Contents 1 History 2 Modern keyboards 3 List of instruments 3.1 Chordophones 3.2 Aerophones 3.3 Idiophones 3.4 Electrophones 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Late 4th century AD "Mosaic of the Female Musicians" from a Byzantine villa in Maryamin, Syria.[2] The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were likely balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian (late 4th century), who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu . . . intent, that is “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings (shifa) with a light touch” (Paneg. Manlio Theodoro, 320–22). From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. Often, the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Almost every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave. The clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the 14th century—the clavichord probably being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the 18th century, after which their popularity decreased. The piano was revolutionary, because a pianist could vary the volume (or dynamics) of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck. The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late 19th century, and is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is significantly different from even the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt, Chopin, and Brahms.[1] See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century. This was a very important contribution to the keyboard's history.[3]

Modern keyboards[edit] Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight. The electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period. More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models.

List of instruments[edit] Chordophones[edit] Bowed clavier Clavichord Clavinet Harpsichord Archicembalo Clavicymbalum Lautenwerck Spinet Virginal Clavicytherium Ottavino Hurdy-gurdy Keyed fiddle Piano Fortepiano Tangent piano Orphica Aerophones[edit] Accordion Calliope Claviola Harmonium/Reed organ Melodica Pipe organ Regal Idiophones[edit] Carillon Celesta Dulcitone Electric piano Wurlitzer electric piano Rhodes piano Hohner Pianet Glasschord Keyboard glockenspiel Toy piano Terpodion Electrophones[edit] Digital piano Electronic keyboard Electronic organ Electronic piano Keytar Mellotron Optigan Synthesizer

See also[edit] Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony

References[edit] ^ a b c Kelzenberg, David. "What are Historical Keyboard Instruments?". Archived from the original on 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ Ring, Trudy (1994), International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa, 4, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1884964036  ^ "Piano Notes - Notes of the Piano". Retrieved 2012-03-30. 

Further reading[edit] Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N.B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Keyboard instruments. The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art v t e Instrument intonation Just intonation in any key Fretless string instrument Pedal steel guitar Trombone Human voice Synthesizer Dynamic intonation adjustment Crook Fretted string instrument Wind instruments Just intonation in one key Bagpipes Natural horn Tromba marina Long-string instrument Harmonica Retunable to a just key Keyboard instruments Split sharp Flageolet tones (harmonics) or natural overtone series Guqin Đàn bầu Physical just-intoned string part relation with additional 3rd bridge Monochord Pencilina Moodswinger v t e Musical instruments Strings Acoustic guitar Balalaika Banjo Bass guitar (electric bass) Bass amplifier Cavaquinho Classical guitar Electric guitar Guitar amplifier Guitar Harp Hurdy gurdy Guitarrón Guitarra de golpe Lute Mandolin Musical bow Rajão Slack-key guitar Steel guitar String section (Classical strings) Violin Viola Cello Double bass Theorbo Timple Ukulele Vihuela Viol Washtub bass Zither Brass Trumpet Fanfare trumpet Trombone Cornet Saxhorn Flugelhorn Tenor horn Baritone horn Euphonium Tuba French horn Sousaphone Mellophone Alphorn Buccina Bugle Contrabass bugle Carnyx Cornett Cornu Dord (instrument) German horn Horn Nabal Nyele Ophicleide Post horn Serpent Shofar Sringa Tibetan horn Vienna horn Wagner tuba Wazza Woodwind Piccolo Flute Oboe English horn Bassoon Clarinet Saxophone Recorder Bagpipes Musette de cour Nose flute Sring Tárogató Keyboard Accordion Calliope Carillon Celesta Clavichord Harpsichord Organ Hammond organ Pipe organ Pump organ Pedal keyboard Piano Digital piano Electric piano Electronic piano Synthesizer Percussion Bell Bell tree Cajon Cymbals Djembe Drum Bass drum Snare drum Tenor drum Drum kit Gong Hammered dulcimer Marimba Tambourine Timpani Triangle Vibraphone Xylophone Friction Cristal baschet Glass harmonica Friction drum Lion's roar Musical saw Nail violin Verrophone Rhythm section Acoustic guitar Bass guitar Double bass Drum kit Drum machine Electric guitar Guitar amplifier Electric piano Hammond organ Leslie speaker Piano Synthesizer Miscellaneous Didgeridoo Turntables used as instrument Harmonica Studio as an instrument Melodica Experimental musical instrument v t e Musical keyboards and instruments Instruments Accordion Piano accordion Bowed clavier Carillon Celesta Clavichord Digital piano Electric piano Electronic keyboard Harmonichord Harpsichord Keytar Melodica Organ Hammond organ Pipe organ Pedal keyboard Orphica Piano Spinet Synthesizer Virginal Layouts Enharmonic keyboard Generalized keyboard Isomorphic keyboard Jankó keyboard Short octave Keys Frequencies Pedal keyboard Split sharp Pedals Expression Soft Sostenuto Sustain Pedal keyboard Construction Acoustics Innovations Wiring Aliquot Cross Maintenance Action Piano Technicians Guild Tuning Wrench Amplifiers, speakers Keyboard amplifier Leslie speaker Miscellaneous Prepared piano Authority control GND: 4059103-7 NDL: 001105457 Retrieved from "" Categories: Keyboard instrumentsHidden categories: Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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