN 0-16-004574-6. LCCN 77017162. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Kroeber, Alfred Louis (1976). Handbook of the Indians of California. New York City: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-23368-5. OCLC 2972541.  v t e Indigenous peoples of California Achomawi Atsugewi Bay Miwok (Saklan) Cahuilla Chemehuevi Chimariko Chumash Coast Miwok Cupeño Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki) Esselen Halchidhoma Hupa (Chilula, Whilkut) Juaneño (Acjachemen) Karuk Kato Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Kucadikadi Kumeyaay (Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai) Lake Miwok Luiseño Maidu Mattole (Bear River) Modoc (Klamath) Mohave Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute) Nomlaki Northern Paiute Ohlone (Costanoan) Patwin Pomo Quechan (Yuma) Salinan Serrano Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu) Tataviam (Fernandeño) Timbisha Tolowa Tongva (Gabrieliño) Tübatulabal Valley and Sierra Miwok Wappo Washoe Wintu Wiyot Yana Yokuts Yuki Yurok Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kitanemuk&oldid=824010783" Categories: Native American tribes in CaliforniaCalifornia Mission IndiansAntelope ValleyHistory of the Mojave Desert regionHistory of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaMojave DesertTehachapi MountainsHidden categories: "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmationArticles using infobox ethnic group with image parametersCS1 maint: Uses editors parameter


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United StatesCaliforniaKitanemuk LanguageAnimismSerrano PeopleTongva PeopleIndigenous People Of CaliforniaTehachapi MountainsAntelope ValleyMojave DesertCaliforniaUnited StatesFederally Recognized TribeTejon Indian Tribe Of CaliforniaKitanemuk LanguageUto-Aztecan LanguagesTakicSerrano LanguageTongva LanguageJohn P. HarringtonPopulation Of Native CaliforniaAlfred L. KroeberFranciscanFrancisco GarcésSpanish Missions In CaliforniaMission San Fernando Rey De EspañaSan Fernando ValleyMission San Gabriel ArcángelSan Gabriel ValleyMission San BuenaventuraVentura County, CaliforniaMission IndiansSmallpoxFort TejonTejon RanchTule River ReservationTulare County, CaliforniaKitanemuk Traditional NarrativesWilliam C. SturtevantHandbook Of North American IndiansWashington, D.C.Smithsonian InstitutionInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-16-004574-6Library Of Congress Control NumberCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterAlfred L. KroeberNew York CityDover PublicationsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-486-23368-5OCLCTemplate:Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaTemplate Talk:Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaCaliforniaIndigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaCaliforniaAchomawi PeopleAtsugewi PeopleBay Miwok PeopleSaklan TribeCahuilla PeopleChemehuevi PeopleChimariko PeopleChumash PeopleCoast Miwok PeopleCupeño PeopleEel River AthapaskansEsselen PeopleHalchidhomaHupa PeopleChilula PeopleWhilkutJuaneño PeopleKaruk PeopleCahto PeopleKawaiisu PeopleKitanemuk PeopleKucadikadiKumeyaay PeopleLake Miwok PeopleLuiseño PeopleMaidu PeopleMattole PeopleModoc PeopleMohave PeopleMono PeopleNomlaki PeoplePaiute PeopleOhlone PeoplePatwin PeoplePomo PeopleQuechan PeopleSalinan PeopleSerrano PeopleShasta PeopleTataviam PeopleTimbisha PeopleTolowa PeopleTongva PeopleTübatulabal PeopleValley And Sierra MiwokWappo PeopleWashoe PeopleWintu PeopleWiyot PeopleYana PeopleYokut PeopleYuki PeopleYurok PeopleHelp:CategoryCategory:Native American Tribes In CaliforniaCategory:California Mission IndiansCategory:Antelope ValleyCategory:History Of The Mojave Desert RegionCategory:History Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Mojave DesertCategory:Tehachapi MountainsCategory:"Related Ethnic Groups" Needing ConfirmationCategory:Articles Using Infobox Ethnic Group With Image ParametersCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Editors ParameterDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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